Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Kinds of Code

  • bankruptcy code
  • block code
  • building code
  • c++ code
  • cfd code
  • classification code
  • clinical modification code
  • commercial code
  • computational fluid dynamics code
  • computer code
  • corporate code
  • design code
  • diagnosis code
  • diagnostic code
  • disease code
  • dynamics code
  • element code
  • ethical code
  • finite element code
  • fluid dynamics code
  • fortran code
  • genetic code
  • icd-10 code
  • icd-9 code
  • icd-9-cm code
  • injury code
  • international code
  • ldpc code
  • modification code
  • moral code
  • new code
  • ninth revision code
  • numerical code
  • pdb code
  • procedural code
  • procedure code
  • professional code
  • program code
  • raptor code
  • revision code
  • simulation code
  • source code
  • turbo code
  • voluntary code
  • zip code

  • Terms modified by Code

  • code development
  • code din
  • code division multiple access
  • code indicative
  • code rate

  • Selected Abstracts

    CODE: Collaborative ownership and the digital economy

    Jeff Shantz


    Much of the debate about the future of indigenous football codes such as Australian Rules and Gaelic football has centred on the possibility that in the future their popularity will be eroded by the increasing power of soccer. Several commentators have envisaged a future in which sports that operate in a global marketplace will ,crowd out' sports that have been traditionally popular in certain parts of the world. This article will examine these predictions critically, and will suggest several reasons why in the future, the range of sports that is played, watched, and followed with passion, is likely to continue to vary from nation to nation, and even from region to region. The article will argue that the success of any particular football code is most likely to be affected by the effectiveness of its own organisation and management, rather than whether or not there are ,global' competitors to it. [source]

    CODES/Neural Network Model: a Useful Tool for in Silico Prediction of Oral Absorption and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Structurally Diverse Drugs

    Isabel Dorronsoro
    Abstract Two different neural network models able to predict both oral absorption (OA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of structurally diverse drugs in use clinically are presented here. Using the descriptors generated by CODES, a program which codifies molecules from a topological point of view, we avoid the uncertain choice of molecular conformation and physicochemical parameters. In this work, a method called Reduction of Dimensions, designed for compressing data, is applied for the first time in order to minimize the bias factor added to a QSAR study when the selection of descriptors are performed. [source]


    Mitsuru Mizuno
    We reflect on the evolution of corporate governance and the role of institutional investors in enhancing governance in Japan and the UK. Japan places emphasis on stakeholder capitalism, whereas the UK places emphasis on shareholder capitalism. Nonetheless, in both countries, institutional investors have exerted significant influence on the evolution of corporate governance. Institutional investors in the UK have more power over company management than their Japanese counterparts, although it is alleged that these powers are not exercised to their best potential in either country. [source]

    On the observation of traveling acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere using a magneto-optical filter

    M. Haberreiter
    Abstract In contrast to low-frequency waves that are trapped in the cavity of the Sun, high-frequency waves can travel freely in the solar atmosphere. By modelling the observed intensity signal in the red and blue wings of K I 7699 Å and Na I 5890 Å, we aim to better understand the measurements carried out with the Magneto-Optical Filter at Two Heights (MOTH) experiment. We model the observed intensity signal with radiative transfer calculations carried out with the COde for Solar Irradiance (COSI). Furthermore, we derive the formation height of the lines in order to analyze to what extent the contribution functions are modulated by the acoustic waves. We find a phase lag between the red and blue filter for acoustic waves with a frequency above ,7 mHz and conclude that a frequency dependent data analysis is required for higher frequencies. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Multiobjective Optimization of Concrete Frames by Simulated Annealing

    Ignacio Paya
    The evaluation of solutions follows the Spanish Code for structural concrete. The methodology was applied to a symmetrical building frame with two bays and four floors. This example has 77 design variables. Pareto results of the MOSA algorithm indicate that more practical, more constructable, more sustainable, and safer solutions than the lowest cost solution are available at a cost increment acceptable in practice. Results Ns -SMOSA1 and Ns -SMOSA2 of the cost versus constructability Pareto front are finally recommended because they are especially good in terms of cost, constructability, and environmental impact. Further, the methodology proposed will help structural engineers to enhance their designs of building frames. [source]

    Society for Conservation Biology Code of Ethics

    Article first published online: 19 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Analysis of Particle Pumping Using SOLDOR/NEUT2D Code in the JT-60U Tokamak

    H. Kawashima
    Abstract In order to understand the particle pumping on JT-60U, we analyze the roles of atomic and molecular processes using SOLDOR/NEUT2D code. A case of short strike point distance shows that most of neutrals produced on the targets go toward the exhaust slot directly. Whereas, neutrals are scattered in the spherically at random for the long distance case by collision processes and a few of them go toward the slot. It is clarified that the incident neutrals to the slot at low ne/high Te divertor plasma condition are dominated by atoms. Those at high ne/low Te condition are dominated by molecules due to elastic collision. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Patterns of Compliance with the German Corporate Governance Code

    Till Talaulicar
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study investigates whether the form of compliance with the recommendations of the German Corporate Governance Code (GCGC) appears to be idiosyncratic to a specific company or features similarities across firms. The major aim of this research is thus to explore the ability of a classification of compliance patterns to account for the similarities and differences between firms regarding their conformity with the GCGC. Research Findings/Insights: Based on seven dimensions of code compliance, cluster analysis is used to identify discrete groups of companies with similar patterns of code observance. We determine eight patterns of compliance which are characterized by distinct forms of code conformity. Theoretical Academic Implications: The identified cluster solution does not merely reflect the number of rejected code recommendations. Rather, companies with very similar rates of overall compliance with the GCGC are assigned to different clusters because they feature, at the same time, different patterns of code conformity. These findings imply that governance prediction and governance performance studies have to overcome overly aggregated measures of code compliance which only incorporate the number of rejected code recommendations. Practitioner/Policy Implications: This study provides evidence to practitioners and policy makers that firms can be classified regarding their compliance with the code recommendations. In-depth analyses of the identified patterns of compliance furthermore reveal that some patterns may indicate less well substantiated deviations from the code and partly even decouplings of the declared compliance practices. [source]

    Corporate Governance in Germany and the German Corporate Governance Code

    Gerhard Cromme
    The term "corporate governance", and all that it implies, is now in everyday use in Germany. This is due to the enormous changes Germany has experienced in recent years, in international business, international finance and in German industrial structures. This contribution deals with recent changes in the German system of corporate governance. After a short historical review, the major elements of the international context that form the background for changes in Germany are discussed. This is followed by an explanation of the German Corporate Governance Code and its role, concluding with a prospectus for further possible developments and a summary of key points. [source]


    ABSTRACT Based on the case of Rosa, a nine-year-old girl who was denied a therapeutic abortion, this article analyzes the role played by the social in medical practice. For that purpose, it compares the different application of two similar pieces of legislation in Costa Rica, where both the practice of abortion and sterilization are restricted to the protection of health and life by the Penal Code. As a concept subject to interpretation, a broad conception of medical necessity could enable an ample use of the therapeutic exception and a liberal use of both surgeries. The practice of therapeutic sterilization has been generalized in Costa Rica and has become the legitimate way to distribute contraceptive sterilization. In contrast, therapeutic abortion is very rarely practiced. The analysis carried out proposes that it is the difference in social acceptance of abortion and sterilization that explains the different use that doctors, as gatekeepers of social morality, make of medical necessity. [source]

    Cracking the code: the genesis, use and future of the Code of Conduct

    DISASTERS, Issue 4 2005
    Peter Walker
    Abstract This paper reflects on the genesis of the Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Disaster Relief, on the tenth anniversary of its adoption. The origins, usage and future of the code are examined with respect to three debates, current at the time of its inception, namely: the debate about the core content of humanitarianism; the debate about coherence and the consensual nature of the humanitarian community; and the debate about the need for, and the ability to demonstrate, accountability. The paper concludes that although the Code of Conduct was very much a product of its time, its content remains relevant today. However, its future application hinges on the capacity of those who purport to follow it to realise true accountability, and on proving that the code, written essentially for natural disasters, is relevant to contemporary complex emergencies. [source]

    Alcohol marketing on the internet: new challenges for harm reduction

    While much has been made of the problems of regulating alcohol and other drug promotion in the traditional media of print, radio and newspapers, the ,new media' and in particular the world wide web, provides new fertile ground for alcohol advertisers. In this Harm Reduction Digest Tom Carroll and Rob Donovan apply the voluntary standards of the Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code to six websites for alcohol products available in Australia. They conclude that the internet provides an opportunity for alcohol marketing targeted at underage consumers, that some alcohol-related web pages would be in breach of the Code if it applied to the internet, and suggest that web marketing practices of alcohol beverage companies should be monitored and a code of practice developed to regulate alcohol promotion on the web. [source]

    Case studies of damage to 19-storey irregular steel moment-frame buildings under near-source ground motion

    Swaminathan Krishnan
    Abstract This paper describes the three-dimensional nonlinear analysis of six 19-storey steel moment-frame buildings, designed per the 1997 Uniform Building Code, under strong ground motion records from near-source earthquakes with magnitudes in the range of 6.7,7.3. Three of these buildings possess a reentrant corner irregularity, while the remaining three possess a torsional plan irregularity. The records create drift demands of the order of 0.05 and plastic rotation demands of the order of 4,5% of a radian in the buildings with reentrant corners. These values point to performance at or near ,Collapse Prevention'. Twisting in the torsionally sensitive buildings causes the plastic rotations on the moment frame on one face of the building (4,5% of a radian) to be as high as twice of that on the opposite face (2,3% of a radian). The asymmetric yield pattern implies a lower redundancy in the lateral force-resisting system as the failure of the heavily loaded frame could result in a total loss of resistance to torsion. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Shaking table model test on Shanghai World Financial Center Tower

    Xilin Lu
    Abstract The height of 101-storey Shanghai World Financial Center Tower is 492m above ground making it possible the tallest building in the world when completed. Three parallel structural systems including mega-frame structure, reinforced concrete and braced steel services core and outrigger trusses, are combined to resist vertical and lateral loads. The building could be classified as a vertically irregular structure due to a number of stiffened and transfer stories in the building. Complexities related to structural system layout are mainly exhibited in the design of services core, mega-diagonals and outrigger trusses. According to Chinese Code, the height 190 m of the building clearly exceeds the stipulated maximum height of for a composite frame/reinforced concrete core building. The aspect ratio of height to width also exceeds the stipulated limit of 7 for seismic design intensity 7. A 1/50 scaled model is made and tested on shaking table under a series of one and two-dimensional base excitations with gradually increasing acceleration amplitudes. This paper presents the dynamic characteristics, the seismic responses and the failure mechanism of the structure. The test results demonstrate that the structural system is a good solution to withstand earthquakes. The inter-storey drift and the overall behaviour meet the requirements of Chinese Design Code. Furthermore, weak positions under seldom-occurred earthquakes of seismic design intensity 8 are found based on the visible damages on the testing model, and some corresponding suggestions are proposed for the engineering design of the structure under extremely strong earthquake. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Inelastic earthquake response of single-story asymmetric buildings: an assessment of simplified shear-beam models

    K. G. Stathopoulos
    Abstract The inelastic seismic torsional response of simple structures is examined by means of shear-beam type models as well as with plastic hinge idealization of one-story buildings. Using mean values of ductility factors, obtained for groups of ten earthquake motions, as the basic index of post-elastic response, the following topics are examined with the shear-beam type model: mass eccentric versus stiffness eccentric systems, effects of different types of motions and effects of double eccentricities. Subsequently, comparisons are made with results obtained using a more realistic, plastic hinge type model of single-story reinforced concrete frame buildings designed according to a modern Code. The consequences of designing for different levels of accidental eccentricity are also examined for the aforementioned frame buildings. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Quantitative Theory of Unsecured Consumer Credit with Risk of Default

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 6 2007
    Satyajit Chatterjee
    We study, theoretically and quantitatively, the general equilibrium of an economy in which households smooth consumption by means of both a riskless asset and unsecured loans with the option to default. The default option resembles a bankruptcy filing under Chapter 7 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. Competitive financial intermediaries offer a menu of loan sizes and interest rates wherein each loan makes zero profits. We prove the existence of a steady-state equilibrium and characterize the circumstances under which a household defaults on its loans. We show that our model accounts for the main statistics regarding bankruptcy and unsecured credit while matching key macroeconomic aggregates, and the earnings and wealth distributions. We use this model to address the implications of a recent policy change that introduces a form of "means testing" for households contemplating a Chapter 7 bankruptcy filing. We find that this policy change yields large welfare gains. [source]

    European Union scientific production on alcohol and drug misuse (1976,2000)

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2005
    Xavier Sánchez-Carbonell
    ABSTRACT Background Alcohol and drug misuse is a social and health phenomenon of great relevance in the European Union (EU). One indicator of scientific production in a given area is the analysis of publications included in bibliographic databases. Scientific production on alcohol and drug misuse was analysed in EU member countries, and comparisons were made between countries. Methods Analysis of articles on alcohol and drug misuse published during the period 1976,2000 by institutions based in a country of the EU, indexed by PsycINFO. Results A total of 4825 citations was retrieved. Great Britain published 38.6%, while Sweden, Germany and Spain accounted for a further 30%. The articles dealt with drug and alcohol usage (12.8%), substance abuse (53.5%) and drug and alcohol rehabilitation (34.5%). The articles were published in 13 different languages, more than three-quarters being in English. Spanish was the second language, and was followed by French, German, Dutch and Italian. The articles were published in 521 different journals, and 62 of these published more than 10 articles. The journals publishing most were Addiction, Alcohol and Alcoholism and Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Sixty-eight per cent of the articles were signed by more than one author, and the index of collaboration, between 1996 and 2000, was 3.24. Discussion and conclusions PsycINFO is useful for making comparisons between countries, because it includes the name and country of the institution. The number of publications in the EU on alcohol and drug misuse increased over the quarter-century analysed. The most used language was English, as it also is for PsycINFO as a whole, and a tendency towards its increased use was observed. Classification of the articles by subject by the Classification Code is too general, and makes it difficult to distinguish between the areas it proposes. Production tends to be concentrated in journals dealing specifically with drug dependence and psychiatry. The index of collaboration is similar to that found in other scientific areas. [source]

    Multiple primary cancer: an increasing health problem.

    Strategies for prevention in cancer survivors
    LÓPEZ M.L., LANA A., DÍAZ S., FOLGUERAS M.V., SANCHEZ L., COMENDADOR M.A., BELYAKOVA E., RODRÍGUEZ J.M. & CUETO A. (2009) European Journal of Cancer Care Multiple primary cancer: an increasing health problem. Strategies for prevention in cancer survivors This study was set to look for associations between the sites of the first and subsequent tumours in patients with multiple primary cancer (MPC) diagnosed from 1975 to 2002 in the reference hospital of a Spanish northern region, and propose prevention strategies. Patient and tumour variables were measured. Crude and standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants were obtained, and the association between MPC incidence and time was analysed by means of lineal regression. Relative risks were calculated to analyse associations between tumour sites. A total of 2737 MPC cases were registered (male/female ratio = 2). The percentage of MPC with respect to the total cancer increased from 1.78% in the 1975,1979 period to 7.08% in the 2000,2002 period (R2 = 0.92; P = 0.003). Great increase of incidence by time was found (R2 = 0.90; P = 0.004). Breast, prostate and bladder cancers increase risk of second tumour in female genital organs [RR 4.78 (3.84,5.93)], urinary system [RR 3.69 (2.89,4.69)] and male genital organs [RR 3.76 (2.84,4.69)] respectively. The MPC incidence is increasing. Interventions for MPC prevention, according to the European Code against Cancer, should be implemented early after the first cancer principally if patients suffer breast, bladder, prostate, larynx and colon cancers. [source]

    A Comparative Analysis of the Drafting of European Private Law

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    Bastiaan Van Zelst
    The development of the ,Common Frame of Reference' is a highly prominent topic on the agenda of European integration. However, its underlying procedures have had only limited investigation. This article discusses the European private law project by inquiring into the drafting experiences of four other private law legislative processes, with a focus on sales law. These instruments concern Article 2 (on sales) of the American Uniform Commercial Code, the Vienna Sales Convention, the Dutch Civil Code and the Directive on Consumer Sales and Associated Guarantees. Ultimately, the article asks what can the European project learn from these experiences. [source]

    The Politics of a European Civil Code

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 6 2004
    Martijn W. Hesselink
    That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a ,common frame of reference'. This paper argues that drafting a European Civil Code involves making many choices that are essentially political. It further argues that the technocratic approach which the Commission has adopted in the Action Plan effectively excludes most stakeholders from having their say during the stage when the real choices are made. Therefore, before the drafting of the CFR/ECC starts, the Commission should submit a list of policy questions regarding the main issues of European private law to the European Parliament and the other stakeholders. Such an alternative procedure would repoliticise the process. It would increase the democratic basis for a European Civil Code and thus its legitimacy. [source]

    Research Ethics: Ethical Issues of Data Reporting and the Quest for Authenticity

    Catherine A. Marco MD
    Abstract. The search for truth and its unbiased reporting are ultimate goals of conducting scientific research. Ideally, the reporting of research data ought to be an objective task. In practice, however, it is fraught with numerous statistical and ethical pitfalls, seldom addressed in formal emergency medicine training. The lure of academic celebrity and related influences may persuade researchers to report results in ways that make data appear more interesting, or worthy of publication. Several examples of potentially misleading data reporting are illustrated, including using inappropriate statistical tests, neglecting negative results, omitting missing data points, failing to report actual numbers of eligible subjects, using inappropriate graph labels or terminology, data dredging, and others. Although potentially inaccurate or inflated methods of data reporting may not constitute overt scientific misconduct, the intentional misrepresentation of data is a form of fraud or deception. Publicly funded academic inquiry is a privilege and honor enjoyed by a trusted few. Regardless of outcome, every effort should be made to report data in the most scientifically accurate method. To this end, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Code of Conduct and American College of Emergency Physicians Code of Ethics provide important guidance toward the accurate, compassionate, competent, impartial, and honest conduct of scientific research. Accuracy and authenticity in data reporting are first and foremost a matter of individual integrity, and are crucial to the preservation of academic credibility, the protection of future patients, and the public's trust in the medical research enterprise. [source]

    One Man Two Hats: What's All the Commotion!

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2009
    Jay Dahya
    G28; G30; G34 Abstract We examine performance in publicly listed U.K. companies over a period that encompasses the issuance of the Cadbury Committee's Code of Best Practice, which calls for the abolition of the combined CEO/COB position. We find that companies splitting the combined CEO/COB position to conform to the Code's requirement did not exhibit any absolute or relative improvement in performance when compared to various peer-group benchmarks. We do not necessarily scoff at mandated board structures, but the evidence suggests that this particular legislature coerced the abandonment of the combined CEO/COB position and appears to be wide of the mark. [source]

    The Lambert Code: Can We Define Best Practice?

    Michael Shattock
    The article explores the proposals put forward in the Lambert Report for reforms in university governance. It compares the recommendation for a Code with the analogue Combined Code which regulates corporate governance in companies and draws a distinction between attempts, from the Cadbury Report in 1992 to the Higgs Review in 2003, to create board structures which will reduce the prospect of misgovernance, and the underlying aim of Lambert to improve university performance through governance change. It argues that analogies between university governing bodies and company boards are misleading and that university governing bodies, on their own, are almost by definition unable to fulfill the criteria of an ,effective board' laid down in the DTI Report on TransTec. It suggests that a Guide on Governance which encourages institutional self determination is a better basis for sustaining institutional autonomy, which is a key ingredient to encouraging high levels of performance, than a Government backed Code which risks reducing institutional diversity and cutting across existing legal instruments. It concludes that the proposed Code is a distraction from serious consideration of what factors encourage improved institutional performance. [source]

    Universities and Industry: Does the Lambert Code of Governance Meet the Requirements of Good Governance?

    Roger Buckland
    The Lambert Model Code of Governance proposes to institutionalise the dominance of governors from commercial and industrial organisations as core members of compact and effective boards controlling UK universities. It is the latest expression of a fashion for viewing university governance as an overly-simple example of an obsolete system, where overweening and obstructive committee systems inhibit universities from achieving more significant and business-relevant activity. In this paper university governance is analysed in terms of classic agency analysis, in the Jensen and Meckling tradition. This suggests that governance of and in the system is complex and that, although inherited structures may indeed be deficient, the prescription of the Lambert Review is profoundly flawed and would be unlikely to achieve improvement in UK universities' competitiveness or attainment of mission. [source]

    Cross-border insolvency in Belgian Private International Law

    Eric Dirix
    Belgian PIL-rules regarding insolvency proceedings were recently changed as a result of the enactment of the new Code on Private International Law (2004). The new provisions aim to harmonise domestic rules with the system and concepts of the Insolvency Regulation. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Discrete numerical modelling of rockfill dams

    R. Deluzarche
    Abstract The aim of this study is to obtain quantitative information on the behaviour of rockfill used in embankment dams, and particularly on the influence of block breakage on the displacement field, from a numerical analysis using the Distinct element method. A methodology is set up to define the resistance of the 2D particles so that the same probability of breaking blocks may be reproduced as in a 3D material. The model uses the discrete element code PFC2D (Itasca Consulting Group Inc., PFC2D (Particle Flow Code in Two Dimensions), Version 3.0, 2002) and considers breakable clusters of 2D balls. The different parameters are determined from experimental data obtained from laboratory tests performed on rock blocks. The model is validated by comparing the results of the simulation of shearing tests with actual triaxial tests on rockfill material published in the literature. The numerical analysis of block crushing in an actual dam is proposed in the last part of this paper. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Social marketing in action,geodemographics, alcoholic liver disease and heavy episodic drinking in Great Britain

    Jane Powell
    This paper explores the use of geodemographic population classifications to identify and predict ,hotspots' of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) prone to greater than expected alcoholic liver disease. MOSAIC geodemographic codes were overlaid onto Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for Great Britain. The HES data included gender, MOSAIC Type, MOSAIC Code, postal and local authority district, month and year of birth, ethnic origin, Primary Care Trust and GP code. Analysis demonstrated that some geodemographic classifications of the population were over-represented for alcoholic liver disease episodes. These groups had low socio-economic and socio-cultural status, lived in areas of high deprivation and disadvantage. Manchester followed by Liverpool and Hull had the highest estimated patient group size in England and Hart, Surrey Heath and Wokingham the three lowest (indicating low expected levels of alcoholic liver disease compared with average). Analysis of the same data was also carried out at postcode level for Manchester indicating ,hotspots' for alcoholic level disease at street level. This analysis exemplifies the ways in which geodemographic data might be usefully applied to routine health service data to enhance service planning, delivery and improved targeting of information in harder to reach populations. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Guideline on the Management of Hand Eczema ICD-10 Code: L20.


    First page of article [source]

    Toward a New Corporate Reorganization Paradigm

    Donald S. Bernstein
    Chapter 11 is becoming an increasingly flexible, market-driven forum for determining who will become the owners of financially troubled enterprises. With increasing frequency, distressed companies are sold in Chapter 11 as going concerns. At the same time, distressed investors, including hedge funds and private equity investors, are actively trading the debt of such companies in much the same way that equity investors trade the stock of solvent companies. Market forces drive the troubled company's debt obligations into the hands of those investors who value the enterprise most highly and who want to decide whether to reorganize or to sell it. One way or the other, the Chapter 11 process is used to effect an orderly transfer of control of the enterprise into new hands, whether the creditors themselves or a third party. But if the market-oriented elements of this new reorganization process promise to increase creditor recoveries and preserve the values of corporate assets, other recent developments could present obstacles to achieving these goals. In particular, the increased complexity of corporate capital structures and investment patterns,including the issuance of second-lien debt and the dispersion of investment risks among numerous parties through the use of derivatives and other instruments,threatens to increase inter-creditor conflicts and reduce transparency in the restructuring process. These factors, coupled with provisions added to the Bankruptcy Code that selectively permit "opt-out" behavior by favored constituencies, could interfere with the ability of troubled companies to reorganize as the next cycle of defaults unfolds. [source]