College Students (college + student)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of College Students

  • american college student
  • asian american college student
  • female college student
  • male college student
  • undergraduate college student

  • Selected Abstracts


    C Czart
    Smoking among youths and young adults rose throughout the 1990s. Numerous policies were enacted to try to reverse this trend. However, little is known about the impact these policies have on the smoking behavior of young adults. This article uses a dichotomous indicator of daily smoking participation in the past 30 days, an ordered measure representing the frequency of cigarette consumption, and a quasi-continuous measure of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average to examine the impact of cigarette prices, clean indoor air laws, and campus-level smoking policies on the smoking behaviors of a 1997 cross section of college students. The results of the analysis indicate that higher cigarette prices are associated with lower smoking participation and lower levels of use among college student smokers. Local- and state-level clean indoor air restrictions have a cumulative impact on the level of smoking by current smokers. Complete smoking bans on college campuses are associated with lower levels of smoking among current smokers but have no significant impact on smoking participation. Bans on cigarette advertising on campus as well as bans on the sale of cigarettes on campus have no significant effect on the smoking behavior of college students. [source]


    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2008
    ST Walters
    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a brief intervention that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. To date, all college studies of MI (and most adult studies) have used an intervention format that includes a feedback profile delivered in an MI style. This presentation will discuss the results of a dismantling trial of motivational interviewing, and feedback among heavy drinking college students. After an initial screen, 350 heavy drinking students were randomized to: (1) MI with feedback, (2) MI without feedback, (3) Web feedback only, (4) Assessment only, or (5) Delayed assessment only. At 6 months, only MI with feedback showed an effect over control in reducing drinks per week, peak BAC, and drinking related consequences. Neither MI nor feedback alone had an effect over assessment. Drinking severity moderated the effect of the interventions. [source]

    Single Question about Drunkenness to Detect College Students at Risk for Injury

    Mary Claire O'Brien MD
    Abstract Objectives: To examine the frequency of injuries reported by college students who replied affirmatively to the question, "In a typical week, how many days do you get drunk?" Methods: In Fall 2003, a Web-based survey was administered to a stratified random sample of 3,909 college students from ten North Carolina (NC) universities. Students answered questions regarding alcohol use and its consequences. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, controlling for within-school clustering of drinking behaviors and adjusting for other significant covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for significant predictors (p < 0.05). Results: Two thousand four hundred eighty-eight students reported that they are current drinkers; 1,353 (54.4%) reported getting drunk at least once in a typical week. Compared with students who did not report getting drunk at least once a week, these students had higher odds of being hurt or injured at least once as a result of their own drinking (AOR = 4.97; 95% CI = 3.47 to 7.09), experiencing a fall from a height that required medical treatment (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.36 to 3.43), and being taken advantage of sexually as a result of another's drinking (AOR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.72 to 3.89). Students who reported getting drunk at least one day in a typical week also were more likely to cause an injury requiring medical treatment to someone else. They had higher odds of causing injury in an automobile crash (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.40), of causing a burn that required medical treatment (AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.51 to 5.39), and of causing a fall from a height that required medical treatment (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.01 to 4.04). Getting drunk was a better indicator of "self-experienced injury" and of "injury caused to someone else" than was binge drinking, for all outcomes (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The single question, "In a typical week, how many days do you get drunk?" identifies college students who are at higher than normal risk of injury as a result of their own drinking and the drinking of others. Future research should assess this question's effectiveness as a screening tool in campus health centers and in emergency departments. [source]

    Can High School Achievement Tests Serve to Select College Students?

    Adriana D. Cimetta
    Postsecondary schools have traditionally relied on admissions tests such as the SATand ACT to select students. With high school achievement assessments in place in many states, it is important to ascertain whether scores from those exams can either supplement or supplant conventional admissions tests. In this study we examined whether the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) high school tests could serve as a useful predictor of college performance. Stepwise regression analyses with a predetermined order of variable entry revealed that AIMS generally did not account for additional performance variation when added to high school grade-point average (HSGPA) and SAT. However, in a cohort of students that took the test for graduation purposes, AIMS did account for about the same proportion of variance as SAT when added to a model that included HSGPA. The predictive value of both SAT and AIMS was generally the same for Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian American students. The ramifications of universities using high school achievement exams as predictors of college success, in addition to or in lieu of traditional measures, are discussed. [source]

    Estimation of Food Guide Pyramid Serving Sizes by College Students

    Gretchen Knaust
    The utility of the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) as a guide to quantity of consumption and serving sizes was investigated. Participants used the FGP model to assist them in selecting serving sizes on a 10-item questionnaire. Overall mean scores (31% correct) indicated that participants generally did not know the serving sizes recommended for use with the FGP, despite having access to the model, and having had some previous instruction (73% of participants). Those who had previously read about or received instruction on serving sizes had higher mean scores than those who had not (p < .004). The utility of the FGP as a guide for quantity of consumption requires further attention. [source]

    College Students Classified as Having Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Foreign Language Requirement

    Richard L. Sparks EdD
    College students classified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often assumed by educators and service providers to have problems that impair FL learning. To date, no empirical studies have investigated this assumption. In the two studies reported here, college students classified as LD or as both LD and having ADHD (LD/ADHD) who had either substituted courses for the FL requirement (petition) or had fulfilled the requirement by passing FL courses (nonpetition) were compared in terms of demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement profiles, and FL grades. In the first study, few differences were found in demographic, cognitive, and achievement profiles between petition students classified as LD or LD/ADHD. In the second study, no significant differences in demographic profiles were found among groups classified as petition LD, petition LD/ADHD, nonpetition LD, and nonpetition LD/ADHD. On cognitive and academic achievement measures, the nonpetition LD/ADHD group scored significantly higher than the petition LD group on measures of IQ, reading, math, and scholastic achievement (ACT). The results of both studies appear to be counterintuitive because students with two disabilities (LD and ADHD) were found to exhibit cognitive ability, academic achievement, and FL grades greater than or equal to students with LD alone. Findings suggest that students classified as both LD and ADHD may not necessarily experience serious problems with FL learning. [source]

    Religiosity, Self-Control, and Virginity Status in College Students from the "Bible Belt": A Research Note

    Alexander T. Vazsonyi
    Using a sample of college students (N,= 904) from the "Bible Belt," this study examines the effect of religiosity and self-control on late adolescents' delay in initiating sexual intercourse or oral sex. Findings from logistic regressions provide evidence that for each one unit increase in self-control, the odds of a male remaining a virgin or of delaying oral sex increased by a factor of 1.82 and 2.84, respectively, while for females, the odds of not engaging in oral sex increased by a factor of 1.67. In addition to the effect of self-control, a one unit increase in religiosity results in the odds of a male remaining a virgin by a factor of 3.86 and 3.30, respectively. For females the odds are increased by a factor of 4.13 and 2.60, respectively. Mediation tests also provided evidence that self-control mediated the effects by religiosity on both dependent measures. Thus, both religiosity and self-control independently and additively function as key social control mechanisms that promote late adolescent health. [source]

    Factors Influencing Levels of Credit-Card Debt in College Students,

    Jill M. Norvilitis
    The current study examined the relationship between money attitudes, impulsivity, locus of control, life satisfaction, and stress and credit-card debt in 227 college students. Students reported an average credit-card debt of $ 1,518, with over 75% of students holding at least one credit card. Students with credit cards from on-campus solicitation had higher debt-to-income ratios than did those with credit cards from other sources. Personality variables were generally unrelated to level of debt, although they were related to attitudes toward money. Many students requested information about credit and debt, suggesting that knowledge of financial issues may be an important variable for future consideration. [source]

    A Longitudinal Study to Determine the Effects of Mentoring on Middle School Youngsters by Nursing and Other College Students

    APRN-BC, Sylvia M. A. Whiting PhD
    PURPOSE:, This study aims to utilize nursing and other college students in conducting a mentoring project aimed at determining outcomes of behavior and attitude of high-risk middle school students over a 5-year period. METHOD:, A quasi-experimental study with a sample of fifth and sixth graders was conducted in which mentored subjects were tested using multiple instruments and school data to identify behavioral and attitudinal outcomes. Statistical analyses were conducted using chi-square and one-way analysis of variance. FINDINGS:, Academically below-average males in the treatment group were the only cohort demonstrating significant change across all measures. The magnitude of change in this cohort, however, did significantly affect treatment group outcomes overall. Females in both treatment and control groups reflected similar changes. CONCLUSIONS:, Mentoring of schoolchildren is difficult to accomplish using college mentors because of time and schedule commitments. When college mentors are used, grade allocation seems to be a stronger incentive than when payment is the sole reward. Males whose grades are below average demonstrated positive outcomes from the mentoring experience. [source]

    A Profile of Financially At-Risk College Students

    Using a random sample of college students, this study identifies the factors that significantly affect the probability a college student is financially at risk for mismanaging/misusing credit. Financially at-risk students are more likely to be financially independent, to receive need-based financial aid, to hold $1000 or more in other debt, and to have acquired their credit card(s) by mail, at a retail store, and/or at a campus table. Students having difficulty making credit card payments are also more likely to be female, black, and/or Hispanic. Campus administrators and financial professionals can use this information to better allocate their resources and develop materials that specifically target those students who need them most. [source]

    Money Attitudes, Credit Card Use, and Compulsive Buying among American College Students

    The consumer culture has evolved into one of the most powerful forces shaping individuals and societies (Roberts and Sepulveda 1999 a, b). The desire to become a member of the consumer culture appears to be universal (Droge and Mackoy 1995). Changing attitudes toward money are an important catalyst behind the spread of the consumer culture. Money is important,especially to American college students who have been raised in a credit card society where debt is used freely (Ritzer 1995). Schor (1998) believes that access to easy credit is one of the causes of overspending. Using a causal modeling approach, the present study investigated the role money attitudes and credit card use play in compulsive buying within a sample of American college students (see Figure 1). Findings suggest that the money attitudes powerprestige, distrust, and anxiety (Yamauchi and Templer 1982) are closely related to compulsive buying and that credit card use often moderates these relationships. Study results have important public policy, marketing, and research implications. [source]

    Longitudinal Associations Between Personality Profile Stability and Adjustment in College Students: Distinguishing Among Overall Stability, Distinctive Stability, and Within-Time Normativeness

    Theo A. Klimstra
    ABSTRACT In the present study, longitudinal associations of 3 aspects of personality profile stability (i.e., overall stability, distinctive stability, and within-time normativeness) with 3 adjustment measures (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and delinquency) were examined, using 4 waves of longitudinal data on a Belgian college sample (N=565). Longitudinal path models revealed strong longitudinal associations between adjustment and overall stability. Subsequent analyses showed that it is not the degree to which one's personality profile consistently diverges from the average personality profile within a population (i.e., distinctive stability) that is related to adjustment but the degree to which a personality profile of an individual matches the average personality profile within the sample at a certain point in time (i.e., within-time normativeness). The current study thereby underscores the importance of distinguishing normativeness and distinctiveness when examining personality profile stability. [source]

    Trends in Alcohol-Related Traffic Risk Behaviors Among College Students

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
    Kenneth H. Beck
    Background:, Alcohol-impaired driving is a major public health problem. National studies indicate that about 25% of college students have driven while intoxicated in the past month and an even greater percentage drive after drinking any alcohol and/or ride with an intoxicated driver. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the change in these various alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors as students progressed through their college experience. Methods:, A cohort of 1,253 first-time first-year students attending a large, mid-Atlantic university were interviewed annually for 4 years. Repeated measures analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations to evaluate age-related changes in prevalence and frequency of each behavior (i.e., ages 19 to 22). Results:, At age 19, 17%wt of students drove while intoxicated, 42%wt drove after drinking any alcohol, and 38%wt rode with an intoxicated driver. For all 3 driving behaviors, prevalence and frequency increased significantly at age 21. Males were more likely to engage in these behaviors than females. To understand the possible relationship of these behaviors to changes in drinking patterns, a post hoc analysis was conducted and revealed that while drinking frequency increased every year, frequency of drunkenness was stable for females, but increased for males. Conclusions:, Alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors are quite common among college students and take a significant upturn when students reach the age of 21. Prevention strategies targeted to the college population are needed to prevent serious consequences of these alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors. [source]

    Age of Drinking Onset as a Moderator of the Efficacy of Parent-Based, Brief Motivational, and Combined Intervention Approaches to Reduce Drinking and Consequences Among College Students

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2010
    Kimberly A. Mallett
    Background:, The current study tested age of onset as a moderator of intervention efficacy on drinking and consequence outcomes among a high-risk population of college students (i.e., former high school athletes). Methods:, Students were randomized to one of four conditions: assessment only control, combined parent-based intervention (PBI) and brief motivational intervention (BMI), PBI alone, and BMI alone. Participants (n = 1,275) completed web-administered measures at baseline (summer before starting college) and 10-month follow-up. Results:, Overall, the combined intervention demonstrated the strongest and most consistent reductions across all outcomes, particularly with the youngest initiators. Participants who initiated drinking at the youngest ages had significantly lower peak drinking, typical weekly drinking, and reported consequences at follow-up when they received the combined intervention when compared to the control group. The BMI and PBI groups, when examined independently, demonstrated significant effects across outcomes but were inconsistent across the different age groups. Conclusion:, Results suggest the combination of a PBI and a peer-delivered BMI is an appropriate and efficacious way to reduce drinking and related consequences among individuals who initiated drinking earlier in adolescence and are at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol problems. [source]

    Density of Familial Alcoholism and Its Effects on Alcohol Use and Problems in College Students

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2008
    Christy Capone
    Background:, Previous studies of family history of alcoholism (FHA) in college students have typically relied on dichotomous indices of paternal drinking. This study examined the prevalence of FHA and its effects on alcohol use and problems using a density measure in a sample (n = 408) of college students. Methods:, Undergraduate students completed an anonymous survey in exchange for course credit. Data was collected between 2005 and 2006. Results:, Using a density measure of FHA, we observed an overall prevalence rate of 65.9% and a rate of 29.1% for FHA in both first and second-degree relatives. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate relations among FHA, alcohol use/problems and previously identified etiological risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Results indicated a significant positive association between FHA and alcohol-related problems and this relationship was mediated by age of onset of drinking, behavioral undercontrol and current cigarette use. Behavioral undercontrol also mediated the relationship between gender and alcohol problems. Additionally, FHA was associated with an earlier age of onset of drinking and this was related to greater alcohol use. Conclusions:, Assessing density of FHA in future trajectory research may capture a greater number of students at risk for acute alcohol-related problems and/or future development of AUDs. Future preventive interventions with this population, which should begin well before the college years, may benefit from considering personality factors and incorporating smoking cessation to help identify at-risk students and assist those who wish to cut down on their alcohol use but find that smoking acts as a trigger for increased drinking. [source]

    Longitudinal Changes in Religiosity Among Emerging Adult College Students

    Tara M. Stoppa
    Issues of religion are important aspects of the identity process, which for many emerging adults may be intensified by the college experience. This study investigated longitudinal changes in the religiosity of 434 emerging adult college students (52% female) of diverse ethnic backgrounds (32% African American, 29% Latino American, and 39% European American) during the first 3 semesters of university. Results suggest that changes occur throughout this period, but that such changes are not monolithic across dimensions of religiosity. In the aggregate, significant declines in the behavioral aspects of religiosity were observed across semesters. In contrast, importance of religious beliefs remained relatively constant during this time. However, variations in these patterns were observed when considered at the individual level. Findings further demonstrate that heterogeneity in religiosity is also evident based upon gender and religious affiliation, suggesting that it is fruitful to consider the unique ways in which individuals change during this developmental period. [source]

    Inconsistencies Between Actual and Estimated Blood Alcohol Concentrations in a Field Study of College Students: Do Students Really Know How Much They Drink?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2005
    Courtney L. Kraus
    Background: Alcohol use by college students is commonly measured through the use of surveys. The validity of such data hinge on the assumption that students are aware of how much alcohol they actually consume. Recent studies call this assumption into question. Students tend to overestimate the appropriate sizes of standard drinks, suggesting that they might underestimate how much alcohol they consume. If this is true, then students' actual blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) should be higher than BACs estimated based on self-report data. The present study examined this issue Methods: Breathalyzer readings and self-reported drinking data were collected from 152 college students during the fall of 2004. Estimated BACs were calculated by means of a standard formula, and the relation between actual and estimated BACs was examined. Factors contributing to discrepancies between the two values were identified Results: Estimated BAC levels were significantly higher, not lower, than breath BAC measures. The accuracy of estimated BACs decreased as the number of drinks and amount of time spent drinking increased. Being male and drinking only beer predicted greater accuracy of estimated BACs Conclusions: Although laboratory data suggest that students underestimate how much they drink, the hypothesis was not supported by data collected in the field. It appears that students might actually overestimate rather than underestimate their levels of consumption when surveyed in the midst of a night of drinking. The findings corroborate observations made by other researchers and suggest that the findings of laboratory studies on college drinking do not necessarily extend to real-world settings. [source]

    Validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in College Students

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2004
    Patricia K. Kokotailo
    Background: High-risk alcohol use among college students is associated with accidents, partner violence, unwanted sexual encounters, tobacco use, and performance issues. The identification and treatment of high-risk drinking students is a priority for many college campuses and college health centers. The goal of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in college students. Methods: A convenience sample of students coming into a college health clinic was asked to complete the 10-question AUDIT and then participate in a research interview. The interview focused on assessing students for alcohol abuse and dependence by using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module and timeline follow-back procedures to assess a 28-day drinking history. Results: A total of 302 students met the eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in the study. The sample consisted of 185 females (61%) and 117 males (39%), with a mean age of 20.3 years. Forty students were abstinent, 88 were high-risk drinkers, and 103 met criteria for a 12-month history of dependence. Receiver operator curves demonstrated that the AUDIT had the highest area under the cure for detecting high-risk alcohol use (0.872) and the lowest for identifying persons with a lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence (0.775). An AUDIT cutoff score of 6 or greater demonstrated a sensitivity of 91.0% and a specificity of 60.0% in the detection of high-risk drinkers. Conclusions: The AUDIT has reasonable psychometric properties in sample of college students using student health services. This study supports the use of the AUDIT in this population. [source]

    Integration Factors Related to the Academic Success and Intent to Persist of College Students with Learning Disabilities

    Lisa M. W. DaDeppoArticle first published online: 3 AUG 200
    Despite increased enrollment, outcomes such as grade point average (GPA), persistence, and graduation rates for college students with learning disabilities (LD) continue to lag behind those of their nondisabled peers. Reasons for the differences vary but may include academic and social integration, factors identified as important to the success of college students in general. This research investigated the relative influence of background characteristics, precollege achievement, and college integration variables on the academic success and intent to persist of college freshmen and sophomores with LD. While academic and social integration were not unique predictors of college GPA, both integration variables were unique predictors of intent to persist. The findings suggest that beyond high school achievement and background characteristics, college experiences as captured by academic and social integration are promising constructs to help explain the persistence of college students with LD. Implications for future research and practices for high school and college personnel are discussed. [source]

    Social Support and Mental Health Among College Students

    Jennifer Hefner MPH
    This study is the first, to our knowledge, to evaluate the relationship between mental health and social support in a large, random sample of college students. A Web-based survey was administered at a large, public university, with 1, 378 students completing the measures in this analysis (response rate = 57%). The results support our hypothesis that students with characteristics differing from most other students, such as minority race or ethnicity, international status, and low socioeconomic status, are at greater risk of social isolation. In addition, the authors found that students with lower quality social support, as measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, were more likely to experience mental health problems, including a sixfold risk of depressive symptoms relative to students with high quality social support. These results may help administrators and health providers to identify more effectively the population of students at high risk for mental illness and develop effective interventions to address this significant and growing public health issue. [source]

    Using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale Among Asian American College Students: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Justin C. Perry PhD
    In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995b) among a sample of Asian American college students (N = 225) was conducted. The factorial structure that emerged revealed mixed results in terms of consistency with the People of Color (POC) theory (Helms, 1995a). The measure's construct validity for Asian Americans may be improved through further scale development and revision. Directions for future research on the PRIAS are discussed. [source]

    Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American College Students: Parent and Peer Attachment, College Challenges and Sense of Coherence

    Yu-Wen Ying PhD
    Based on Antonovsky's salutogenic model, the authors hypothesized that sense of coherence would mediate the effects of parent and peer attachment and college challenges on depressive symptoms as well as moderate the relationship between college challenges and depressive symptoms in Chinese Americans. To test our hypotheses, 353 Chinese American college students completed paper-pencil measures. Supporting our hypotheses, sense of coherence fully mediated the effects of parent and peer attachment on depressive symptom level and served as a partial mediator and moderator of the effect of college challenges on depressive symptoms. Implications of the study findings for promoting the mental health of Chinese American students are discussed. [source]

    Self-Concealment, Social Self-Efficacy, Acculturative Stress, and Depression in African, Asian, and Latin American International College Students

    Madonna G. Constantine PhD
    The primary purpose of this exploratory investigation was to examine self-concealment behaviors and social self-efficacy skills as potential mediators in the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in a sample of 320 African, Asian, and Latin American international college students. The authors found several differences by demography with regard to the study's variables. After controlling for regional group membership, sex, and English language fluency, they found that self-concealment and social self-efficacy did not serve as mediators in the relationship between African, Asian, and Latin American international students' acculturative stress experiences and depressive symptomatology. Implications of the findings are discussed. [source]

    Club Drug Use in Hispanic College Students

    Michelle R. Resor BA
    Club drug use and correlates were examined among 251 Hispanic college students on the Texas,México border. Participants completed questionnaires on substance use, club drug attitudes and beliefs, sexual risk-taking behaviors, depressive symptoms, and acculturation. One-quarter of participants reported club drug use. Regression analyses demonstrated that frequency and history of lifetime use were consistently associated with more permissive drug attitudes and other substance use but not sexual risk-taking, depression symptoms, or acculturation. Acculturation was negatively associated with frequency of club drug use, yet positively associated with use of other illicit substances. Avenues for future studies are suggested.,(Am J Addict 2010;00:1,6) [source]

    Sociocultural Perceptions and Patterns of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among College Students in Vietnam

    Paul DuongTran
    This empirical study was conducted in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam to investigate cross-sectionally the influences of sociocultural contexts on the patterns of addictive substance use cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drugs. A sample of 202 monolingual adults who were enrolled in college courses at the University of Hanoi in Vietnam responded to a self-reported questionnaire in their native language on the frequency, quantity, and occasions of addictive behavior. The project staff were fluent in English and Vietnamese. The questionnaire was critically reviewed for its face validity and cultural appropriateness before being translated into Vietnamese. In addition to patterns of use, this research explored the central role of drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes in peer socialization among college adults. Vietnam, like other Asian cultures, emphasizes initiation and conformity to social traditions and norms. The empirical findings provide invaluable knowledge of the complex roles of cigarette and alcohol in the social processes and relationship-building among college adults in Vietnam. Further knowledge will assist in identifying intervention approaches and health prevention that is more focused and congruent with cultural and social beliefs about this behavior and these substances. Its implications for research into culturally appropriate intervention and prevention are also discussed. [source]

    Caffeinated Cocktails: Energy Drink Consumption, High-risk Drinking, and Alcohol-related Consequences among College Students

    Mary Claire O'Brien MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is popular on college campuses in the United States. Limited research suggests that energy drink consumption lessens subjective intoxication in persons who also have consumed alcohol. This study examines the relationship between energy drink use, high-risk drinking behavior, and alcohol-related consequences. Methods:, In Fall 2006, a Web-based survey was conducted in a stratified random sample of 4,271 college students from 10 universities in North Carolina. Results:, A total of 697 students (24% of past 30-day drinkers) reported consuming AmED in the past 30 days. Students who were male, white, intramural athletes, fraternity or sorority members or pledges, and younger were significantly more likely to consume AmED. In multivariable analyses, consumption of AmED was associated with increased heavy episodic drinking (6.4 days vs. 3.4 days on average; p < 0.001) and twice as many episodes of weekly drunkenness (1.4 days/week vs. 0.73 days/week; p < 0.001). Students who reported consuming AmED had significantly higher prevalence of alcohol-related consequences, including being taken advantage of sexually, taking advantage of another sexually, riding with an intoxicated driver, being physically hurt or injured, and requiring medical treatment (p < 0.05). The effect of consuming AmED on driving while intoxicated depended on a student's reported typical alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.027). Conclusions:, Almost one-quarter of college student current drinkers reported mixing alcohol with energy drinks. These students are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences, even after adjusting for the amount of alcohol consumed. Further research is necessary to understand this association and to develop targeted interventions to reduce risk. [source]

    Brief motivational interventions for college student problem gamblers

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2009
    Nancy M. Petry
    ABSTRACT Aims College students experience high rates of problem and pathological gambling, yet little research has investigated methods for reducing gambling in this population. This study sought to examine the efficacy of brief intervention strategies. Design Randomized trial. Setting College campuses. Participants A total of 117 college student problem and pathological gamblers. Interventions Students were assigned randomly to: an assessment-only control, 10 minutes of brief advice, one session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or one session of MET, plus three sessions of cognitive,behavioral therapy (CBT). The three interventions were designed to reduce gambling. Measurements Gambling was assessed at baseline, week 6 and month 9 using the Addiction Severity Index,gambling (ASI-G) module, which also assesses days and dollars wagered. Findings Compared to the assessment-only condition, those receiving any intervention had significant decreases in ASI-G scores and days and dollars wagered over time. The MET condition decreased significantly ASI-G scores and dollars wagered over time, and increased the odds of a clinically significant reduction in gambling at the 9-month follow-up relative to the assessment-only condition, even after controlling for baseline indices that could impact outcomes. The Brief Advice and MET+CBT conditions had benefits on some, but not all, indices of gambling. None of the interventions differed significantly from one another. Conclusions These results suggest the efficacy of brief interventions for reducing gambling problems in college students. [source]

    HUMAN STUDY: Heavy drinking relates to positive valence ratings of alcohol cues

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Carmen Pulido
    ABSTRACT A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g. parents, peers) and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. College students (n = 227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (, = 0.17, P < 0.01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (, = ,0.53, P < 0.001). Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e. repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning. [source]

    Attributions and Emotional Reactions to the Identity Disclosure ("Coming Out") of a Homosexual Child,

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2001
    Jorge C. Armesto Ed.M.
    This study examined factors that contribute to parental rejection of gay and lesbian youth. College students (N = 356) were asked to imagine being the parent of an adolescent son who recently disclosed that he was gay. Consistent with study hypotheses and based on attribution and moral affect theory, results of regression analyses indicated that greater perceptions of control over homosexuality, higher proneness to experience shame, and lower proneness to experience guilt were associated with increasing negative reactions toward an imagined homosexual child. Also in line with study hypotheses, greater willingness to offer help to the hypothetical child was predicted by lower perceptions of control over homosexuality, less intensely unfavorable emotional reactions, less proneness to experience guilt, and greater reported likelihood of experiencing affection toward him. Theoretical and clinical implications of this research are discussed. [source]

    College Students Classified as Having Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Foreign Language Requirement

    Richard L. Sparks EdD
    College students classified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often assumed by educators and service providers to have problems that impair FL learning. To date, no empirical studies have investigated this assumption. In the two studies reported here, college students classified as LD or as both LD and having ADHD (LD/ADHD) who had either substituted courses for the FL requirement (petition) or had fulfilled the requirement by passing FL courses (nonpetition) were compared in terms of demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement profiles, and FL grades. In the first study, few differences were found in demographic, cognitive, and achievement profiles between petition students classified as LD or LD/ADHD. In the second study, no significant differences in demographic profiles were found among groups classified as petition LD, petition LD/ADHD, nonpetition LD, and nonpetition LD/ADHD. On cognitive and academic achievement measures, the nonpetition LD/ADHD group scored significantly higher than the petition LD group on measures of IQ, reading, math, and scholastic achievement (ACT). The results of both studies appear to be counterintuitive because students with two disabilities (LD and ADHD) were found to exhibit cognitive ability, academic achievement, and FL grades greater than or equal to students with LD alone. Findings suggest that students classified as both LD and ADHD may not necessarily experience serious problems with FL learning. [source]