Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Conclusions

  • author conclusion
  • causal conclusion
  • clear conclusion
  • conflicting conclusion
  • contradictory conclusion
  • definite conclusion
  • definitive conclusion
  • different conclusion
  • draw conclusion
  • en conclusion
  • erroneous conclusion
  • false conclusion
  • final conclusion
  • firm conclusion
  • general conclusion
  • important conclusion
  • in conclusion
  • incorrect conclusion
  • key conclusion
  • main conclusion
  • major conclusion
  • meaningful conclusion
  • misleading conclusion
  • new conclusion
  • one conclusion
  • one important conclusion
  • opposite conclusion
  • policy conclusion
  • previous conclusion
  • relevant conclusion
  • reviewer conclusion
  • same conclusion
  • similar conclusion
  • statistical conclusion
  • strong conclusion
  • substantive conclusion
  • surprising conclusion
  • tentative conclusion
  • very different conclusion

  • Terms modified by Conclusions

  • conclusion analysis
  • conclusion change
  • conclusion child
  • conclusion difference
  • conclusion factor
  • conclusion finding
  • conclusion implementation
  • conclusion in
  • conclusion in addition
  • conclusion intervention
  • conclusion patient
  • conclusion que
  • conclusion this study
  • conclusion treatment
  • conclusion use
  • conclusion we
  • conclusion woman

  • Selected Abstracts

    Enhancing the Growth of Natural Eyelashes: The Mechanism of Bimatoprost-Induced Eyelash Growth

    2Article first published online: 2 APR 2010, JOEL L. COHEN MD
    BACKGROUND Many women desire prominent eyelashes. In December 2008, bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% was approved for the treatment of hypotrichosis of the eyelashes in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review eyelash physiology and the proposed mechanisms by which the topical pros-tamide product bimatoprost enhances eyelash growth. METHODS AND MATERIALS Clinical and preclinical studies pertaining to the efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of action of bimatoprost are presented. RESULTS Treatment with bimatoprost increases the percentage of eyelash follicles in anagen at any one time. This probably accounts for its ability to lengthen lashes. Bimatoprost-induced stimulation of melanogenesis appears to result in darker lashes and, at the same time, appears to increase the size of the dermal papilla and hair bulb, affecting lash thickness and fullness. Such effects, largely demonstrated in animal studies, are consistent with the results of a recent Food and Drug Administration phase III clinical trial. The favorable safety profile of bimatoprost in human subjects is probably secondary to the limited exposure of ocular tissues resulting from topical application at the base of the upper lashes. CONCLUSION By influencing the eyelash hair cycle and follicles, bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% is a safe and effective means of enhancing eyelash growth. Dr. Cohen has served as a consultant and clinical trial participant for Allergan, Inc. [source]

    Assessment of Incidence, Cause, and Consequences of Pressure Ulcers to Evaluate Quality of Provided Care

    BACKGROUND Pressure ulcers are one of the most frequently registered complications in general surgery. OBJECTIVE To obtain insight into the incidence, cause, and consequences of pressure ulcers and to evaluate the value of pressure ulcer registration to assess quality of care. RESULTS During the 9-year study period, 275 pressure ulcers were registered (5.8% of total registered complications). Age and female sex were independent risk factors for pressure ulcer development. Pressure ulcer classification was as follows: mild (53.3%), moderate (35.6%), severe (9.5%), and irreversible damage (1.5%). Patients undergoing hip surgery and major limb amputation were at risk for pressure ulcer development (10.4% and 8.8%, respectively). In most patients (89.5%), pressure ulcers had no consequences other than local wound therapy; in 12 patients (4.4%), pressure ulceration led to alteration in medication; in 15 patients (5.5%), length of hospital stay was prolonged; and four patients (0.4%) suffered from irreversible damage. CONCLUSION The incidence of pressure ulcers is strongly correlated to sex, age, and indication of admittance. Most ulcers were classified as mild and had no consequences. The insight obtained into incidence, cause, and consequences of pressure ulcers can be used as an indicator of quality of provided care if adjusted for case mix and indication of operation. [source]

    I PREVENT Bacterial Resistance.

    An Update on the Use of Antibiotics in Dermatologic Surgery
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Prophylaxis may be given to prevent a surgical wound infection, infective endocarditis (IE), or infection of a prosthetic joint, but its use before cutaneous surgery is controversial. Our aim was to review the current literature and provide a mnemonic to assist providers in appropriately prescribing prophylactic antibiotics. METHODS AND MATERIALS We reviewed the current literature, including the new guidelines provided by the American Heart Association (AHA). RESULTS The new AHA guidelines recommend prophylaxis for patients with high risk of an adverse outcome from IE instead of high risk of developing IE. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons and the American Dental Association also provide guidelines. Given the paucity of conclusive studies, prophylaxis against a surgical wound infection is based more on clinical judgment. CONCLUSION The mnemonic we propose, "I PREVENT," represents: Immunosuppressed patients; patients with a Prosthetic valve; some patients with a joint Replacement; a history of infective Endocarditis; a Valvulopathy in cardiac transplant recipients; Endocrine disorders such as uncontrolled diabetes mellitus; Neonatal disorders including unrepaired cyanotic heart disorders (CHDs), repaired CHD with prosthetic material, or repaired CHD with residual defects; and the Tetrad of antibiotics: amoxicillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin. [source]

    Recent Trends in Cosmetic and Surgical Procedure Volumes in Dermatologic Surgery

    BACKGROUND The number of cosmetic and noncosmetic surgical procedures performed by dermatologic surgeons has been rising rapidly, but there are few consistent data sources allowing procedure volumes to be tracked over time. METHODS American Society for Dermatologic Surgery member survey in 2001 to 2007 reporting cosmetic and noncosmetic procedural volumes (300,500 surgeons surveyed, response rate of 31,44%). RESULTS In 2001, dermatologic surgeons performed an estimated 3.4 million cosmetic and noncosmetic surgical procedures; in 2007, it was estimated that a total of 7.6 million procedures were performed (120.2% rate of growth between 2001 and 2007). The procedures with the greatest increase during this time period were soft tissue augmentation (405.0% increase), botulinum toxin injections (324.4% increase), and nonablative skin rejuvenation (laser, light, and radiofrequency sources) (330.7% increase). More modest increases were noted in skin cancer procedures (85.8% increase) and ablative resurfacing procedures (66.8% increase). CONCLUSION The magnitude of growth in procedural volumes over the last 8 years reflects the advancements in dermatologic surgery in treatments for skin cancer and in treatment of photoaging and cosmetic enhancement of the skin. [source]

    Striae Distensae (Stretch Marks) and Different Modalities of Therapy: An Update

    BACKGROUND Striae distensea (SD; stretch marks) are a well-recognized, common skin condition that rarely causes any significant medical problems but are often a significant source of distress to those affected. The origins of SD are poorly understood, and a number of treatment modalities are available for their treatment, yet none of them is consistently effective, and no single therapy is considered to be pivotal for this problem. With a high incidence and unsatisfactory treatments, stretch marks remain an important target of research for an optimum consensus of treatment. OBJECTIVE To identify the current treatment modalities and their effectiveness in the treatment of stretch marks. MATERIALS AND METHODS Review of the recent literature regarding clinical treatment of stretch marks with emphasis on the safety and efficacy of the newer optical devices and laser applications. RESULTS No current therapeutic option offers complete treatment, although there are a number of emerging new modalities that are encouraging. CONCLUSION The therapeutic strategies are numerous, and no single modality has been far more consistent than the rest. The long-term future of treatment strategies is encouraging with the advance in laser technologies. [source]

    Randomized Nonblinded Comparison of Convalescence for 2 and 7 Days After Split-Thickness Skin Grafting to the Lower Legs

    BACKGROUND There is an increasing expectation of shortened postoperative recovery times and a suggestion that shorter convalescence times may not compromise lower leg split-thickness skin graft results. OBJECTIVE To determine whether mobilization after 2 days of convalescence compromises graft survival or patient morbidity. METHODS AND MATERIALS A pilot study was initiated in which patients undergoing split-thickness skin grafting to the lower legs were randomized to 2 or the routine 7 days of convalescence. Baseline characteristics were determined, and patients were followed up in dressing clinics and with a standardized telephone interview. RESULTS There was no difference in baseline patient comorbidities and no significant difference in the number of grafts lost, the number of dressing clinics, bleeding, or wound infections. CONCLUSION The results suggest that 2 days of convalescence after split-thickness skin grafting to the lower legs may not compromise graft survival or increase patient morbidity. Further study with larger numbers is required to confirm this finding. [source]

    Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Setting of Dermatologic Surgery

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the postoperative setting of dermatologic surgery is unknown. Such data could influence the empirical treatment of suspected infections. OBJECTIVE To examine the period prevalence of MRSA infections in the postoperative setting of dermatologic surgery. METHODS We performed chart reviews of 70 patients who had bacterial cultures taken from January 2007 to December 2007. In the 21 postsurgical cases, we analyzed age, risk factors, sites of predilection, method of repair, and pathogen of growth. RESULTS The mean age of the overall study population was 57, with the mean age of postsurgical MRSA-positive cases being 75.5. Of the 21 postsurgical cultures taken, 16 cultures grew pathogen, and two of the 16 (13%) pathogen-positive cultures grew MRSA. LIMITATIONS This is a retrospective chart review of a relatively small sample size in one geographic location. Our patient population is known to contain a large number of retirees. CONCLUSION The increasing prevalence of MRSA skin and soft tissue infections and recommendation to modify empirical antibiotic therapy have been well documented in particular patient populations, but we caution against the empirical use of MRSA-sensitive antibiotics in the postoperative setting of dermatologic surgery. We advocate culturing all infectious lesions upon presentation and reserve empirical use of MRSA-sensitive antibiotics for high-risk patients or locations. [source]

    Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids,A Review of Their Pathophysiology, Risk Factors, and Therapeutic Management

    BACKGROUND Hypertrophic scars and keloids result from an abnormal fibrous wound healing process in which tissue repair and regeneration-regulating mechanism control is lost. These abnormal fibrous growths present a major therapeutic dilemma and challenge to the plastic surgeon because they are disfiguring and frequently recur. OBJECTIVE To provide updated clinical and experimental information on hypertrophic scars and keloids so that physicians can better understand and properly treat such lesions. METHODS A Medline literature search was performed for relevant publications and for diverse strategies for management of hypertrophic scars and keloids. CONCLUSION The growing understanding of the molecular processes of normal and abnormal wound healing is promising for discovery of novel approaches for the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Although optimal treatment of these lesions remains undefined, successful healing can be achieved only with combined multidisciplinary therapeutic regimens. [source]

    "Reading Man Flap" Design for Reconstruction of Circular Infraorbital and Malar Skin Defects

    BACKGROUND Surgical complications such as lid retraction and ectropion from graft or flap scar contracture make reconstruction of skin defects in the malar and infraorbital regions challenging. OBJECTIVE A new flap design, the reading man flap, was used to overcome these problems. The Limberg and bilobed flap were compared with the reading man flap. METHODS The reading man flap consists mainly of a superiorly based quadrangular flap and an inferiorly based triangular flap. Malar and infraorbital circular skin defects measuring 14 14 to 40 40 mm were reconstructed with a reading man flap in 13 patients. The defects occurred after basal cell carcinoma in all patients. The Limberg flap, bilobed flap, and reading man flap were planned for same-sized defects on the abdominoplasty resection material. The results were compared in terms of total scar area, scar length, and total healthy skin area discarded. RESULTS When comparing the 3 flap designs, the reading man flap was the most suitable flap in terms of total scar area and length. CONCLUSION The reading man flap can be used to reconstruct malar and infraorbital circular defects with good cosmetic results and without creating any tractional forces to the eyelids. [source]

    A Validated Brow Positioning Grading Scale

    BACKGROUND One of the first areas to show facial aging is the periorbital region, where brow malposition contributes to the overall appearance of aging. Movement and positioning of the brows are also sex specific. Men may desire a low brow, whereas women may prefer high, arched brows. OBJECTIVES To develop the Brow Positioning Grading Scale for objective quantification of eyebrow position and to establish the reliability of this photonumeric scale for clinical research and practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS A 5-point photonumeric rating scale was developed to objectively quantify positioning of eyebrows at rest. Nine experts rated photographs of 35 subjects twice with regard to positioning of the eyebrow in comparison with morphed images. Inter- and intrarater variability was assessed by computing intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS Bubble plots (bivariate scatter plots) demonstrated linearity in judgment by the experts. The test,retest correlation coefficients were acceptable for each expert. CONCLUSION The 5-point photonumeric scale generated spans the positioning of the eyebrow for which patients commonly seek correction. The scale is well stratified for consistent rating. [source]

    A Validated Grading Scale for Forehead Lines

    BACKGROUND As with other facial wrinkles, the gradual loss and disorganization of collagen fibers and elastin, connective tissues that provide underlying support for skin, cause horizontal forehead rhytides in large part. OBJECTIVES To develop the Forehead Lines Grading Scale for objective quantification of horizontal forehead rhytides at rest and with expression and to establish the reliability of this photonumeric scale for clinical research and practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Forehead Lines Grading Scale is a 5-point photonumeric rating scale that was developed to objectively quantify resting (static) and hyperkinetic (dynamic) forehead lines. Inter- and intrarater variability was assessed by computing intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS The agreement between the experts was highly significant. Bubble plots (bivariate scatter plots) demonstrated linearity in judgment by the experts. CONCLUSION The 5-point photonumeric scale generated spans the severity of forehead lines for which patients commonly seek correction. The scale is well stratified for consistent rating. [source]

    Persistence and Improvement of Nasolabial Fold Correction with Nonanimal-Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid 100,000 Gel Particles/mL Filler on Two Retreatment Schedules: Results up to 18 Months on Two Retreatment Schedules

    BACKGROUND Nonanimal-stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) fillers are frequently used for facial soft tissue augmentation. Their long-term efficacy and the effects of different retreatment schedules are not well established. OBJECTIVE This is an 18-month interim analysis of a 30-month study to evaluate the efficacy and persistence of NASHA 100,000 gel particles/mL filler with two different retreatment schedules. METHODS This multicenter, randomized, evaluator-blinded study enrolled 75 patients with moderate to severe nasolabial folds. Patients were randomized to retreatment of one nasolabial fold at 4.5 months and the contralateral fold at 9 months after correction of both folds at the initial visit. RESULTS Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale scores improved significantly (p<.001) from baseline, with mean improvements ranging from 1.1 to 1.7 grades. Almost all patients (97%) responded satisfactorily, and the efficacy of the retreatment schedules did not differ significantly. Adverse events, primarily swelling and bruising, occurred in 33% of patients; none were serious. CONCLUSION The improvements seen after initial treatment with NASHA 100,000 gel particles/mL filler persisted for up to 18 months with one retreatment. The response was equivalent for retreatment at 4.5 and 9 months. [source]

    Effect of Laser Resurfacing on p53 Expression in Photoaged Facial Skin

    BACKGROUND p53 overexpression has been reported in photoaged skin. Meanwhile, p53 gene mutations have been implicated as an important factor in the pathogenesis of ultraviolet (UV) light,induced skin cancer. OBJECTIVE The objective was to evaluate the effect of laser resurfacing on the epidermal thickness and expression of p53 in photoaged skin. METHODS Specimens were obtained from the facial skin of 10 patients before and after 3 months and 1 year of treatment using CO2 (five cases) and erbium (Er):YAG (five cases) lasers. Specimens were also obtained from six age-matched controls. These biopsies were used for routine histopathology, histometry, and p53 immunoperoxidase staining. RESULTS Both CO2 and Er:YAG lasers were found to induce a significant decrease in p53 expression in biopsies obtained after 3 months (p=.0004 and .002, respectively) followed by gradual increase (p=.01 in both groups). A significant increase (p<.01) in epidermal thickness was also observed after 1 year of resurfacing. This increase, however, is inversely correlated with the level of p53 expression in such patients. CONCLUSION The decrease in epidermal p53 expression after CO2 and Er:YAG lasers may account for some of the benefits of resurfacing on the epidermis, as well as prevention of actinic neoplasia by adjusting any disturbance in the proliferation/apoptosis balance observed in photoaged facial skin. [source]

    Ice Minimizes Discomfort Associated with Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type A for the Treatment of Palmar and Plantar Hyperhidrosis

    BACKGROUND The value of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for treatment of palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis (HH) has been limited by injection pain, which in the past has generally required administration of a nerve block. We describe the successful use of ice applied to the intended injection point followed immediately by application of either ice or vibration to skin adjacent to the injection point to reduce discomfort associated with injection of BTX-A for the treatment of palmar and plantar HH. RESULTS During needle insertion and injection of BTX-A, both the application of ice to the intended injection point followed by application of ice adjacent to the injection point (ice+ice) and the application of ice to the intended injection point followed by application of vibration adjacent to the injection point have been preferred by our patients to nerve block. These two techniques allow efficient treatment of both hands and/or both feet in a single session. CONCLUSION By eliminating the need for nerve blocks, the techniques described here will enlarge the pool of physicians who can administer BTX-A for palmar and plantar HH, and will enlarge the pool of patients who are willing to have this treatment. [source]

    Enhancement of Viability of Fat Grafts in Nude Mice by Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    BACKGROUND A recent discovery showed that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) could augment collateral vessel growth to ischemic tissues. OBJECTIVE The objective was to demonstrate the effects of EPCs on the vasculogenesis and survival of free transplanted fat tissues in nude mice. METHODS EPCs from human donors were cultured in vitro for 7 days. Human fat tissues were injected subcutaneously into the scalps of 20 6-week-old nude male mice. EPCs stained with CM-DiI were mixed with the transplanted fat tissues and injected into the mice. EBM-2 medium was used as control group. The animals were euthanized 15 weeks after the procedure. Graft volume were measured, and histologic evaluation was performed. The central part of fat tissues was histologically evaluated 15 weeks after the fat injection. RESULTS The survival volume of the experimental group was significantly greater than that of the control group (p< .05). Less cyst formation and fibrosis was obtained in the experimental group. Histologic evaluation of the central part of fat tissues 15 weeks after the fat injection showed that capillary densities increased markedly in the experimental group mice. CONCLUSION The results indicate that EPCs have the ability to enhance the survival and the quality of the transplanted fat tissues. [source]

    In Vivo Follicular Unit Multiplication: Is It Possible to Harvest an Unlimited Donor Supply?

    BACKGROUND Follicular unit extraction is a process of removing one follicular unit at a time from the donor region. The most important limitation of this surgical procedure is a high transection rate. OBJECTIVE In this clinical study, we have transplanted different parts of transected hair follicle by harvesting with the follicular unit extraction technique (FUE) in five male patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS In each patient, three boxes of 1 cm2 are marked at both donor and recipient sites. The proximal one-third, one-half, and two-thirds of 15 hair follicles are extracted from each defined box and transplanted in recipient boxes. The density is determined at 12 months after the procedure. RESULTS A mean of 3 (range, 2,4) of the proximal one-third, 4.4 (range, 2,6) of the proximal one-half, and 6.2 (range, 5,8) of the proximal two-thirds of the transplanted follicles were observed as fully grown after 1 year. At the donor site, the regrowth rate was a mean of 12.6 (range, 10,14) of the proximal one-third, 10.2 (range, 8,13) of the proximal one-half, and 8 (range, 7,12) of the proximal two-thirds, respectively. CONCLUSION The survival rate of the transected hair follicles is directly related to the level of transection. Even the transected parts, however, can survive at the recipient site; the growth rate is not satisfactory and they are thinner than the original follicles. We therefore recommend that the surgeon not transplant the sectioned parts and be careful with the patients whose transection rate is high during FUE procedures. [source]

    Histometric and Histochemical Analysis of the Effect of Trichloroacetic Acid Concentration in the Chemical Reconstruction of Skin Scars Method

    BACKGROUND Atrophic scars can be induced by various causes, including severely inflamed acne, chicken pox, and trauma. Many treatment modalities are used for reconstructing and improving the appearance of scars with various treatment results. OBJECTIVE A recent report shows the clinical efficacy of the chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) method, which consists of the focal application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in a higher concentration. Histometric analysis of the CROSS method, however, has not yet been established. METHODS In this study, five hairless mice were used to evaluate the effect of the CROSS method and to analyze the difference between the CROSS method and simple TCA application. RESULTS Similar histologic changes were observed in the two methods, including epidermal and dermal rejuvenation with new collagen deposition. These changes, however, were more prominent in the CROSS method,treated areas, particularly when 100% TCA was used. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that treatment of atrophic scars using the CROSS method is more effective than simple application of TCA in activating fibroblasts in the dermis and increasing the amount of collagen. [source]

    Warm and Neutral Tumescent Anesthetic Solutions Are Essential Factors for a Less Painful Injection

    BACKGROUND Tumescent local anesthesia is widely used in dermatologic surgery. Minimizing pain associated with injections is crucial to successful surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE This study investigates the pain associated with warm and room temperatures in neutralized or nonneutralized tumescent anesthetic solutions injection. METHODS Thirty-six patients with axilla osmidrosis who underwent local anesthesia for surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A received warm neutral (40C) and room-temperature neutral (22C) tumescent injections to each axillary region. Group B received warm neutral (pH 7.35) and warm nonneutral (pH 4.78) tumescent injections on each side of axilla. Group C received warm nonneutral and room-temperature nonneutral tumescent injections on each side of axilla. Pain associated with infiltration of anesthesia was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS A statistically significant decrease (p < .001) in pain sensation was reported on the warm, neutral injection side (mean rating, 32.7 mm) compared with the room-temperature, neutral injection side (mean rating, 53.3 mm). Patient-reported pain intensity was significantly lower on the side that received warm, neutral tumescent anesthesia (mean rating, 26.8 mm) than on the side receiving warm, nonneutral tumescent anesthesia (mean rating, 44.9 mm; p < .001). The difference in VAS scores between warm neutral (mean rating, 23.9 mm) and room-temperature nonneutral (mean rating, 61.2 mm) was statistically significant (p < .001). CONCLUSION The warm, neutral tumescent anesthetic preparation effectively suppressed patient pain during dermatologic surgical procedures. [source]

    Melanoacanthoma Simulating Pigmented Spitz Nevus: an Unusual Dermoscopy Pitfall

    BACKGROUND The starburst pattern is the dermoscopic hallmark of pigmented Spitz nevus, although it has been rarely observed in melanoma as well. OBJECTIVE To describe a case of melanoacanthoma simulating pigmented Spitz nevus. MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic examinations were performed for the occurrence of a 4-mm pigmented skin lesion on the hip of a 38-year-old Caucasian woman. RESULTS Dermoscopy examination of the lesion disclosed a stereotypical starburst pattern characterized by pigmented streaks symmetrically distributed at the periphery. A preoperative diagnosis of pigmented Spitz nevus was made, and the lesion was excised. However, subsequent histopathologic examination revealed a melanoacanthoma. CONCLUSION The starburst pattern, although diagnostic for pigmented Spitz nevus, can be rarely observed in other benign or malignant pigmented skin lesions. Accordingly, all lesions in adults exhibiting a starburst pattern or other spitzoid features should be excised for histopathologic evaluation. [source]

    Sterile Versus Nonsterile Gloves During Mohs Micrographic Surgery: Infection Rate is not Affected

    BACKGROUND: Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is an outpatient procedure, which has become the treatment of choice for certain cutaneous malignancies. Although the major steps in this procedure are relatively standardized, one difference involves the use of sterile or nonsterile, clean gloves during the tumor removal phase. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective, chart review study was performed to evaluate whether infection rates are affected by the use of sterile versus nonsterile gloves in the tumor extirpation phase of MMS. METHODS: This study evaluated the surgical records of 1,810 consecutive Mohs patients, of which 1,239 Mohs patients (1,400 Mohs procedures) met inclusion criteria. Age, sex, tumor diagnosis, anatomic location, number of Mohs stages, area of defect, closure type, cartilage exposure, and sterile versus nonsterile glove use were recorded and evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-five infections were identified. Statistically significant infection rates were discovered for patients with cartilage fenestration with secondary healing and malignant melanoma diagnosis only. There was no statistical difference in infection rates with all other measured variables to include the use of sterile or clean, nonsterile gloves. CONCLUSION: Our study lends support that clean, nonsterile gloves are safe and effective for use in the tumor extirpation phase of MMS, at a significant cost savings. [source]

    Hemorrhagic Bullae After Cryosurgery in a Patient With Hemophilia A

    John G. Hancox MD
    BACKGROUND. A case of hemorrhagic bullae and blisters on the hand of a patient with hemophilia A after cryosurgery for verruca vulgaris is reported. OBJECTIVE. To discuss a hemorrhagic complication in a patient with hemophilia A after cutaneous cryosurgery. METHODS. This is an observatory case report. RESULTS. Even minimal cryosurgery can induce hemorrhagic bullae in patients with hemophilia A. CONCLUSION. The risks and benefits of cryosurgery should be weighed carefully in patients with bleeding disorders such as hemophilia. [source]

    Noninvasive Imaging, Treatment, and Microscopic Confirmation of Clearance of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Mark Goldgeier MD
    BACKGROUND. The diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is generally established by skin biopsy followed by tissue preparation and microscopic analysis. Treatment of BCC is often accomplished by surgical excision. Objective. To confirm the presence of BCC with a noninvasive imaging technique, to treat the patient with a topical immune response modifier, and to confirm the clearance of BCC noninvasively. METHODS. Confocal microscopy (CM) is a noninvasive technique for real-time imaging of skin in vivo. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is applied topically by the patient to the skin lesion. RESULTS. The presence of BCC was confirmed with CM. Posttreatment CM imaging confirmed the clearance of BCC from the entire treatment field. Both the pretreatment and the posttreatment CM findings were confirmed by invasive biopsy. CONCLUSION. The ability to use CM to image in real time without discomfort to the patient makes it a powerful tool to assist in the diagnosis of skin disease. [source]

    Silicone Gel Sheeting for the Management and Prevention of Onychocryptosis

    A. Burhan Aksakal MD
    BACKGROUND Onychocryptosis, commonly referred to as ingrown nails, has many therapeutic alternatives for its management. Although mild cases can be treated conservatively, in severe cases, surgical treatment is preferred. Silicone gel sheeting is found to be effective in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. OBJECTIVE To document the effectiveness of silicone gel sheeting in the management of patients with onychocryptosis and in the prevention of the recurrences by breaking the devil's circle, which usually took place after the surgical procedures used in the treatment of the onychocryptosis. METHODS Fourteen patients were enrolled in the study. Entry criteria required the presence of slight (2 patients), moderate (2 patients), or severe (10 patients) onychocryptosis. The simple technique used in the study was the excision of the one-quarter part of the lesional side of the nail plate without excising the granulation tissue. After 24 hours, the silicone was placed on the granulation tissue and the exposed nail bed. Silicone gel sheet was bandaged loosely without applying any pressure. Patients entering the study were given detailed instructions in applying and using the gel for 12 hours during the daytime. The study lasted for 14 months and was composed of a treatment period of 4 months and a follow-up period of 10 months. The patients were evaluated every 2 weeks in the first month and then monthly. The change in thickness of granulation tissue was evaluated by comparing them with the baseline photographs and those taken at each visit. RESULTS The management and prevention of onychocryptosis were achieved in 12 of 14 patients (85.71%). The silicone gel sheeting treatment was well tolerated except for an occasional transient exudation, which was resolved when the treatment was withdrawn. CONCLUSION The results show that the new method that we used for the treatment of onychocryptosis is successful in reducing the thickness of the hypertrophic nail fold and prevents the recurrence of the condition during the regrowth of the nail plate by breaking the devil's circle. The advantage of this method is that it is not destructive to the nail matrix and the adjacent tissue. [source]

    Use of Honey as an Adjunct in the Healing of Split-Thickness Skin Graft Donor Site

    Aykut Misirlioglu MD
    BACKGROUND Different techniques are being used in treatment of split-thickness skin graft donor sites; however, there is not a widely accepted method established for these partial-thickness wounds. It is well known that honey has been very effective in the treatment of various types of wounds, but there is not any information about the usage of honey as split-thickness skin graft donor site dressing in the literature. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of honey-impregnated gauzes, hydrocolloid dressings, and as a conventional dressing, saline-soaked gauzes for skin graft donor sites. METHODS This is a nonrandomized, prospective, open-label (noncontrolled), side-by-side comparison trial of various options that are available for second-intention healing of donor site for split-thickness skin grafts. Eighty-eight patients who underwent skin grafting were observed using two different groups. In the first group, the donor site was divided into two equal halves, with each half being treated with honey-soaked gauzes and the other half with paraffin gauzes (group 1A), hydrocolloid dressings (group 1B), and saline-soaked gauzes (group 1C) alternatively. In the second group, two separate donor sites were formed, with one of them being treated with honey-impregnated gauzes (groups 2A,C) and the other one treated with either paraffin gauzes (group 2A), hydrocolloid dressings (group 2B), or saline-soaked gauzes (group 2C). The healing time, rate of infection, and sense of pain were evaluated. RESULTS In the treatment of split-thickness skin graft donor sites, honey-impregnated gauzes showed faster epithelization time and a low sense of pain than paraffin gauzes and saline-soaked gauzes. There was no significant difference between honey-impregnated gauzes and hydrocolloid dressings with regard to epithelization time and sense of pain. CONCLUSION The use of honey-impregnated gauzes is effective, safe, and practical. Honey can be an alternative material for the split-thickness skin graft donor site treatment. [source]

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Margin with Pruritus Ani of Long Duration

    Yoshihiro Handa MD
    BACKGROUND. Anal margin is an unusual location for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). On rare occasions, anal margin carcinoma is the cause of pruritus ani. OBJECTIVE. To describe a case of SCC of the anal margin with pruritus ani of long duration. RESULTS. A 52-year-old man had been aware of perianal itching for over 10 years. Examination of the perianal area revealed a reddish, eroded, hard nodule that was 2.01.5 0.3 cm in size located in the 3 o'clock position. The histopathologic diagnosis was well-differentiated SCC. The nodule was totally excised with a 1-cm margin. No recurrence or metastases were observed for 7 months. CONCLUSION. When pruritus ani does not respond to conservative therapy and when symptoms have existed for a long time, we should suspect the presence of malignancy. [source]

    Risky Sexual Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    Margaret Taylor-Seehafer
    ISSUES AND PURPOSE. To review the epidemiology and etiology of risky sexual behavior in adolescent women, and to discuss implications for primary prevention. CONCLUSION. Adolescent women who participate in risky sexual behavior are at risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Black, Hispanic, and out-of-home adolescent women, however, are at greatest risk. Factors contributing to risky sexual behavior include early initiation of sexual intercourse, inconsistent use of condoms and other barrier contraception, and unprotected sexual intercourse. Identified protective factors for early initiation of sexual activity include the development of healthy sexuality, family and school connectedness, and the presence of caring adults. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Effective clinical interventions target high-risk adolescent women; incorporate environmental and cognitive-behavioral components; use social learning theories; address differences in regards to culture, developmental stage, and sexual experience; and support family and school involvement. [source]

    Greater Prevalence and Incidence of Dementia in Older Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    [See editorial comments by Dr. Soo Borson, pp 1797-1798]
    OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dementia in older veterans. DESIGN: Administrative database study of individuals seen within one regional division of the Veterans Affairs healthcare network. SETTING: Veterans Integrated Service Network 16. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans aged 65 and older who had a diagnosis of PTSD or who were recipients of a Purple Heart (PH) and a comparison group of the same age with no PTSD diagnosis or PH were divided into four groups: those with PTSD and no PH (PTSD+/PH,, n=3,660), those with PH and no PTSD (PTSD,/PH+, n=1,503), those with PTSD and a PH (PTSD+/PH+, n=153), and those without PTSD or a PH (PTSD,/PH,, n=5,165). MEASUREMENTS: Incidence and prevalence of dementia after controlling for confounding factors in multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The PTSD+/PH, group had a significantly higher incidence and prevalence of dementia than the groups without PTSD with or without a PH. The prevalence and incidence of a dementia diagnosis remained two times as high in the PTSD+/PH, group as in the PTSD,/PH+ or PTSD,/PH, group after adjusting for the confounding factors. There were no statistically significant differences between the other groups. CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence of dementia is greater in veterans with PTSD. It is unclear whether this is due to a common risk factor underlying PTSD and dementia or to PTSD being a risk factor for dementia. Regardless, this study suggests that veterans with PTSD should be screened more closely for dementia. Because PTSD is so common in veterans, this association has important implications for veteran care. [source]

    Length of Stay for Older Adults Residing in Nursing Homes at the End of Life

    Anne Kelly MSW
    OBJECTIVES: To describe lengths of stay of nursing home decedents. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults aged 50 and older. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand eight hundred seventeen nursing home residents who died between 1992 and 2006. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was length of stay, defined as the number of months between nursing home admission and date of death. Covariates were demographic, social, and clinical factors drawn from the HRS interview conducted closest to the date of nursing home admission. RESULTS: The mean age of decedents was 83.39.0; 59.1% were female, and 81.5% were white. Median and mean length of stay before death were 5 months (interquartile range 1,20) and 13.718.4 months, respectively. Fifty-three percent died within 6 months of placement. Large differences in median length of stay were observed according to sex (men, 3 months vs women, 8 months) and net worth (highest quartile, 3 months vs lowest quartile, 9 months) (all P<.001). These differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex, marital status, net worth, geographic region, and diagnosed chronic conditions (cancer, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, lung disease, heart disease, and stroke). CONCLUSION: Nursing home lengths of stay are brief for the majority of decedents. Lengths of stay varied markedly according to factors related to social support. [source]

    Dehydroepiandrosterone Combined with Exercise Improves Muscle Strength and Physical Function in Frail Older Women

    Anne M. Kenny MD
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) combined with exercise on bone mass, strength, and physical function in older, frail women. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: A major medical institution. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-nine women (mean age 76.6 6.0) with low sulfated DHEA (DHEAS) levels, low bone mass, and frailty. INTERVENTION: Participants received 50 mg/d DHEA or placebo for 6 months; all received calcium and cholecalciferol. Women participated in 90-minute twice-weekly exercise regimens. MEASUREMENTS: Hormone levels, bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, body composition, upper and lower extremity strength, physical performance. RESULTS: Eighty-seven women (88%) completed 6 months. There were no significant changes in BMD or bone turnover markers. DHEA supplementation resulted in gains in lower extremity strength (from 459 121 N to 484 147 N; P=.01). There was also improvement in Short Physical Performance Battery score, a composite score that focuses on lower extremity function, in those taking DHEA (from 10.1 1.8 to 10.7 1.9; P=.02). There were significant changes in all hormone levels, including DHEAS, estradiol, estrone, and testosterone, and a decline in sex hormone-binding globulin levels in those taking DHEA. CONCLUSION: DHEA supplementation improved lower extremity strength and function in older, frail women involved in a gentle exercise program of chair aerobics or yoga. No changes were found in BMD either due to small sample size, short duration of study or no effect. The physical function findings are promising and require further evaluation as frail women are at high risk for falls and fracture. [source]

    The Cross-Sectional Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Waist,Hip Ratio, and Cognitive Performance in Postmenopausal Women Enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative

    Diana R. Kerwin MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether body mass index (BMI) is independently associated with cognitive function in postmenopausal women and the relationship between body fat distribution as estimated by waist-hip ratio (WHR). DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis. SETTING: Baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. PARTICIPANTS: Eight thousand seven hundred forty-five postmenopausal women aged 65 to 79 free of clinical evidence of dementia who completed the baseline evaluation in the WHI hormone trials. MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), health and lifestyle questionnaires, and standardized measurements of height, weight, body circumference, and blood pressure. Statistical analysis was performed of associations between 3MSE score, BMI, and WHR after controlling for known confounders. RESULTS: With the exception of smoking and exercise, vascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, waist measurement, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus, were significantly associated with 3MSE score and were included as covariables in subsequent analyses. BMI was inversely related to 3MSE score; for every 1-unit increase in BMI, 3MSE score decreased 0.988 points (P<.001) after adjusting for age, education, and vascular disease risk factors. BMI had the most pronounced association with poorer cognitive functioning scores in women with smaller waist measurements. In women with the highest WHR, cognitive scores increased with BMI. CONCLUSION: Higher BMI was associated with poorer cognitive function in women with smaller WHR. Higher WHR, estimating central fat mass, was associated with higher cognitive function in this cross-sectional study. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism for this association. [source]