Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Conception

  • alternative conception
  • assisted conception
  • broad conception
  • competing conception
  • cultural conception
  • dewey conception
  • different conception
  • narrow conception
  • new conception
  • normative conception
  • original conception
  • point conception
  • richer conception
  • scientific conception
  • student conception
  • traditional conception

  • Terms modified by Conception

  • conception rate

  • Selected Abstracts


    RATIO, Issue 3 2005
    P. J. Markie
    Joel Feinberg and Dan Brock have independently developed a solution to the Problem of Nonidentity as it occurs in cases where a mother's negligent act of conception causes her child to be born with a severe disability. I display three problems in the Feinberg-Brock proposal and develop an alternative view that explains both cases of wrongful conception and additional instances of the Problem of Nonidentity presented by Derek Parfit and others. [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 2 2010
    First page of article [source]


    Jeanette Edwards
    This article is about the ways in which residents of an English town explore ever-changing possibilities presented by new reproductive technologies (NRTs). It focuses on the way in which the idiom of incest emerges as a conceptual brake to certain possibilities presented by biotechnological intervention in conception. In this specific ethnographic example, we see that the meaning of incest is neither fixed nor predictable and goes beyond ideas about either biogenetic connection or appropriate and inappropriate sexual relations, even while embracing them. I argue that we need to pay attention to the bodies in which procreative substances that ought not to be mixed are combined and grown into new persons. The article also shows that exploration of NRTs continues to be animated by problematics of kinship. [source]


    ABSTRACT. In this article we explore the relationships between public parks and a broad interpretation of sustainability, taking as a case study the city of Barcelona, Spain. Recent official discourses in Barcelona insist on sustainability as one of the fundamental assets of public parks. Yet whether these urban artifacts actually contribute to sustainability objectives in environmental and social terms remains to be examined. We compare two public parks in Barcelona-the Parc Joan Miró (1983), and the Parc de Diagonal Mar (2002),and show how, in the former, the integration of the social, political, and environmental dimensions of sustainability was largely achieved, whereas in the latter, only the environmental dimension appears to have been considered. [source]

    Dewey's Conception of an Environment for Teaching and Learning

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2002
    David T. Hansen
    In this article, I examine the main contours of John Dewey's conception of an environment for teaching and learning. I show how his conception derives from two components of his philosophical anthropology: (1) his understanding of the nature of a growing self, and (2) his view of how human beings influence one another. With this background in place, I examine why Dewey argues that an environment for teaching and learning should be what he calls "simplified, purified, balanced, and steadying." I discuss how Dewey distinguishes an educative environment from what he calls "surroundings." Finally, I address why he argues that teachers should not focus directly on learning, but rather on the environment that obtains in the classroom. Throughout the article, I try to show how timely and powerful Dewey's conception of an environment remains,for teachers, teacher educators, and all who care about meaningful teaching and learning. [source]

    Conception of self-construction production scheduling system

    Hai Xue
    Abstract With the high speed innovation of information technology, many production scheduling systems have been developed. However, a lot of customization according to individual production environment is required, and then a large investment for development and maintenance is indispensable. Therefore now the direction to construct scheduling systems should be changed. The final objective of this research aims at developing a system which is built by it extracting the scheduling technique automatically through the daily production scheduling work, so that an investment will be reduced. This extraction mechanism should be applied for various production processes for interoperability. Using the master information extracted by the system, production scheduling operators can be supported to accelerate the production scheduling work easily and accurately without any restriction of scheduling operations. By installing this extraction mechanism, it is easy to introduce a scheduling system without a lot of expense for customization. In this paper, first a model for expressing a scheduling problem is proposed. Then the guideline to extract the scheduling information and use the extracted information is shown and some applied functions are also proposed based on it. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 93(1): 19,29, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/ecj.10188 [source]

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons in flatfishes from the Southern California, USA, Bight

    Kenneth Schiff
    Abstract Alhough inputs of chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds to the Southern California Bight (SCB) are presently low, historical deposits represent a source of bioaccumulation potential to sediment-associated fauna. To assess this bioaccumulation potential, 14 chlorinated hydrocarbon classes were measured in livers of three species of flatfish collected from 63 randomly selected sites on the coastal shelf between Point Conception and the United States,Mexico international border. Tissue contamination was widespread throughout the SCB, but was limited to just two chlorinated hydrocarbon classes. Virtually 100% of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) and longfin sanddab (Citharichthys xanthostigma) populations were estimated to be contaminated with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDT = sum of o,p, and p,p, isomers of DDT + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE] + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs). Total DDT also contaminated the majority (64%) of the Dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) population in the SCB. Total PCB measurements in tissues of SCB flatfish were dominated by 12 congeners (52, 66, 87, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 170, 180, and 187), which averaged 95% of the combined mass of the 27 congeners analyzed. Sediment concentrations (normalized by total organic carbon content) accounted for most of the variability observed in tissue concentrations (normalized by lipid content) for 8 of these 12 congeners and total PCBs. Normalized sediment concentrations were also significantly correlated to normalized tissue concentrations for total DDT and p,p,-DDE. Tissue concentrations measured in this study from reference areas of the SCB were compared to tissue concentrations measured from reference areas in studies conducted in 1977 and 1985. Total DDT and total PCB liver concentrations were found to have decreased one to two orders of magnitude in Pacific and longfin sanddabs between 1985 and 1994. Total DDT and total PCB liver concentrations decreased 5- to 35-fold in Dover sole between 1977 and 1994. [source]

    Revelation, Scripture and Tradition: Some Comments on John Webster's Conception of ,Holy Scripture'

    Gavin D'Costa
    I argue that finally Webster's arguments fall short of what he wants to preserve: that in holy scripture we are confronted by God's Word, interpreted through his Spirit. It falls short precisely because the authoritative role of tradition is underplayed. Internal to Webster's argument the conceptual priority of sanctification to inspiration is called into question. I approach this criticism of Webster from a close inspection of his treatment of the Roman Catholic position on the matter. [source]

    Analysis of plant species diversity with respect to island characteristics on the Channel Islands, California

    Aaron Moody
    Abstract Aim Species richness of native, endemic, and exotic plant groups is examined relative to island area, disturbance history, geological history, and other physical characteristics. Of particular interest are the biogeographic factors that underlie (a) differences in species-area and species-isolation relationships between plant groups; and (b) adherence or departure of individual islands and/or plant groups from expected patterns. Location The eight Channel Islands lie along the continental margin between the U.S./Mexico border and Point Conception, CA. They range in size from 2.6 to 249 km2, and are located from 20 to 100 km off the coast. The islands are known for their high degree of plant endemism, and they have undergone a long history of human occupation by indigenous peoples, followed by over a century of intensive grazing and other biotic disturbances. Methods The study is based on linear regression and residual analysis. Cases where individual islands and/or specific plant groups do not adhere to patterns expected under species-area and species-isolation paradigms, are evaluated with respect to other island characteristics that are not captured by considering only island size and isolation. Results All three plant groups exhibit strong, positive relationships between species richness and island size. For native species, the variance that remains after consideration of island size is largely explained by island isolation. For exotic species, residuals from the species-area relationship are unrelated to isolation. For endemic species, residuals from the species-area relationship are negatively related to isolation. Several islands are outliers for endemic and exotic species, for which richness values are not explained by either island area or isolation. Main,conclusions Species-area and species-isolation relationships for native, endemic, and exotic plant groups differ in accordance with hypothesized differences in the biogeographic factors that govern species diversity for these three groups. Most notably, endemic richness increases with isolation, suggesting the influence of this variable on processes of speciation and relictualism. These general relationships persist despite a long and varied history of human activity on the islands. Analysis of residuals suggests that deviations from expected patterns correspond to island-specific biogeographic factors. It is hypothesized that primary among these factors are land-use history, island environmental characteristics, and community-type richness. [source]

    The Etymology of Sheng (Sage) and its Confucian Conception in Early China

    Ning Chen

    Pigment variability in larval Sebastes jordani off central California

    K. M. Sakuma
    Atypical pigment was observed in pre-flexion, flexion and post-flexion larval Sebastes collected off central California in 1991 and 1992 that otherwise resembled Sebastes jordani. Atypical pigment occurred on the axillary region at the base of the pectoral fin (most prominent on the inner edge of the pectoral fin base adjacent to the gut), on the median and distal regions of the pectoral fin and on the median and distal regions of the pelvic fin. In addition, lower and upper jaw pigment was observed at a much smaller size in these specimens than previously described in the literature. Identifications of these atypical specimens as S. jordani were confirmed using meristic and otolith characters as well as mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The ontogenetic variability of S. jordani is described. Specimens collected north of Point Conception were more pigmented than larval S. jordani described in the literature (collected predominately south of Point Conception), suggesting geographic variation in pigment development during the larval stage. [source]

    A ,European' Conception of Legal Consciousness: Rediscovering Eugen Ehrlich

    Marc Hertogh
    This paper discusses the present ,legal consciousness' literature and seeks to identify two different conceptions of legal consciousness. Most of this literature originated in the United States, but there has also been a growing interest in issues of legal consciousness in Europe. The use of the term ,legal consciousness ' in these European discussions is, however, remarkably different from its use in the United States literature. It is argued that the most commonly used ,American ' conception of legal consciousness reflects important ideas of Roscoe Pound and asks: how do people experience (official) law? By contrast, a European conception of legal consciousness, which was first introduced by the Austrian legal theorist Eugen Ehrlich, focuses on: what do people experience as ,law '? After both perspectives are applied in a case-study of a run-down neighbourhood in the Netherlands, it is concluded that future studies of legal consciousness may benefit from an integration of the two conceptions. [source]

    Towards a Richer Conception of Vocational Preparation

    Gerard Lum
    This paper identifies the key assumptions underpinning current arrangements in vocational education and training (VET) in the UK. These assumptions, and the idea of vocational capability they denote, are rejected in favour of a more coherent conception,a conception centred not on the traditional dichotomy of ,knowing how-knowing that' but on what I refer to as the ,constitutive understandings' from which both practical and theoretical capabilities can be seen to derive. It is argued that an account of vocational capability in these terms suggests a far richer conception of vocational preparation than current arrangements are able to admit. [source]

    Multiple Realizability Intuitions and the Functionalist Conception of the Mind

    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 1 2006
    Abstract: A popular argument supporting functionalism has been what is commonly called the "multiple realizability" argument. One version of this argument uses thought experiments designed to show that minds could be composed of different types of material. This article offers a metaphilosophical analysis of this argument and shows that it fails to provide a strong case for functionalism. The multiple realizability argument is best understood as an inference-to-the-best-explanation argument, whereby a functionalist account of our mental concepts serves to explain our multiple realizability intuitions. I show that the argument is inadequate because alternative accounts of our mental concepts exist that provide equally plausible explanations for these intuitions. Moreover, in the case of our qualia concepts, a nonfunctionalist account explains several other intuitions that functionalism cannot explain. Thus, despite its popularity, the intuition-based version of the multiple realizability argument is a poor reason for accepting functionalism. [source]

    Death and the Psychological Conception of Personal Identity

    John Martin Fischer

    A Neo-Boasian Conception of Cultural Boundaries

    For the past 30 years, anthropology's critics have repeatedly questioned the notion of "cultural boundaries," arguing that concepts of culture inappropriately posit stable and bounded "islands" of cultural distinctiveness in an ever-changing world of transnational cultural "flows." This issue remains an Achilles' heel,or at least a recurring inflamed tendon,of anthropology. However, in the conception of boundaries, we still have much to learn from Boasian anthropologists, who conceived of boundaries not as barriers to outside influence or to historical change, but as cultural distinctions that were irreducibly plural, perspectival, and permeable. In this article, I retheorize and extend the Boasians' open concept of cultural boundaries, emphasizing how people's own ideas of "the foreign",and the "own" versus the "other" distinction,give us a way out of the old conundrum in which the boundedness of culture, as conceived in spatial terms, seems to contradict the open-ended nature of cultural experience. [source]

    Estimation of the day-specific probabilities of conception: current state of the knowledge and the relevance for epidemiological research

    Courtney D. Lynch
    Summary Conception, as defined by the fertilisation of an ovum by a sperm, marks the beginning of human development. Currently, a biomarker of conception is not available; as conception occurs shortly after ovulation, the latter can be used as a proxy for the time of conception. In the absence of serial ultrasound examinations, ovulation cannot be readily visualised leaving researchers to rely on proxy measures of ovulation that are subject to error. The most commonly used proxy measures include: charting basal body temperature, monitoring cervical mucus, and measuring urinary metabolites of oestradiol and luteinising hormone. Establishing the timing of the ovulation and the fertile window has practical utility in that it will assist couples in appropriately timing intercourse to achieve or avoid pregnancy. Identifying the likely day of conception is clinically relevant because it has the potential to facilitate more accurate pregnancy dating, thereby reducing the iatrogenic risks associated with uncertain gestation. Using data from prospective studies of couples attempting to conceive, several researchers have developed models for estimating the day-specific probabilities of conception. Elucidating these will allow researchers to more accurately estimate the day of conception, thus spawning research initiatives that will expand our current limited knowledge about the effect of exposures at critical periconceptional windows. While basal body temperature charting and cervical mucus monitoring have been used with success in field-based studies for many years, recent advances in science and technology have made it possible for women to get instant feedback regarding their daily fertility status by monitoring urinary metabolites of reproductive hormones in the privacy of their own homes. Not only are innovations such as luteinising hormone test kits and digital fertility monitors likely to increase study compliance and participation rates, they provide valuable prospective data that can be used in epidemiological research. Although we have made great strides in estimating the timing and length of the fertile window, more work is needed to elucidate the day-specific probabilities of conception using proxy measures of ovulation that are inherently subject to error. Modelling approaches that incorporate the use of multiple markers of ovulation offer great promise to fill these important data gaps. [source]

    Kierkegaard's Conception of God

    Paul K. Moser
    Philosophers have often misunderstood Kierkegaard's views on the nature and purposes of God due to a fascination with his earlier, pseudonymous works. We examine many of Kierkegaard's later works with the aim of setting forth an accurate view on this matter. The portrait of God that emerges is a personal and fiercely loving God with whom humans can and should enter into relationship. Far from advocating a fideistic faith or a cognitively unrestrained leap in the dark, we argue that Kierkegaard connects this God-relationship to (a particular kind of) evidence and even knowledge. However, such evidence and knowledge , and hence God himself , may remain hidden from many individuals due to misconceptions of God and misuses of the human will. [source]

    Frege's Judgement Stroke and the Conception of Logic as the Study of Inference not Consequence

    Nicholas J. J. Smith
    One of the most striking differences between Frege's Begriffsschrift (logical system) and standard contemporary systems of logic is the inclusion in the former of the judgement stroke: a symbol which marks those propositions which are being asserted, that is, which are being used to express judgements. There has been considerable controversy regarding both the exact purpose of the judgement stroke, and whether a system of logic should include such a symbol. This paper explains the intended role of the judgement stroke in a way that renders it readily comprehensible why Frege insisted that this symbol was an essential part of his logical system. The key point here is that Frege viewed logic as the study of inference relations amongst acts of judgement, rather than , as in the typical contemporary view , of consequence relations amongst certain objects (propositions or well-formed formulae). The paper also explains why Frege's use of the judgement stroke is not in conflict with his avowed anti-psychologism, and why Wittgenstein's criticism of the judgement stroke as ,logically quite meaningless' is unfounded. The key point here is that while the judgement stroke has no content, its use in logic and mathematics is subject to a very stringent norm of assertion. [source]

    Two Concepts of Violence

    Vittorio Bufacchi
    The aim of this review article is to explore some theoretical issues regarding the nature and scope of violence. There are two ways of thinking about violence: in terms of an act of force, or in terms of a violation. Those who define violence as an intentional act of excessive or destructive force endorse a narrow conception of violence (the Minimalist Conception of Violence or MCV), while those who see violence in terms of a violation of rights champion a broader conception of violence (the Comprehensive Conception of Violence or CCV). The strengths and weaknesses of both approaches will be assessed. [source]

    Aspects Regarding the Conception, Modeling and Implementation of an Articulated Robot in Space with Noises and Vibrations

    Virgil Ispas
    The authors want to conceive and to model a structure of a 6R serial modular industrial robot with six freedom degrees. Some specific points are followed: the direct geometric modelling of the robot using the matrix of rotation method, the given in 3D modelling of the robot, the presentation of its components having some possible applications in the processes of production in the spaces with noises and vibrations. The direct geometrical modelling will be determinate the relative orientation matrices, which express the position of each system Ti, (i=1-6), according to the system Ti,1, also expressing the vectors of relative position of origin Oi of the systems Ti. They will be expressed the orientation of each system Ti in account to the fixed system To attached to the robot base, the set of independent parameters of orientation then are obtained the final equation of the column vector of the generalized coordinates, which express the position and the orientation of the clamping device. The paper presents the two possible applications of the studied robot implementation in a flexible manufacturing cel for the manipulation operations of parts. The robot will be used on the other side for the execution of weld in a points applied to the car carcases. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 2 2008
    In modern theology the doctrine of the Virgin Birth of Christ, including the doctrine of his Virginal Conception, has been the subject of considerable scepticism. One line of criticism has been that the traditional doctrine of the Virgin Birth seems unnecessary to the Incarnation. In this essay I lay out one construal of the traditional argument for the doctrine and show that, although one can offer an account of the Incarnation without the Virgin Birth which, in other respects, is perfectly in accord with catholic Christianity, such a doctrine is still contrary to the plain teaching of Scripture and the Creeds on the question of the mode of the Incarnation. It might still be thought that the Incarnation was an ,unfitting' means of Incarnation. In a final section I draw upon Anselm's arguments in defence of the Incarnation to show that this objection can also be overcome. [source]

    Good and Evil: An Absolute Conception.

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
    By Raimond Gaita
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Conception of a navigation system controlling diaphyseal fracture reduction treated with external fixation

    T. Leloup
    Abstract Background The reduction of long bone fractures treated with external fixation is usually performed with fluoroscopic images, which include several disadvantages: 2D information, distortions, and irradiation to the patient and the surgical team. This article presents a new navigation technique to control the reduction of such fractures while minimizing the irradiation. Methods Optically tracked markers are fixed to pins inserted into the bone fragments. These last are modelled using two initial calibrated radiographs. The models can be improved with several types of anatomical data and are displayed in real time. Results This navigation system was tested on dry bones and an anatomical specimen leg. Conclusions This new technique allows the visualization of the fracture in real time and from any viewpoint during the reduction. Irradiation is minimized using only two X-ray images. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Products of Conception: A Relationship Revisited

    Rushdia Z. Yusuf
    Objectives:, Cytogenetic evaluation of product of conception (POC) is essential to determine the cause of pregnancy loss and aid the prenatal diagnosis of subsequent pregnancies. The purpose of this study is twofold. (1) To profile cytogenetic abnormalities, their relationship with maternal and gestational age and analyze sex ratios in our case series of 2052 consecutive samples of POC referred to the Baystate Medical Center, Laboratory Genetics between January 1992 and January 1999. (2) To present a comprehensive review of such data published in the last 15 years, in order to study temporal differences in the above parameters and make this information readily available for cytogeneticists and genetic counselors. Materials and methods:, Data was entered and analyzed in Epi Info version 6.0 using the Z -test, chi-square test of significance and linear correlation coefficient. Results and conclusions:, The profile of cytogenetic abnormalities detected in POC has not changes significantly over time. The mean maternal age in our study (overall and for trisomies) was higher than that reported previously, which is consistent with the noted trend of increasing age at pregnancy in recent years. Our study provides evidence that abnormal karyotypes are aborted earlier and that tetraploidies have the least survival amongst all abnormalities. The higher mean gestational age for trisomic abortions in our study, as compared with previously reported figures, can be attributed to the increasing practice of active maternal screening with subsequent therapeutic abortions. Analysis of sex ratios may reaffirm a female specific developmental disadvantage in early stages of pregnancy. [source]

    The Enjoyment of Rights and Freedoms: A New Conception of the ,Ambit' under Article 14 ECHR

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 5 2006
    Aaron Baker, Article first published online: 16 AUG 200
    Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights, as applied by the UK judiciary under the Human Rights Act 1998, is in danger of becoming as ,parasitic' as it is often described. Judges have inappropriately narrowed the scope of the ,ambit' of other Convention articles, and thus limited the number of claims to which Article 14 can apply, by defining it according to considerations more properly weighed in a justification analysis incorporating proportionality. The emerging approach departs from Strasbourg jurisprudence, and fails to give full effect to the language and intent of Article 14. This trend need not continue. This article begins the process of fashioning a new conception of the ambit of Convention articles: one that could change the fortunes of Article 14 cases in the UK, but that flows naturally from the precedents of the European Court of Human Rights, and gives effect to the spirit of the HRA. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 2 2009
    A new reading of textual evidence roots the imagery of Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling frescoes in contemporary theological commitment to the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. The cluster of abstract metaphors contained in a sermon written by Pope Sixtus IV, dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, and the liturgical and devotional texts the sermon inspired, offers foundational source material for the ceiling programme. It is proposed that such an Immaculacy message exists alongside and mutually supports Incarnationist and Eucharistic ones, all rooted in a metaphor of bodily perfection that Michelangelo ,figures' at the level of gender as well. [source]

    ,South Opposed to East and North': Adrian Stokes and Josef Strzygowski.

    ART HISTORY, Issue 4 2003
    A study in the aesthetics, historiography of Orientalism
    The ,South Opposed to East and North' of this paper's title comes from the third section of Adrian Stokes's book The Quattro Cento of 1932 , subtitled A Different Conception of the Italian Renaissance, and the founding work of his aesthetic. The Quattro Cento can be viewed as a response to the need expressed by Strzygowski in his Origin of Christian Church Art of 1923 ,for a work dealing with the penetration of the South by the North of Europe and the subsequent rise of the so-called Renaissance'; a North, in Strzygowski's view, already permeated by influences from the East. Within the contested terrain inscribed in the term, this paper isolates three key ,Orients' crucial to Stokes's Quattro Cento aesthetic: the experiential Orient of his Conrad-inspired voyage to the East; the Orient of the British Museum; and that of the Orientalist texts , primarily the now-marginalized Josef Strzygowski. As a study in the historiography of Orientalism, the essay examines how Adrian Stokes inflected his experience and readings of these Orients to re-evaluate European , specifically Italian Renaissance , culture. [source]

    Konzept und FE-Modellierung zum Nachweis der erforderlichen Ankerlänge

    BAUTECHNIK, Issue 4 2008
    Eugen Perau Priv.-Doz.
    Es werden Untersuchungen für ein Verfahren zum Nachweis der erforderlichen Ankerlänge bei rückverankerten Baugrubenwänden mit der Finite-Elemente-Methode (FEM) vorgestellt. Anhand eines Beispiels wird untersucht, welchen Einfluss die Art, den Verpressk, örper zu modellieren, auf die berechneten Sicherheitswerte hat. Neben der Ankerlänge wird gleichzeitig auch die Feinheit des FEM-Netzes variiert, um auch den Einfluss von Interface-Elementen am Verpresskörper auf die Abhängigkeit der Berechnungsergebnisse von der Netzfeinheit bewerten zu können. Diskutiert wird, ob Berechnungen zum Nachweis der erforderlichen Ankerlänge mit der FEM auch im ebenen Formänderungszustand (2D) durchgeführt werden können und wie der Fehler gegenüber der 3D-Realität mittels rechnerischer Kürzung der Anker ausgeglichen werden kann. Es schließen sich Betrachtungen zur Behandlung der unvermeidlichen Unsicherheiten beim Nachweis der erforderlichen Ankerlänge an; diese Betrachtungen lassen sich auch für einen solchen FEM-gestützten Nachweis verwenden. Abschließend wird ein detailliertes Konzept für den Nachweis der erforderlichen Ankerlänge auf Basis der FEM vorgestellt, welches die Ergebnisse der durchgeführten Beispielrechnungen sowie die vorangegangenen Überlegungen zu den Unsicherheiten aufnimmt. Conception and FE-modelling for a verification of a sufficient anchor length. Investigations for a verification of a sufficient anchor length at a tied back excavation wall on basis of the Finite-Element-Method (FEM) are presented. With the help from an example it is examined how the modelling of the grout body effects the calculated safety factors. Besides the anchor length also the coarseness of the FEM mesh is varied, in order to score the influence of interface-elements at the grout body on the dependence of the calculation results from the coarseness of the mesh. It is discussed whether the verification of a sufficient anchor length with the FEM could be examined by a plain strain calculation and how the deficiencies compared to the 3-dimensional reality could be adjusted via a fictitious shortening of the anchor. Considerations are following, concerning handling of the unavoid-able uncertainties at the verification of the sufficient anchor length. These considerations could be used for such a verification on basis of the FEM. Finally, a detailed conception for the verification of a sufficient anchor length on basis of the FEM is presented. The conception contains the findings from the calculated examples as well as the mentioned considerations on the uncertainties. [source]

    Limits to gene flow in marine animals with planktonic larvae: models of Littorina species around Point Conception, California

    Simulation models examined the process of gene flow in marine animals with planktonic larvae, and three factors that may influence it: ocean currents, planktonic period and spawning season. To focus on a realistic example, the models were based on measured ocean currents around Point Conception in southern California and the life histories of two intertidal gastropods, Littorina scutulata and L. plena. Results suggested that: (1) convergent ocean currents can create an effective barrier to gene flow that can be relaxed by temporal variation; (2) longer scales of temporal variation have a greater effect than shorter scales; (3) planktonic period has little effect above a minimum duration; and (4) an extended spawning season can eliminate gene flow barriers when currents vary seasonally. Failure of past studies to detect a phylogeographical boundary at Point Conception may be explained by extended spawning seasons and temporal variation at seasonal to millennial scales. These results fit a conceptual model of marine speciation in which short-lived, leaky barriers restrict gene flow, and divergence in a few genes may quickly produce reproductive isolation, resulting in cryptic sibling species. © 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2004, 82, 169,187. [source]