Community Sample (community + sample)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Community Sample

  • general community sample
  • large community sample
  • representative community sample

  • Selected Abstracts

    "I was more her Mom than she was mine:" Role Reversal in a Community Sample,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2004
    Ofra Mayseless
    Family processes associated with childhood role reversal and related adult outcomes were examined in a community sample (128 adults) using a semistructured interview exploring family, friend, and romantic relationships. Women showed stronger role reversal than men, and role reversal was stronger with mothers than with fathers. Role reversal of women with mothers was associated with parental divorce, neglect, and rejection. Only parental divorce was consistently associated with men's role reversal. Role reversal was not associated with current symptoms for either men or women, nor with attachment orientations for women. Three patterns with distinct family dynamics and outcomes,guardians/protectors, pleasers/compliants, and spousified,emerged from qualitative analyses of 16 women who experienced high levels of childhood role reversal. [source]

    Cumulative Adversity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence From a Diverse Community Sample of Young Adults

    Donald A. Lloyd PhD
    The authors hypothesized that a history of adversities, whether they were objectively traumatic or not, predicts risk for 1st onset of PTSD. Survival analysis in a community sample of 1,803 young adults revealed that risk is associated with retrospectively reported adverse experiences that occurred in years prior to the focal traumatic event. Analyses control for clustering of events proximal to onset. Implications for etiology and preventive intervention are noted. [source]

    Anxiety Sensitivity as a Moderator of the Association between Smoking Rate and Panic-Relevant Symptoms among a Community Sample of Middle-aged Adult Daily Smokers

    Alison C. McLeish PhD
    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the relation between smoking rate and panic vulnerability variables among a community-based sample of adults. Results indicated that the interaction between AS and smoking rate significantly predicted anxious arousal, agoraphobic avoidance, and anticipatory anxiety. Specifically, participants who reported higher levels of AS and heavier smoking rates reported the highest levels of panic vulnerability. These data suggest that this combination of high AS and heavier smoking is particularly problematic in regard to panic symptoms. [source]

    Exploratory study examining barriers to participation in colorectal cancer screening

    Johanna S. Paddison
    Abstract Objective:,To examine the Stage of Change distribution for bowel cancer screening in a regional Australian community and the factors associated with varying positions on the continuum of change. Design:,Survey of a convenience sample. Setting:,Community sample. Participants:,A total of 59 (31 male, mean age = 59) service club members from a South Australian regional community. Main outcome measure:,Self-reported Stage of Change for bowel cancer screening behaviour. Results:,Attributing greater embarrassment and discomfort to bowel cancer screening was associated with earlier positions on the Stages of Change. Perceiving that bowel cancer screening might have positive value for personal health was associated with more advanced positions on the continuum of change. Those who perceived breast and prostate screening procedures to be embarrassing or to cause discomfort were significantly less likely to be participating in bowel cancer screening. No significant relationships were found between bowel cancer screening Stage of Change and worry about vulnerability; personal, family or wider social network case reports of bowel cancer; and the population-level value attributed to the cancer screening procedures. Conclusion:,Bowel cancer screening participation rates are currently lower than those associated with breast and prostate screening. Reducing perceptions of embarrassment and discomfort, increasing awareness of potential health benefits and maximising participation in other screening procedures might increase participation in bowel cancer screening. [source]

    The Effect of Poststroke Depression on Recovery from Stroke

    PSYCHOGERIATRICS, Issue 2 2002
    Amane Tateno
    Background: Stroke is a major health problem and poststroke depression is known to be one of the frequent and severe psychiatric complications following stroke. Methods: Based on the results of structured psychiatric mental state exams and DSM diagnostic criteria, the prevalence of poststroke depression has been examined in numerous study populations throughout the world. Longitudinal examinations have documented the effect of poststroke depression on recovery from stroke. Results: The mean prevalence of poststroke major depression was 21.1 % and minor depression was 17.1% among hospitalized or outpatient samples. Community samples showed a slightly lower rate of 14.1% and 9.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the existence of poststroke depression leads to poorer physical recovery, greater cognitive impairment, and worse recovery in activities of daily living compared with non-depressed patients. Several studies have also found that poststroke depression is associated with increased mortality compared with non-depressed patients who had comparable strokes and similar premorbid risk factors. Finally, several studies have found that successful treatment of poststroke depression improves both cognitive and physical recovery and decreases mortality. Conclusion: The current review documents the beneficial effect of identifying and treating poststroke depression on both recovery and survival following stroke. [source]

    Psychological resilience and neurocognitive performance in a traumatized community sample,

    Aliza P. Wingo M.D.
    Abstract Background: Whether psychological resilience correlates with neurocognitive performance is largely unknown. Therefore, we assessed association between neurocognitive performance and resilience in individuals with a history of childhood abuse or trauma exposure. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 226 highly traumatized civilians, we assessed neurocognitive performance, history of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure, and current depressive and PTSD symptoms. Resilience was defined as having ,1 trauma and no current depressive or PTSD symptoms; non-resilience as having ,1 trauma and current moderate/severe depressive or PTSD symptoms. Results: The non-resilient group had a higher percentage of unemployment (P=.006) and previous suicide attempts (P<.0001) than the resilient group. Both groups had comparable education and performance on verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and verbal memory. However, the resilient group performed better on nonverbal memory (P=.016) with an effect size of .35. Additionally, more severe childhood abuse or other trauma exposure was significantly associated with non-resilience. Better nonverbal memory was significantly associated with resilience even after adjusting for severity of childhood abuse, other trauma exposure, sex, and race using multiple logistic regression (adjusted OR=1.2; P=.017). Conclusions: We examined resilience as absence of psychopathology despite trauma exposure in a highly traumatized, low socioeconomic, urban population. Resilience was significantly associated with better nonverbal memory, a measure of ability to code, store, and visually recognize concrete and abstract pictorial stimuli. Nonverbal memory may be a proxy for emotional learning, which is often dysregulated in stress-related psychopathology, and may contribute to our understanding of resilience. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Attentional Resource Allocation Scale (ARAS): psychometric properties of a composite measure for dissociation and absorption,

    R. N. Carleton M.A.
    Abstract Background: Differences in attentional processes have been linked to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Shifts in such processes have been described by the constructs Dissociation and Absorption. Dissociation occurs when external and/or internal stimuli are excluded from consciousness due to discrepant, rather than unitary, manifestations of cognitive awareness [Erdelyi MH. 1994: Int J Clin Exp Hypnosis 42:379,390]. In contrast, absorption can be conceptualized by a focus on limited stimuli, to the exclusion of other stimuli, because of unifying, rather than discrepant, manifestations of cognitive awareness. The Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES; Bernstein EM, Putnam FW. 1986: J Nerv Ment Dis 174:727,735] and Tellegen Absorption Scale [TAS; Tellegen A, Atkinson G. 1974: J Abnorm Psychol 83:268,277] are common measures of each construct; however, no factor analyses are available for the TAS and despite accepted overlap, no one has assessed the DES and TAS items simultaneously. Previous research suggests the constructs and factor structures need clarification, possibly including more parsimonious item inclusion [Lyons LC, Crawford HJ. 1997: Person Individ Diff 23:1071,1084]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the DES and TAS and create a psychometrically stable measure of Dissociation and Absorption. Methods: This study included data from an undergraduate (n=841; 76% women) and a community sample (n=233; 86% women) who each completed the DES and TAS. Results: Exploratory factor analyses [Osborne JW (ed). 2008: Best Practices in Quantitative Methods. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc.] with all DES and TAS items suggested a 15-item 3-factor solution (i.e., imaginative involvement, dissociative amnesia, attentional dissociation). Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in excellent fit indices for the same solution. Conclusions: The items and factors were conceptualized in line with precedent research as the Attentional Resource Allocation Scale (ARAS). Comprehensive results, implications, and future research directions are discussed. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Psychometric evaluation of a measure of Beck's negative cognitive triad for youth: applications for African,American and Caucasian adolescents

    Leilani Greening
    Abstract A measure of Beck's negative cognitive triad, the Cognitive Triad for Children (CTI-C), was evaluated for its psychometric properties and utility with a community sample of 880 African,American and Caucasian adolescents. High-school students ranging from 14 to 17 years of age completed the CTI-C, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ-R) on two occasions 4 months apart. The CTI-C was found to be internally consistent, Cronbach's ,=.90, to have acceptable test-retest reliability, r=.70, and concurrent validity as demonstrated by a significant correlation with the CASQ-R, r=.53. A principal factor analysis with promax rotation did not yield support for Beck's tripartite model of negative cognitions about the self, world, and future but rather yielded three factors with a combination of cognitions from all three domains. African American adolescents who reported more maladaptive cognitions on the CTI-C reported fewer depressive symptoms on the CDI 4 months later compared to their Caucasian counterparts, suggesting some limitation to using the CTI-C to predict depressive symptoms in African,American youth; however, Factor 1 derived from a factor analysis with the sample was more consistent in predicting future symptoms among both African,American and Caucasian adolescents. This factor consisted largely of positively worded items, offering some support for low positive affect as a predictor of depressive symptoms in adolescents. Depression and Anxiety 21:161,169, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Twenty-five-year course and outcome in anxiety and depression in the Upper Bavarian Longitudinal Community Study

    M. M. Fichter
    Fichter MM, Quadflieg N, Fischer UC, Kohlboeck G. Twenty-five-year course and outcome in anxiety and depression in the Upper Bavarian Longitudinal Community Study. Objective:, Assessment of 25-year course of pure and mixed anxiety and depression in a community sample. Method:, Participants were grouped into pure anxiety, pure depression, mixed anxiety and depression, and no anxiety or depressive syndrome at baseline. Assessments consisted of a: i) baseline survey, ii) 5-year follow-up, iii) 25-year follow-up. Self-rating scales as well as expert-rating interviews yielded data on social and psychopathological risk factors and outcome measures. Results:, Baseline prevalence for mixed anxiety and depressive syndrome was 8.7%. Subjects with combined anxiety and depressive syndrome were more predisposed towards later adverse mental health outcomes and reduced functionality. The transition from anxiety syndrome (pure and mixed) to depressive syndrome over the 25-year study is more likely than the reverse. Logistic regression analysis emphasized the impact of early anxiety syndromes on later depression. Conclusion:, Results underscore the long-term risks of suffering from a combined anxiety and depressive syndrome. [source]

    Psychotic-like experiences are associated with suicidal feelings and deliberate self-harm behaviors in adolescents aged 12,15 years

    A. Nishida
    Nishida A, Sasaki T, Nishimura Y, Tanii H, Hara N, Inoue K, Yamada T, Takami T, Shimodera S, Itokawa M, Asukai N, Okazaki Y. Psychotic-like experiences are associated with suicidal feelings and deliberate self-harm behaviors in adolescents aged 12,15 years. Objective:, Psychotic disorders are a significant risk factor for suicide, especially among young people. Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in the general population may share an etiological background with psychotic disorders. Therefore, the present study examined the association between PLEs and risk of suicide in a community sample of adolescents. Method:, Psychotic-like experiences, suicidal feelings, and self-harm behaviors were studied using a self-report questionnaire administered to 5073 Japanese adolescents. Depression and anxiety were evaluated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Results:, The presence of PLEs was significantly associated with suicidal feelings (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.2,4.5) and deliberate self-harm behaviors (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.0,4.8) after controlling for the effects of age, gender, GHQ-12 score, victimization, and substance use. Suicidal feelings and behaviors were more prevalent in subjects with a greater number of PLEs. Conclusion:, Psychotic-like experiences may increase the risk of suicidal problems among adolescents. [source]

    Prevalence and implications of psychopathological non-cognitive symptoms in dementia

    P. Saz
    Objective:, Clinical experience and recent population studies suggest that psychopathological, non-cognitive symptoms are both frequent and relevant in dementia. Method:, A representative community sample (n = 4,803 individuals, 55 + years) was interviewed in a two-phase design. The Geriatric Mental Sate (GMS) was used for assessment and cases were diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Results:, The prevalence of non-cognitive symptoms (1 + symptoms) in cases of dementia (n = 223) was 90.1%, and negative-type symptoms were most frequently found. A GMS ,apathy-related symptom cluster' (anergia, restriction of activities and anhedonia) was significantly more frequent in the demented (55.6%) than in non-cases (0.7%; specificity = 99.2%). In both dementia of Alzheimer's type and vascular dementia, number of symptoms tended to be inversely related to severity of dementia, but psychopathological profiles differed. Conclusion:, Non-cognitive, negative-type symptoms are very frequent in cases of dementia living in the community. They have powerful specificity in the distinction with non-cases, and might change current concepts of dementia. [source]

    Childhood negative experiences and subclinical psychosis in adolescence: a longitudinal general population study

    Ellen De Loore
    Abstract Background:, Accumulating evidence suggests that experiences of trauma and victimization during childhood are associated with an increased risk to develop clinical and subclinical psychosis in adulthood. A recent cross-sectional study showed a significant association between trauma and psychotic experiences in adolescents. The current study aimed to extend these findings by investigating the longitudinal effects of negative life experiences on the risk for subclinical psychotic symptoms 2 years later in an adolescent general community sample. Methods:, Data were derived from the standard health screenings of the Youth Health Care Divisions of the Public Health Services, in the South of the Netherlands. A total of 1129 adolescents filled out a self-report questionnaire at age 13/14 years and 2 years later (15/16 years), assessing psychotic experiences, as well as experiences of being bullied, sexual trauma, and negative life events. Results:, Logistic regression analyses revealed that sexual trauma increased the risk for psychotic symptoms 2 years later. Life events contributed to the risk for psychosis over time and psychosis in turn gave rise to new life events. No significant association with bullying was found after controlling for confounders. Conclusion:, The results provide further evidence for an association between childhood environment and psychosis in the crucial developmental period of early adolescence. Early and later psychological stress, if severe, may impact on the risk for psychosis in adolescence through mechanisms of person,environment interaction and correlation. [source]

    Individual, partner and relationship factors associated with non-medical use of prescription drugs

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2010
    Gregory G. Homish
    ABSTRACT Aims The objective of the current report was to examine individual, partner and relationship factors (e.g. relationship satisfaction) associated with the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) in a community sample of married adults. Design The current report used two waves of data from an ongoing study of couples who were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage license and are now in the 10th year of follow-up. Logistic regression models examined the relation between individual, partner and relationship factors and NMUPD. Participants This report is based on 273 couples. Measurements Participants completed questionnaires that assessed prescription drug use, alcohol use, other substance use, depression, marital satisfaction and socio-demographic factors. Findings Among wives, there was evidence that a partner's prescription drug use and relationship factors were associated with increased risk for NMUPD. There was some evidence suggesting that it was the increased access or availability, and not the partner's use per se, that was related to the NMUPD. These results persisted after controlling for other illicit drug use, heavy drinking, depressive symptomatology and socio-demographic factors. Among men, neither partner use nor relationship factors were associated with NMUPD after considering the impact of individual-level risk factors. Conclusion Prevention and intervention efforts directed at reducing the risk for NMUPD should consider the influence of partner and relationship factors in addition to individual-level risk factors. [source]

    Interplay of genetic risk factors and parent monitoring in risk for nicotine dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
    Li-Shiun Chen
    ABSTRACT Background Several studies have found replicable associations between nicotine dependence and specific variants in the nicotinic receptor genes CHRNA5(rs16969968) and CHRNA3(rs3743078). How these newly identified genetic risks combine with known environmental risks is unknown. This study examined whether the level of parent monitoring during early adolescence modified the risk of nicotine dependence associated with these genetic variants. Methods In a cross-sectional case,control study of US-based community sample of 2027 subjects, we use a systematic series of regression models to examine the effect of parent monitoring on risk associated with two distinct variants in the nicotinic receptor genes CHRNA5(rs16969968) and CHRNA3(rs3743078). Results Low parent monitoring as well as the previously identified genetic variants were associated with an increased risk of nicotine dependence. An interaction was found between the SNP(rs16969968) and parent monitoring (P = 0.034). The risk for nicotine dependence increased significantly with the risk genotype of SNP(rs16969968) when combined with lowest-quartile parent monitoring. In contrast, there was no evidence of an interaction between SNP(rs3743078) and parent monitoring (P = 0.80). Conclusions The genetic risk of nicotine dependence associated with rs16969968 was modified by level of parent monitoring, while the genetic risk associated with rs3743078 was not, suggesting that the increased risk due to some genes may be mitigated by environmental factors such as parent monitoring. [source]

    Older adults' alcohol consumption and late-life drinking problems: a 20-year perspective

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Rudolf H. Moos
    ABSTRACT Aims The aim of this study was to identify changes in patterns of alcohol consumption over a 20-year interval among older women and men, and to examine the associations between guideline-defined excessive drinking and late-life drinking problems. Design, participants and measures A community sample of 719 adults between 55 and 65 years of age who consumed alcohol at or prior to baseline participated in a survey of alcohol consumption and drinking problems and was followed 10 years and 20 years later. Findings The likelihood of excessive drinking declined over the 20-year interval as adults matured into their 70s and 80s. However, at ages 75,85, 27.1% of women and 48.6% of men consumed more than two drinks per day or seven drinks per week. At comparable guideline levels of alcohol consumption, older men were more likely to have drinking problems than were older women. Consumption of more than two drinks per day or seven drinks per week was identified as a potential conservative guideline for identifying excessive drinking associated with an elevated likelihood of drinking problems. Conclusions A substantial percentage of older adults who consume alcohol engage in guideline-defined excessive drinking and incur drinking problems. The finding that older men may be more likely than older women to experience problems when they drink beyond guideline levels suggests that alcohol guidelines for men should not be set higher than those for women. [source]

    Disruptiveness, peer experiences and adolescent smoking: a long-term longitudinal approach

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2009
    Roy Otten
    ABSTRACT Aims This study examined links of peer experiences (i.e. social status and affiliation with disruptive peers) throughout childhood with respect to adolescent smoking trajectories, after controlling for childhood disruptiveness. Specifically, we tested four models regarding links of peer experiences and deviant behaviours. Design Prospective community sample. Participants A total of 312 children, aged 6.17 years at baseline. Measurements Growth parameters of own disruptive behaviour, disruptive behaviour of friends and social status measured at ages 7,12 years as predictors of smoking assessed at ages 13,15 years, while controlling for own disruptive behaviour at age 6 years. Findings We found three groups with distinct profiles of smoking. One group displayed hardly any or no smoking at all; a second group showed a trajectory of increased smoking; and a third group that showed high smoking rates initially and increased in smoking intensity over time. Results support the assumption of the selection model that the link between disruptive peers and smoking is spurious and due to shared variances with own early disruptiveness. Moreover, support was found for the popularity,socialization model supporting the assumption that age-related increases in social status are associated with smoking. Conclusions The findings emphasize that early disruptiveness is predictive of later smoking. In addition, it was shown that smoking becomes less deviant over time, in line with group norms. Future prevention programmes should emphasize the need to change these norms. [source]

    Psychiatric comorbidity and suicidal behavior in epilepsy: A community-based case,control study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2010
    Sabrina Stefanello
    Summary Purpose:, To provide information about psychiatric comorbidity and suicidal behavior in people with epilepsy compared to those without epilepsy from a community sample in Brazil. Methods:, An attempt was made to evaluate all 174 subjects with epilepsy (cases) identified in a previous survey. For every case identified, an individual without epilepsy (control) matched by sex and age was selected in the same neighborhood. A structured interview with validated psychiatric scales was performed. One hundred and fifty-three cases and 154 controls were enrolled in the study. Results:, People with epilepsy had anxiety more frequently [39.4% vs. 23.8%, odds ratio (OR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2,3.5; p = 0.006], depression (24.4% vs. 14.7%, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.01,3.5; p = 0.04), and anger (55.6% vs. 39.7%, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2,3.1; p = 0.008). They also reported more suicidal thoughts [36.7% vs. 23.8%, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1,3.1; p = 0.02), plans (18.2% vs. 3.3%, OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0,4.0; p = 0.04), and attempts (12.1% vs. 5.3%, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1,3.2, p = 0.04) during life than controls. Conclusions:, These findings call attention to psychiatric comorbidity and suicidal behavior associated with epilepsy. Suicide risk assessment, mental evaluation, and treatment may improve quality of life in epilepsy and ultimately prevent suicide. [source]

    The genetics of tea and coffee drinking and preference for source of caffeine in a large community sample of Australian twins

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2005
    Michelle Luciano
    ABSTRACT Aims To investigate the genetic and environmental influences on tea consumption and their commonalities with coffee consumption; and to further examine the genetic and environmental aetiology of preference for tea/coffee. Design A classical twin design was used in which the similarity of identical and non-identical twins is compared, enabling estimates of genetic, common environmental and unique environmental influence on the trait. Setting and participants An Australian population-based sample of 1796 identical (i.e. monozygotic) and 2013 non-identical (i.e. dizygotic) twin pairs aged 16,87 years was studied, roughly three-fifths of whom were female. The sample represented approximately 70% of those approached for study participation. Measurements As part of a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire, respondents were asked how many cups of each tea and coffee they consumed per day. Additional measures of ,total tea and coffee consumption' and ,preference for coffee' were calculated. Findings Age was positively associated with tea consumption but negatively associated with coffee preference; women consumed more beverages than men, but showed a lower preference for coffee. An inverse relation between tea and coffee consumption,larger in females (,0.41) than males (,0.34),was supported. This association was mediated entirely by the unique environment in males, and by both the unique environment (68.3%) and genes (31.7%) in females. Tea and coffee drinking were shown to have similar heritabilities (0.46) in males, but tea consumption was influenced by common environmental factors whereas coffee consumption was not. Coffee preference was shown to be influenced by genes (0.42) and the unique environment (0.58). Conclusions As the patterns of genetic and environmental variation were shown to differ for tea and coffee consumption it may be more informative to retain them as separate measures of caffeine intake in future studies of stimulant use and taste perception. [source]

    The Influence of Comorbid Depression on Seizure Severity

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2003
    Joyce A. Cramer
    Summary:,Purpose: To determine the relation between depressive symptoms and seizure severity among people with epilepsy. Methods: A postal questionnaire was used to survey a nationwide community sample about seizures and depression. The Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) assessed the severity and bothersomeness of seizure components. The Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale categorized levels of depression. Results: Respondents categorized as having current severe (SEV, n = 166), mild,moderate (MOD, n = 74), or no depression (NO, n = 443) differed significantly in SSQ scores (all p < 0.0001). People with SEV or MOD reported significantly worse problems than did those with NO depression for overall seizure recovery (mean, 5.3, 4.9, 4.5, respectively); overall severity (5.0, 4.5, 4.2); and overall seizure bother (5.3, 4.8, 4.4) (all p < 0.005). Cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of seizure recovery also were rated worse among people with SEV than with NO depression (all p < 0.05). Symptoms of depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of all components of generalized tonic,clonic seizure severity (r = 0.33,0.48; all p < 0.0001), and partial seizures (r = 0.31,0.38; all p < 0.01). Conclusions: Clinically depressed people with epilepsy reported higher levels of perceived severity and bother from seizures, as well as greater problems with overall seizure recovery than did nondepressed people experiencing similar types of seizures. The pervasive influence of depressive symptoms on reports of seizure activity suggests that people with epilepsy should be screened for depression. These data highlight the importance of detecting and treating depression among people with epilepsy. [source]

    Tests of causal linkages between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2005
    David M. Fergusson
    ABSTRACT Aim To examine possible causal linkages between cannabis use and psychosis using data gathered over the course of a 25-year longitudinal study. Design A 25-year longitudinal study of the health, development and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children (635 males, 630 females). Setting The Christchurch Health and Development Study, a general community sample. Participants A total of 1055 participants from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) cohort for whom data on cannabis use and psychotic symptoms were available on at least one occasion from 18, 21 and 25 years. Measurements As part of this study, data were gathered on frequency of cannabis use and psychotic symptoms at ages 18, 21 and 25 years. Findings Regression models adjusting for observed and non-observed confounding suggested that daily users of cannabis had rates of psychotic symptoms that were between 1.6 and 1.8 times higher (P < 0.001) than non-users of cannabis. Structural equation modelling suggested that these associations reflected the effects of cannabis use on symptom levels rather than the effects of symptom levels on cannabis use. Conclusions The results of the present study add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that regular cannabis use may increase risks of psychosis. The present study suggests that: (a) the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms is unlikely to be due to confounding factors; and (b) the direction of causality is from cannabis use to psychotic symptoms. [source]

    Teenage drinking and the onset of alcohol dependence: a cohort study over seven years

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2004
    Yvonne A. Bonomo
    ABSTRACT Aim To determine whether adolescent alcohol use and/or other adolescent health risk behaviour predisposes to alcohol dependence in young adulthood. Design Seven-wave cohort study over 6 years. Participant A community sample of almost two thousand individuals followed from ages 14,15 to 20,21 years. Outcome measure Diagnostic and Statistical Manual volume IV (DSM-IV) alcohol dependence in participants aged 20,21 years and drinking three or more times a week. Findings Approximately 90% of participants consumed alcohol by age 20 years, 4.7% fulfilling DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. Alcohol dependence in young adults was preceded by higher persisting teenage rates of frequent drinking [odds ratio (OR) 8.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2, 16], binge drinking (OR 6.7, 95% CI 3.6, 12), alcohol-related injuries (OR 4.5 95% CI 1.9, 11), intense drinking (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.6, 8.7), high dose tobacco use (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.3, 13) and antisocial behaviour (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.3, 11). After adjustment for other teenage predictors frequent drinking (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2, 7.7) and antisocial behaviour (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2, 5.1) held persisting independent associations with later alcohol dependence. There were no prospective associations found with emotional disturbance in adolescence. Conclusion Teenage drinking patterns and other health risk behaviours in adolescence predicted alcohol dependence in adulthood. Prevention and early intervention initiatives to reduce longer-term alcohol-related harm therefore need to address the factors, including alcohol supply, that influence teenage consumption and in particular high-risk drinking patterns. [source]

    In 12-step groups, helping helps the helper

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2004
    Sarah E. Zemore
    ABSTRACT Aims The helper therapy principle suggests that, within mutual-help groups, those who help others help themselves. The current study examines whether clients in treatment for alcohol and drug problems benefit from helping others, and how helping relates to 12-step involvement. Design Longitudinal treatment outcome. Participants An ethnically diverse community sample of 279 alcohol- and/or drug-dependent individuals (162 males, 117 females) was recruited through advertisement and treatment referral from Northern California Bay Area communities. Participants were treated at one of four day-treatment programs. Measurements A helping checklist measured the amount of time participants spent, during treatment, helping others by sharing experiences, explaining how to get help and giving advice on housing and employment. Measures of 12-step involvement and substance use outcomes were administered at baseline and a 6 month follow-up. Findings Helping and 12-step involvement emerged as important and related predictors of treatment outcomes. In the general sample, total abstinence at follow-up was strongly and positively predicted by 12-step involvement at follow-up, but not by helping during treatment; still, helping positively predicted subsequent 12-step involvement. Among individuals still drinking at follow-up, helping during treatment predicted a lower probability of binge drinking, whereas effects for 12-step involvement proved inconsistent. Conclusions Findings support the helper therapy principle and clarify the process of 12-step affiliation. [source]

    GENETIC STUDY: Heritability and a genome-wide linkage analysis of a Type II/B cluster construct for cannabis dependence in an American Indian community

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Cindy L. Ehlers
    ABSTRACT Subtyping of substance dependence disorders holds promise for a number of important research areas including phenotyping for genetic studies, characterizing clinical course, and matching treatment and prevention strategies. This study sought to investigate whether a dichotomous construct similar to Babor's Types A/B and Cloninger's Types I/II for alcohol dependence can be identified for cannabis dependence in a Native American sample. In addition, heritability of this construct and its behavior in a genetic linkage analyses were evaluated. Information on cannabis use and dependence symptoms and other psychiatric disorders was obtained using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism from a community sample of 606 American Indians. Hierarchical average linkage and K means cluster analysis was used, and a three-cluster solution was found to generate the best separation of variables. Ninety-one per cent of cannabis-dependent participants fell into one of the two subtypes: Type A/I cluster (n = 114, 56%) and Type B/II cluster (n = 70, 35%). Heritability (estimated using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines) was only significant for the Type B/II cluster (h2 = 0.44, SE = 0.18, P < 0.01). Evidence for linkage was found for the Type B/II cluster (versus no diagnosis) on chromosome 16 [at 139 centimorgans (cM), Log of the Odds (LOD) score = 4.4], and on chromosome 19 (at 74 cM, LOD score = 6.4). Regions of interest for this phenotype (LOD > 1.5) were also located on chromosomes 14, 21, 22. These findings suggest that a Type B/II cannabis dependence phenotype can be identified in this population and that it is in part heritable and linked to areas of the genome identified previously for drug dependence phenotypes in this population as well as in other studies. [source]

    Black Women and White Women: Do Perceptions of Childhood Family Environment Differ?

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2007
    Introduction: Few studies have examined racial differences in perceptions of childhood. Little is known about how Blacks perceive their own families, particularly the family environment that they experienced in childhood. Methods: A community sample of 290 women (55% White, 45% Black) from two-parent families, heterogeneous in age and social class, was examined using a self-administered questionnaire, including the Family Environment Scale (FES), followed by a focused interview. Siblings were used as collateral informants. Results: The psychometric properties of the FES showed remarkably little variation by race: The internal scale reliability, correlations between scales, and factor structures were quite similar. Although both White and Black women reported good childhood family environments, Black women when compared with White women rated their families of origin as more cohesive, organized, and expressive, and lower in conflict. Sibling responses corroborated these findings. Discussion: This study addresses a gap in the research literature and provides important evidence of strengths in Black family relationships as reported by a community sample of women. The psychometric properties of the FES, found to be strong for families of both races, lends support to our findings and those of other researchers who have used this measure. [source]

    "I was more her Mom than she was mine:" Role Reversal in a Community Sample,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2004
    Ofra Mayseless
    Family processes associated with childhood role reversal and related adult outcomes were examined in a community sample (128 adults) using a semistructured interview exploring family, friend, and romantic relationships. Women showed stronger role reversal than men, and role reversal was stronger with mothers than with fathers. Role reversal of women with mothers was associated with parental divorce, neglect, and rejection. Only parental divorce was consistently associated with men's role reversal. Role reversal was not associated with current symptoms for either men or women, nor with attachment orientations for women. Three patterns with distinct family dynamics and outcomes,guardians/protectors, pleasers/compliants, and spousified,emerged from qualitative analyses of 16 women who experienced high levels of childhood role reversal. [source]

    Being ,fat' in today's world: a qualitative study of the lived experiences of people with obesity in Australia

    Samantha L. Thomas PhD
    Abstract Objective, To develop an in-depth picture of both lived experience of obesity and the impact of socio-cultural factors on people living with obesity. Design, Qualitative methodology, utilizing in-depth semi-structured interviews with a community sample of obese adults (body mass index ,30). Community sampling methods were supplemented with purposive sampling techniques to ensure a diverse range of individuals were included. Results, Seventy-six individuals (aged 16,72) were interviewed. Most had struggled with their weight for most of their lives (n = 45). Almost all had experienced stigma and discrimination in childhood (n = 36), as adolescents (n = 41) or as adults (n = 72). About half stated that they had been humiliated by health professionals because of their weight. Participants felt an individual responsibility to lose weight, and many tried extreme forms of dieting to do so. Participants described an increasing culture of ,blame' against people living with obesity perpetuated by media and public health messages. Eighty percent said that they hated or disliked the word obesity and would rather be called fat or overweight. Discussion and Conclusion, There are four key conclusions: (i) the experiences of obesity are diverse, but there are common themes, (ii) people living with obesity have heard the messages but find it difficult to act upon them, (iii) interventions should be tailored to address both individual and community needs and (iv) we need to rethink how to approach obesity interventions to ensure that avoid recapitulating damaging social stereotypes and exacerbating social inequalities. [source]

    Caffeine, cognitive failures and health in a non-working community sample

    Andrew P Smith
    Abstract Rationale Most studies of the effects of caffeine on performance have been conducted in the laboratory and further information is required on the real-life effects of caffeine consumption on cognition. In addition, possible effects of caffeine consumption on a range of health outcomes should also be assessed in these studies to enable cost-benefit analyses to be conducted. Objectives Secondary analyses of a large epidemiological database (N,=,3223 non-working participants, 57% female, with a mean age of 49.6 years, range 17,92 years) were conducted to examine associations between caffeine consumption (mean caffeine consumption was 140,mg/day, range 0,1800,mg) and cognitive failures (errors of memory, attention and action) in a non-working sample. Associations between caffeine consumption and physical and mental health problems were also examined. Methods The study involved secondary analyses of a database formed by combining the Bristol Stress and Health at Work and Cardiff Health and Safety at Work studies. Associations between caffeine consumption and frequency of cognitive failures and health outcomes were examined in a sample of non-workers. Results After controlling for possible confounding factors significant associations between caffeine consumption and fewer cognitive failures were observed. Initial analyses suggested that many health variables were associated with regular level of caffeine consumption. However, most of the significant effects of caffeine disappeared when demographic and lifestyle factors were controlled for. Consumption of caffeine was, however, associated with a reduced risk of depression. These effects were also observed in separate analyses examining the source of the caffeine (coffee and tea). Conclusions Overall, the results show that caffeine consumption may benefit cognitive functioning in a non-working population. This confirms earlier findings from working samples. This beneficial effect of caffeine was not associated with negative health consequences. Indeed, consumption of caffeine was found to be associated with a reduced risk of depression. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Predictors of middle childhood psychosomatic problems: An emotion regulation approach

    Berit Hagekull
    Abstract Development of the psychosomatic problems picky eating and headache and stomachache complaints in middle childhood was investigated from an emotion regulation perspective. The role of negative emotionality and family emotion regulatory factors (attachment to mother and parental perceived control) was studied. The sample (N=87) was a predominantly middleclass, community sample. The study was longitudinal, based on data from several data collections between child age 11 months and 9 years. The results showed that headache and stomachache complaints were mainly predicted by early negative emotionality, and picky eating by the family factors. More negative emotionality, insecure attachment and less perceived control were related to more psychosomatic problems in linear and interaction models. The findings were interpreted as showing that by considering emotion regulation, a fruitful perspective for understanding the development of psychosomatic problems could be elaborated. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Population-based controlled study of social support, self-perceived stress, activity and work issues, and access to health care in inflammatory bowel disease

    Linda Rogala RN
    Abstract Background: The Manitoba IBD Cohort Study is a longitudinal, population-based study of multiple determinants of health outcomes in persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) diagnosed within 7 years at enrollment. In this cross-sectional substudy we compared IBD participants' levels of social support, self-perceived stress, disability, and access to healthcare with those of a matched community sample. Methods: IBD participants (n = 388) were interviewed using the Canadian Community Health Surveys (CCHS) 1.1 and 1.2 to assess psychosocial variables. The national CCHS data were accessed to extract a community comparison group, matched on age, sex, and geographic residence. Results: Compared to the community sample, IBD participants received more tangible, affective, or emotional support in the past year and were more likely to have experienced a positive social interaction. Those with IBD were as likely to be employed as those in the community sample, although they reported greater rates of reduced activity and days missed. Work was not identified as a significant source of stress, but physical health was more likely to be identified as a main stressor by those with active IBD compared to the non-IBD sample. Individuals with IBD were twice as likely to report unmet healthcare needs than the community sample; however, there was agreement across both groups regarding common barriers, including long waits and availability. Conclusions: While the disease may contribute to greater interference with work quality and daily activities, IBD patients have similar levels of stress and appear to have enhanced social supports relative to those in the community without IBD. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

    A comparison of early family life events amongst monozygotic twin women with lifetime anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or major depression

    Tracey D Wade PhD
    Abstract Objectives: To investigate the differential profile of early family life events associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and major depression (MD). Method: Only data from the monozygotic twins (n = 622) were examined from a community sample of female twins who had participated in three waves of data collection. Eating disorder and MD diagnoses were ascertained from the Eating Disorder Examination at Wave 3 and interview at Wave 2 respectively. Early family events were ascertained from self-report measures at Waves 1 and 3. Two case control designs were used, including a comparison of women: (1) who had lifetime AN, BN, MD, and controls, and (2) twin pairs discordant for either AN, BN, or MD (where the unaffected cotwin formed the control group). Results: Across the two types of designs, compared to controls, both AN and BN were associated with more comments from the family about weight and shape when growing up. AN was uniquely associated with higher levels of paternal protection while BN was associated with higher levels of parental expectations. Conclusion: While some overlap among early life events was indicated, especially related to parental conflict and criticism, there was evidence to support some degree of nonoverlap among life events associated with AN, BN, and MD. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007 [source]