Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Cod

  • atlantic cod
  • baltic cod
  • farmed cod
  • g cod
  • juvenile cod
  • juvenile murray cod
  • murray cod
  • wild cod

  • Terms modified by Cod

  • cod concentration
  • cod fillet
  • cod gadus morhua
  • cod larva
  • cod liver oil
  • cod m
  • cod population
  • cod ratio
  • cod removal
  • cod removal efficiency
  • cod stock

  • Selected Abstracts

    Photoelectro-Synergistic Catalysis at Ti/TiO2/PbO2 Electrode and Its Application on Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 22 2006
    Jiaqing Li
    Abstract In this paper, photoelectro-synergistic catalysis oxidation of organics in water on Ti/TiO2/PbO2 electrode was investigated by the method of electrochemistry. Furthermore, the results were compared with those obtained from photocatalysis and electrocatalysis. The method proposed was applied to determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD) value, Ti/TiO2/PbO2 electrode functioning as the work electrode during the process. It was shown that the method of photoelectro-synergistic catalysis had lower detection limit and wider linear range than the methods of electroassisted photocatalysis and electrocatalysis. The results obtained by the proposed method and conventional one were compared by carrying out the experiment on 8 wastewater samples. The correlation of the results using different methods was satisfactory and the relative bias was below ±6.0%. [source]

    Acclimation Strategy of a Biohydrogen Producing Population in a Continuous-Flow Reactor with Carbohydrate Fermentation

    Q. Ren
    Abstract Poor startup of biological hydrogen production systems can cause an ineffective hydrogen production rate and poor biomass growth at a high hydraulic retention time (HRT), or cause a prolonged period of acclimation. In this paper a new startup strategy was developed in order to improve the enrichment of the hydrogen-producing population and the efficiency of hydrogen production. A continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and molasses were used to evaluate the hydrogen productivity of the sewage sludge microflora at a temperature of 35,°C. The experimental results indicated that the feed to microorganism ratio (F/M ratio) was a key parameter for the enrichment of hydrogen producing sludge in a continuous-flow reactor. When the initial biomass was inoculated with 6.24,g of volatile suspended solids (VSS)/L, an HRT of 6,h, an initial organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.0,kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3,×,d) and an feed to microorganism ratio (F/M) ratio of about 2,3,g COD/(g of volatile suspended solids (VSS) per day) were maintained during startup. Under these conditions, a hydrogen producing population at an equilibrium state could be established within 30,days. The main liquid fermentation products were acetate and ethanol. Biogas was composed of H2 and CO2. The hydrogen content in the biogas amounted to 47.5,%. The average hydrogen yield was 2.01,mol/mol hexose consumed. It was also observed that a special hydrogen producing population was formed when this startup strategy was used. It is supposed that the population may have had some special metabolic pathways to produce hydrogen along with ethanol as the main fermentation products. [source]

    Biofilm Growth and Bed Fluidization in a Fluidized Bed Reactor Packed with Support Materials of Low Density,

    R.A. Saucedo-Terán
    Abstract Support materials of low-density for fluidized bed reactors provide several operational advantages, including lower energy requirements and proper biofilm growth balance. The aim of this investigation was to study the extent of biofilm growth and bed fluidization in an experimental reactor, using polyester resin (,pr,=,1220,kg/m3) and vitrified expanded perlite (,vep,=,1710,kg/m3) as alternative support materials to conventional silica sand. A noteworthy amount of biofilm was observed to be attached to both support materials from the very beginning of the bioreactor operation. Nevertheless, there were significant variations in biofilm growth and activity over the course of the experimental trials. For both perlite and polyester beds, the highest biofilm mass and the highest total number of mesophilic bacteria were observed between the 7th and the 10th day, showing a steady state trend at the end of the experimental runs. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal levels were concomitant with biofilm mass and total mesophilic bacteria changes, although the polyester bed efficiency was slightly higher than that for the perlite bed. As expected, the polyester bed was fluidized at a lower re-circulation flow compared to the perlite bed. Reactor back-washing was not required for these support materials since biomass excess was adequately separated by means of a special internal device. The efficiencies of removal of organic matter achieved were acceptable (up to 78,%) despite the low volume of the support material (25,%) and the low hydraulic retention time (30,min). [source]

    Microbial community structure of ethanol type fermentation in bio-hydrogen production

    Nanqi Ren
    Summary Three continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) were used for H2 production from molasses wastewater at influent pH of 6.0,6.5 (reactor A), 5.5,6.0 (reactor B), or 4.0,4.5 (reactor C). After operation for 28 days, the microbial community formed ethanol type (C), propionate type (A) and ethanol-butyrate-mixed type (B) fermentation. The H2 production rate was the highest for ethanol type fermentation, 0.40 l (g VSS),1 day,1 or 0.45 l H2 (g COD removed),1. Microbial community dynamics and diversity were analysed using double-gradient denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DG-DGGE). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that the community structures changed quickly in the first 14 days. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the dominant bacterial groups were low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, Bacteroides, ,-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria; ,-Proteobacteria, ,-Proteobacteria, ,-Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were also presented as minor groups in the three reactors. H2 -producing bacteria were affiliated with Ethanoligenens, Acetanaerobacterium, Clostridium, Megasphaera, Citrobacter and Bacteroides. An ethanol-based H2 -producing bacterium, Ethanoligenens harbinense CGMCC1152, was isolated from reactor C and visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to be 19% of the eubacteria in reactor C. In addition, isoenzyme activity staining for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) supported that the majority of ethanol-producing bacteria were affiliated with Ethanoligenens in the microbial community. [source]

    Post-treatment of anaerobically treated medium-age landfill leachate

    Ebru Akkaya
    Abstract This study focused on the removal of COD and NH4+ from medium-age leachate. Experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a membrane bioreactor (MBR), and using magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation. MBR and MAP were used for the post-treatment steps for anaerobically treated leachate to increase the removal of organics and ammonium. The UASB reactor removed nearly all biodegradable organics and supplied constant effluent COD for all concentration ranges of influent leachate. Ammonium removal efficiency in the UASB reactor was relatively low and the average value was ,7.9%. Integration of MBR to the effluent of UASB reactor increased the average COD removal efficiency from 51.8 to 65.6% and maximum removal efficiency increased to 74.3%. MAP precipitation was applied as a final step to decrease the ammonium concentration in the effluent of UASB+MBR reactors. The effect of pH and the molar ratio of MAP constituents on the removal of ammonium were evaluated. At optimal conditions (pH: 9.0 and Mg/NH4/PO4: 1/1.2/1.2), 96.6% of ammonium was removed and MAP provided additional COD and turbidity treatment. Consequently, the combined system of MBR and MAP precipitation could be used as an appropriate post treatment option for the anaerobically treated medium-age landfill leachate. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2010 [source]

    Organic carbon and nitrogen removal in anoxic/oxic-membrane bioreactor treating high-strength wastewater

    Zhimin Fu
    Abstract The performance of an anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor system for the simultaneous removal of nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was investigated. This process removed up to 87% of total nitrogen (TN) and 94% of COD, with the influent concentrations of 200 mg NH4+ -N/L and 4000 mg COD/L and a recycle ratio (R) of 200%. Biological assimilation and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) were considered on nitrogen removal process. The TN removal efficiency was above 87.5%, while the nitrogen being removed through SND was above 75.5% and nitrogen assimilated into the biomass was below 24.5%, with influent concentration below 200 mg NH4+ -N/L. Increasing the influent concentration to 400 mg NH4+ -N/L, TN removal efficiency decreased significantly to 37.5%, of which 49.5% was provided by microorganism growth. Batch experiments provided evidence for the phenomena of SND. Furthermore, the SND removal efficiency increased gradually from 26.8 to 90.0%. © 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2009 [source]

    Ultrasonic treatment of waste activated sludge

    Raf Dewil
    Abstract Activated sludge processes are key technologies to treat wastewater. These biological processes produce huge amounts of waste activated sludge (WAS), now commonly called biosolids. Mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical WAS conditioning techniques have been proposed to reduce the sludge burden. The ultrasonic treatment of WAS is quite novel. The present paper reports on extensive investigations using an ultrasonic treatment of WAS, to study its potential to meet one or all of four objectives: (1) reduce WAS quantities; (2) achieve a better dewaterability; (3) provoke a release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the biosolids, preferably transformed into biodegradable organics; and (4) possibly destroy the filamentous microorganisms responsible for sludge bulking. Although meeting these objectives would help to solve the problems cited, the energy consumption could be a considerable drawback: the paper will thus assess whether all or some objectives are met, and at what operational cost. A literature survey defines the occurring phenomena (cavitation) and the important operation parameters [such as frequency, duration, specific energy input (SE)]. The experiments are carried out in a batch reactor of volume up to 2.3 L. The ultrasonic equipment consisted of a generator, a converter, and a sonotrode, supplied by Alpha Ultrasonics under the brand name of Telsonic. Three different kinds of sludge were tested, with different concentrations of dry solids (DS) between approximately 3.5 and 14 g DS/L WAS. Ultrasonic energy was introduced in a continuous manner (against possible pulsed operation). The major operational parameters studied include duration of the ultrasonic treatment and specific energy input. The applied frequency was set at 20 kHz. The release of COD from the WAS phase into the filtrate phase is a function of the specific energy input with yields of nearly 30% achievable at SE values of 30,000 kJ/kg DS. A major fraction of the COD is transformed into biodegradable organics (BOD). The reduction in DS fraction of the sludge is proportional to the COD release rates. Although the DS content is reduced, the dewaterability of the sludge is not improved. This reflects itself in increased filtration times during vacuum filtration and in increased values of the capillary suction time (CST). This more difficult dewaterability is the result of considerably reduced floc sizes, offering an extended surface area: more surface water is bound (CST increases) and the filterability decreases as a result of clogging of the cake. To reach the same dryness as for the untreated cake, the required dosage of polyelectrolyte is nearly doubled when the SE of the ultrasound treatment is increased from 7500 to 20,000 kJ/kg DS. The ultrasonic reduction of filamentous WAS organisms is not conclusive and very little effect is seen at low intensities and short treatment durations. Microscopic analysis of the WAS identified the dominant presence of Actynomyces. The release of soluble COD and BOD certainly merit further research. © 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2006 [source]

    Nutrient limitations during the biofiltration of methyl isoamyl ketone

    Hyun-Keun Son
    With biofiltration, both organic and inorganic compounds that are toxic to humans and volatile organic compounds from a variety of industrial and public sector sources have been effectively removed. During the initial stage of the acclimation period, the removal capacity of the biofilter is primarily attributed to the adsorption capacity of the media. The adsorption capacity of different types of biofilter media was studied. MIAK (methyl isoamyl ketone), which is one of the major air pollutants in painting operations, was used as the target air pollutant for the biofiltration experiments. All the materials tested exhibited very poor adsorption capacity for MIAK. The effect of nutrient limitation was also evaluated. A gradual decrease of removal capacity was observed under the nutrient-limited environment. When nutrient was provided to the biofilter, the removal capacity increased from 55 to 93% in 3 days. A nutrient ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD):N:P = 200:4:1 was sufficient for the removal of volatile organic compounds from the polluted air stream. © 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2004 [source]

    Factors affecting biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol by Alcaligenes sp. in aerobic reactors

    A. Gallego
    Abstract The influence of variations in carbon source concentration, cell inocula, pH, presence of other substrates, and other organisms on the biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) was studied for Alcaligenes sp. isolated from natural sources. Assays of biodegradation were performed in batch and continuous-flow fluidized-bed aerobic reactors. Evaluation of biodegradation was performed by determining total phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 2-CP by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Measurement of microbial growth was carried out by the plate count method. Bioassays of acute toxicity were performed to evaluate detoxification by using Daphnia magna. Results obtained show that under batch conditions with initial inocula of 106 cells/mL the strain grew exponentially with 100, 200, and 300 mg/L of 2-CP within 48 hr. A lag period was observed with low cell density inocula (105 cells/mL). The strain showed marked delay in the biodegradation of 2-CP at pH 5. Removal of target substrate from mixtures containing other carbon sources demonstrated the possibility of concurrent growth. Mineralization of 2-CP was assessed by gas chromatography carried out at the end of the batch assays and at the exit of the continuous-flow reactor. The presence of other organisms (bacteria, rotifers, ciliate, and algae) that developed in the fluidized-bed reactor did not affect the efficacy of the biodegradation of 2-CP. The removal of 2-CP in the two assayed systems was over 97% in all cases. Toxicity was not detected at the exit of the continuous reactor. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Environ Toxicol 16: 306,313, 2001 [source]

    A Single-Source Co/Li/O Organometallic Precursor for Nanocrystalline LiCoO2 , Synthesis, Formation Pathway, and Electrochemical Performance,

    Jayaprakash Khanderi
    Abstract A single-source precursor route to phase-pure LiCoO2 by employing the organometallic precursor [(COD)2CoLi(thf)2] (1) to introduce a Co/Li/O 1:1:2 stoichiometry is described for the first time. Compound 1 undergoes decomposition in the presence of oxygen, forming nanoscaled, electrochemically active LiCoO2 starting at a temperature as low as 200 °C. Its temperature-dependent formation pathway was studied by various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The transition temperature for the evolution of layered LiCoO2 is above 400 °C. Electrochemical studies indicate that the low-temperature modification of LiCoO2 can be obtained at 500 °C, showing moderate electrochemical battery performance. [source]

    Amino-phosphanes in RhI -Catalyzed Hydroformylation: New Mechanistic Insights Using D2O as Deuterium-Labeling Agent

    Jacques Andrieu
    Abstract In previous work, we have demonstrated that the dangling amino group in amino-phosphane ligands increases the rate of Rh-catalyzed styrene hydroformylation as a function of the amino group basicity and of the distance between the P and N functions. We now report additional stereochemical and mechanistic insights resulting from new catalytic experiments performed with Rh-,-P,N catalytic systems in the presence of D2O. In addition to the expected D0 product, the formation of the ,-D1 aldehyde, PhCH(CH2D)CHO was observed in all cases by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, indicating that H/D exchange occurs for the rhodium-hydride complex. Minor amounts of a ,-D2 product, PhCH(CHD2)CHO, were also formed under certain conditions, demonstrating the reversibility of the olefin coordination step. The composition of the aldehyde mixture is slightly affected by the nature of the catalytic precursor or the P,N ligand used. In the specific case of the ,-P,N ligand [,-P,N = (SAr,SC)-Ph2PCH{o -C6H4Cl(Cr(CO)3)}NHPh], in combination with the [RhCl(COD)]2 precatalyst, products PhCD(CH3)CHO (,-D1) and PhCD(CH2D)CHO (,,,-D2) were also produced. This result suggests a reversible deprotonation assisted by an intramolecular H-bonding interaction between the dangling ammonium function and the carbonyl moiety. This isotopic exchange process decreases the asymmetric induction from 14 to 7,% ee when using the enantiopure version of this ligand. Aldehydes bearing a D atom on the formyl group, e.g. PhCH(CH3)CDO, were never observed. The latter observation excludes protonolysis of the rhodium-acyl intermediate as the aldehyde forming step. In addition, it also excludes a bimolecular reaction involving the rhodium-acyl and rhodium-hydride intermediates.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Monophosphanylcalix[6]arene Ligands: Synthesis Characterization, Complexation, and Their Use in Catalysis

    Yasushi Obora
    Abstract Novel phosphanylcalix[6]arenes having mono- O -diphenylphosphanylmethyl (3) and mono- O -(4-diphenylphosphanylphenyl)methyl substituents (5) have been synthesized. The structures of these monophosphanylcalix[6]arenes were determined by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystal structure analysis. The X-ray structure reveals that 3 adopts a flattened 1,2,3-alternate conformation in the crystalline state, while the NMR spectra show that 3 and 5 have a cone conformation in solution. Structure optimization and energy calculations for 3 and 5 at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ-CONFLEX5/MMFF94s level of theory show that the cone conformation is slightly more stable than the 1,2,3-alternate conformation by 0.36 kcal,mol,1 for 3 and 0.96 kcal,mol,1 for 5. Complexation of 3 with [PtCl2(COD)] and [Rh(COD)2]BF4 gives cis -coordinated [PtCl2(3)2] and [Rh(COD)(3)2]BF4, respectively. The X-ray analysis of [PtCl2(3)2] shows that 3 adopts a cone conformation upon complexation. Combination of 3 and 5 with [Rh(COD)2]BF4 provides an active catalyst for the hydroformylation of a variety of terminal alkenes.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Nitroallylation of Arylmetallics with Cyclic Nitroallyl Acetates and Applications in Organic Synthesis

    Lin Dong
    Abstract Highly enantioselective rhodium-catalyzed nitroallylations of arylboronic acids and arylzinc chlorides with cyclic nitroallyl acetates are described. Catalyst screening indicated that the rhodium complex of [Rh(OH)(COD)]2 and optically pure binap is the optimal catalyst for the nitroallylation of arylboronic acids with 2-nitrocyclohex-2-enyl esters, providing good yields and high enantioselectivities of up to 99,% ee. The rhodium complex prepared from Rh(acac)(C2H4)2 and (R)-binap efficiently catalyzed the nitroallylation of arylzinc chlorides with 2-nitrocyclohex-2-enyl acetate at 0 °C in high yields of up to 93,% and with high enantioselectivities of up to 96,% ee. A number of synthetically useful intermediates with high optical purity were prepared with this reaction as starting point: concise total syntheses of optically pure (+)-,-lycorane in 53,% overall yield and of (+)-,-lycorane in 52,% overall yield were achieved by commencing with the asymmetric nitroallylation of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylzinc chloride with 2-nitrocyclohex-2-enyl acetate. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Molecular monitoring of microbial diversity in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors treating oleic acid

    Maria Alcina Pereira
    Abstract A molecular approach was used to evaluate the microbial diversity of bacteria and archaea in two expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors fed with increasing oleic acid loading rates up to 8 kg of chemical oxygen demand (COD) m,3 day,1 as the sole carbon source. One of the reactors was inoculated with granular sludge (RI) and the other with suspended sludge (RII). During operation, the sludge in both reactors was segregated in two layers: a bottom settled one and a top floating one. The composition of the bacterial community, based on 16S rDNA sequence diversity, was affected most during the oleate loading process in the two reactors. The archaeal consortium remained rather stable over operation in RI, whereas in RII the relative abundance of Methanosaeta -like organisms became gradually weaker, starting in the bottom layer. In the range of oleate loads evaluated, 6 kg of COD m,3 day,1 was found as the maximum value that could be applied to the system. A further increase to 8 kg of oleate-COD m,3 day,1 induced a maximal shift on the microbial structure of the sludges. At this time point, methanogenic acetoclastic activity was not detected and only very low methanogenic activity on H2/CO2 was exhibited by the sludges. [source]

    [Ru(0)]@SiO2 and [RuO2]@SiO2 Hybrid Nanomaterials: From Their Synthesis to Their Application as Catalytic Filters for Gas Sensors

    Victor Matsura
    Abstract [Ru(0)]@SiO2 and [RuO2]@SiO2 hybrid nanomaterials are produced following a facile method consisting of the synthesis of size-controlled ruthenium nanoparticles as elemental bricks. This route takes advantage of the organometallic approach and the use of a bifunctional ligand for the synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles from [Ru(COD)(COT)](COD,=,1,3-cyclooctadiene, COT,=,1,3,5-cyclooctatriene) as metal precursor and (PhCH2)2N(CH2)11O(CH2)3Si(OEt)3 (benzenemethanamine) as stabilizer. Hydrolysis and polycondensation steps via a sol,gel approach lead to the formation of the silica materials containing the metal nanoparticles. A final calcination step in air at 400,°C yields the [RuO2]@SiO2 nanocomposites. Such hybrid nanomaterials display a good dispersion of the nanoparticles inside the silica matrix and interesting porosity properties making them attractive materials for catalytic applications. This is shown by using [RuO2]@SiO2 hybrid nanomaterials as catalytic filters for gas sensors. [source]

    Comprehensive survey of mutations in RP2 and RPGR in patients affected with distinct retinal dystrophies: genotype,phenotype correlations and impact on genetic counseling,,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2007
    Valérie Pelletier
    Abstract X-linked forms of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) (XLRP) account for 10 to 20% of families with RP and are mainly accounted for by mutations in the RP2 or RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) genes. We report the screening of these genes in a cohort of 127 French family comprising: 1) 93 familial cases of RP suggesting X-linked inheritance, including 48 out of 93 families with expression in females but no male to male transmission; 2) seven male sibships of RP; 3) 25 sporadic male cases of RP; and 4) two cone dystrophies (COD). A total of 5 out of the 93 RP families excluded linkage to the RP2 and RP3 loci and were removed form the cohort. A total of 14 RP2 mutations, 12 of which are novel, were identified in 14 out of 88 familial cases of RP and 1 out of 25 sporadic male case (4%). In 13 out of 14 of the familial cases, no expression of the disease was noted in females, while in 1 out of 14 families one woman developed RP in the third decade. A total of 42 RPGR mutations, 26 of which were novel, were identified in 80 families, including: 69 out of 88 familial cases (78.4%); 2 out of 7 male sibship (28.6%); 8 out of 25 sporadic male cases (32.0%); and 1 out of 2 COD. No expression of the disease was noted in females in 41 out of 69 familial cases (59.4%), while at least one severely affected woman was recognized in 28 out of 69 families (40.6%). The frequency of RP2 and RPGR mutations in familial cases of RP suggestive of X-linked transmission are in accordance to that reported elsewhere (RP2: 15.9% vs. 6,20%; RPGR: 78.4% vs. 55,90%). Interestingly, about 30% of male sporadic cases and 30% of male sibships of RP carried RP2 or RPGR mutations, confirming the pertinence of the genetic screening of XLRP genes in male patients affected with RP commencing in the first decade and leading to profound visual impairment before the age of 30 years. Hum Mutat 28(1), 81,91, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The performance of constructed wetlands for, wastewater treatment: a case study of Splash wetland in Nairobi Kenya

    Daniel Muasya Nzengy'a
    Abstract The performance of a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment was examined for four months (December 1995 to March 1996). The study area, hereby referred to as the Splash wetland, is approximately 0·5 ha, and is located in the southern part of Nairobi city. Splash wetland continuously receives domestic sewage from two busy restaurants. Treated wastewater is recycled for re-use for various purposes in the restaurants. Both wet and dry season data were analysed with a view of determining the impact of seasonal variation on the system performance. The physical and chemical properties of water were measured at a common intake and at series of seven other points established along the wetland gradient and at the outlet where the water is collected and pumped for re-use at the restaurants. The physico-chemical characteristics of the wastewater changed significantly as the wastewater flowed through the respective wetland cells. A comparison of wastewater influent versus the effluent from the wetland revealed the system's apparent success in water treatment, especially in pH modification, removal of suspended solids, organic load and nutrients mean influent pH = 5·7 ± 0·5, mean effluent pH 7·7 ± 0·3; mean influent BOD5 = 1603·0 ± 397·6 mg/l, mean effluent BOD5 = 15·1 ± 2·5 mg/l; mean influent COD = 3749·8 ± 206·8 mg/l, mean effluent COD = 95·6 ± 7·2 mg/l; mean influent TSS = 195·4 ± 58·7 mg/l, mean effluent TSS = 4·7 ± 1·9 mg/l. As the wastewater flowed through the wetland system dissolved free and saline ammonia, NH4+, decreased from 14·6 ± 4·1 mg/l to undetectable levels at the outlet. Dissolved oxygen increased progressively through the wetland system. Analysis of the data available did not reveal temporal variation in the system's performance. However, significant spatial variation was evident as the wetland removed most of the common pollutants and considerably improved the quality of the water, making it safe for re-use at the restaurants. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hypersingular integral equation method for three-dimensional crack problem in shear mode

    Y. Z. ChenArticle first published online: 19 APR 200
    Abstract This paper presents the use of the hypersingular integral equation method for solving the flat crack problem in shear mode. In the method, the crack opening displacement (COD) functions are assumed to be polynomials with several undetermined coefficients. The involved hypersingular integral can be reduced into a repeat integral in a particular polar co-ordinate, and further integrated by a known quadrature rule. This technique considerably reduces the effort of derivation and computation to obtain the final solution. The undetermined coefficients in the COD functions are obtained from an algebraic equation. The stress intensity factors (SIF) along the boundary of the flat crack can then be easily calculated. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparative study of the efficacy of three coagulants in treating dairy factory waste water

    The treatment of dairy factory waste water by coagulation and decantation has shown that calcium hydroxide at a weak dose of 0.49,0.63 g provides the highly efficient removal of suspended matter (SM) (94%) and total phosphorus (Tp-P) (89%) accompanied by an average elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN-N), faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS). This is within the Moroccan limits for the first two parameters (SM and TP-P). The dose necessary to obtain optimal removal is 0.8,1.2 g when using aluminium sulfate and 0.6,0.75 g with iron chloride and the percentage elimination of chemical and bacteriological pollutants is not substantial. However, coagulation by calcium hydroxide induced less sludge (0.93 g/L) than either aluminium sulfate (1.21 g/L) or iron chloride (1.38 g/L). In terms of cost, the price of treating 1 m3 of dairy effluent by using calcium hydroxide is lower (approximately 25 times less expensive) than when using the other two coagulants. [source]

    Treatment of beverage-processing wastewater in a three-phase fluidised bed biological reactor

    Samwel Victor Manyele
    Summary This paper presents a study on treatment of beverage-processing wastewater (BPWW) in a three-phase fluidised bed bioreactor (TPFBB). Wastewater samples were introduced in the TPFBB and aerated at optimum liquid and gas flow rates while measuring wastewater parameters [pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjehldahl nitrogen (TKN) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3 -N)]. Two different initial pH levels were studied, i.e. 9.0 and 11.5. The pH of the wastewater was observed to level off at 9.3 after 1 day. The TSS dropped by 95% after 5 days, for both initial pH levels. The NH3 -N and TKN dropped to similar final concentration independent of initial pH. The COD removal efficiency was observed to depend on the initial pH level. A highest efficiency of 98% and lowest efficiency of 50% were observed at initial pH of 9.0 and 11.5, respectively. The study results show that TPFBB is capable of treating food-processing wastewater under suitable conditions. [source]

    Highly Enantioselective Hydrogenation of Quinoline and Pyridine Derivatives with Iridium-(P-Phos) Catalyst

    Wei-Jun Tang
    Abstract The use of a chiral iridium catalyst generated in situ from the (cyclooctadiene)iridium chloride dimer, [Ir(COD)Cl]2, the P-Phos ligand [4,4,-bis(diphenylphosphino)-2,2,,6,6,-tetramethoxy-3,3,-bipyridine] and iodine (I2) for the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,6-substituted quinolines and trisubstituted pyridines [2-substituted 7,8-dihydroquinolin-5(6H)-one derivatives] is reported. The catalyst worked efficiently to hydrogenate a series of quinoline derivatives to provide chiral 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines in high yields and up to 96% ee. The hydrogenation was carried out at high S/C (substrate to catalyst) ratios of 2000,50000, reaching up to 4000,h,1 TOF (turnover frequency) and up to 43000 TON (turnover number). The catalytic activity is found to be additive-controlled. At low catalyst loadings, decreasing the amount of additive I2 was necessary to maintain the good conversion. The same catalyst system could also enantioselectively hydrogenate trisubstituted pyridines, affording the chiral hexahydroquinolinone derivatives in nearly quantitative yields and up to 99% ee. Interestingly, increasing the amount of I2 favored high reactivity and enantioselectivity in this case. The high efficacy and enantioselectivity enable the present catalyst system of high practical potential. [source]

    Polymer-Supported, Carbon Dioxide-Protected N-Heterocyclic Carbenes: Synthesis and Application in Organo- and Organometallic Catalysis

    Gajanan Manohar Pawar
    Abstract The synthesis of a resin-supported, carbon dioxide-protected N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and its use in organocatalysis and organometallic catalysis are described. The resin-bound carbon dioxide-protected NHC-based catalyst was prepared via ring-opening metathesis copolymerization of 1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4,5,8- exo,endo -dimethanonaphthalene (DMNH6) with 3-(bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-ylmethyl)-1-(2-propyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-ium-2-carboxylate (M1), using the well-defined Schrock catalyst Mo[N -2,6-(2-Pr)2 -C6H3](CHCMe2Ph)(OCMe3)2 and was used for a series of organocatalytic reactions, i.e., for the trimerization reaction of isocyanates, as well as for the cyanosilylation of carbonyl compounds. In the latter reaction, turn-over numbers (TON) up to 5000 were achieved. In addition, the polymer-supported, carbon dioxide-protected N-heterocyclic carbene served as an excellent progenitor for various polymer-supported metal complexes. It was loaded with a series of rhodium(I), iridium(I), and palladium(II) precursors and the resulting Rh-, Ir-, and Pd-loaded resins were successfully used in the polymerization of phenylacetylene, in the hydrogen transfer reaction to benzaldehyde, as well as in Heck-type coupling reactions. In the latter reaction, TONs up to 100,000 were achieved. M1, as a non-supported analogue of poly-M1- b -DMNH6, as well as the complexes PdCl2[1,3-bis(2-Pr)tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene]2 (Pd-1) and IrBr[1-(norborn-5-ene-2-ylmethyl)-3-(2-Pr)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidine](COD) (Ir-1) were used as homogeneous analogues and their reactivity in the above-mentioned reactions was compared with that of the supported catalytic systems. In all reactions investigated, the TONs achieved with the supported systems were very similar to the ones obtained with the unsupported, homogeneous ones, the turn-over frequencies (TOFs), however, were lower by up to a factor of three. [source]

    Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Quinoxalines Catalyzed by Iridium/PipPhos


    Abstract A catalyst made in situ from the (cyclooctadiene)iridium chloride dimer, [Ir(COD)Cl]2, and the monodentate phosphoramidite ligand (S)-PipPhos was used in the enantioselective hydrogenation of 2- and 2,6-substituted quinoxalines. In the presence of piperidine hydrochloride as additive full conversions and enantioselectivities of up to 96% are obtained. [source]

    Rhodium-Catalysed Coupling of Allylic, Homoallylic, and Bishomoallylic Alcohols with Aldehydes and N -Tosylimines: Insights into the Mechanism

    Nanna Ahlsten
    Abstract The isomerisation of alkenols followed by reaction with aldehydes or N -tosylimines catalysed by rhodium complexes has been studied. The catalytically active rhodium complex is formed in situ from commercially available (cyclooctadiene)rhodium(I) chloride dimer [Rh(COD)Cl]2. The tandem process affords aldol and Mannich-type products in excellent yields. The key to the success of the coupling reaction is the activation of the catalysts by reaction with postassium tert -butoxide (t- BuOK), which promotes a catalytic cycle via alkoxides rather than rhodium hydrides. This mechanism minimises the formation of unwanted by-products. The mechanism has been studied by 1H,NMR spectroscopy and deuterium labelling experiments. [source]

    Role of uric acid in different types of calcium oxalate renal calculi

    Aim:, The presence of uric acid in the beginning zone of different types of ,pure' calcium oxalate renal calculi was evaluated with the aim of establishing the degree of participation of uric acid crystals in the formation of such calculi. Methods:, The core or fragment of different types of ,pure' calcium oxalate renal calculi was detached, pulverized and uric acid extracted. Uric acid was determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. Results:, In calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi with a core constituted by COM crystals and organic matter, 0.030 ± 0.007% uric acid was found in the core. In COM papillary calculi with a core constituted by hydroxyapatite, 0.031 ± 0.008% uric acid was found in the core. In COM unattached calculi (formed in renal cavities) with the core mainly formed by COM crystals and organic matter, 0.24 ± 0.09% uric acid was found in the core. In COM unattached calculi with the core formed by uric acid identifiable by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to X-ray microanalysis, 20.8 ± 7.8% uric acid was found in the core. In calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) unattached calculi containing little amounts of organic matter, 0.012 ± 0.004% uric acid was found. In COD unattached calculi containing little amounts of organic matter and hydroxyapatite, 0.0030 ± 0.0004% of uric acid was found. Conclusions:, From these results it can be deduced that uric acid can play an important role as inducer (heterogeneous nucleant) of COM unattached calculi with the core formed by uric acid identifiable by SEM coupled to X-ray microanalysis (these calculi constitute the 1.2% of all calculi) and in COM unattached calculi with the core mainly formed by COM crystals and organic matter (these calculi constitute the 10.8% of all calculi). [source]

    Ketonization of 1,5-Cyclooctadiene by Nitrous Oxide

    Abstract The kinetics and mechanism of the liquid phase ketonization of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) by nitrous oxide have been studied. The reaction proceeds without catalyst in the temperature range 473,553,K with the activation energy 113,kJ,mol,1 and is first order with respect to the initial reactants. The mechanism includes consecutive ketonization of two CC bonds in the COD molecule, with the intermediate formation of an unsaturated monoketone (MK). Further ketonization of MK leads to two isomeric diketones (DK): 1,4- and 1,5-cyclooctanedione. The 1,5-DK is a stable final product while the 1,4-DK undergoes further intramolecular aldol transformation leading to two bicyclic compounds, that retain the same number of carbon atoms. The distribution of mono- and diketones in the course of reaction is described by theoretical dependences pointing to identical reactivities of the CC double bonds residing in COD and MK molecules. The ketonization of COD by nitrous oxide exemplifies a prospective way for the preparation of valuable organic products in perfect harmony with the strategy of green chemistry. [source]

    Synthesis of Trisubstituted Pyrroles from Rhodium-Catalyzed Alkyne Head-to-Tail Dimerization and Subsequent Gold- Catalyzed Cyclization

    Hong Mei Peng
    Abstract Dimerization of N -protected propargylic amines in a rather rare head-to-tail mode has been achieved under mild conditions with high selectivity using rhodium catalysts. The N -protecting group could be a sulfonyl, carbamate, or carbonyl functionality and (cyclooctadiene)rhodium chloride dimer/1,1,-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene {[Rh(COD)Cl]2/dppf} as well as tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium chloride [Rh(PPh3)3Cl] proved to be active catalysts. In addition, these functionalized gem -enynes subsequently undergo selective gold(III)-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamination to give trisubstituted pyrroles under mild conditions. [source]

    Well-Defined Regioselective Iminopyridine Rhodium Catalysts for Anti-Markovnikov Addition of Aromatic Primary Amines to 1-Octyne

    Carlos Alonso-Moreno
    Abstract A series of cationic rhodium(I) complexes of the type [Rh(N-N)(COD)][BPh4], containing the following iminopyridine-based bidentate nitrogen donor ligands (N-N): 2,6-diisopropyl- N -[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]aniline (dipea, 1), 2,6-dimethyl- N -[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]aniline (dmpea, 2), 2,4,6-trimethyl- N -[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]aniline (tmpea, 3) and 2,6-diisopropyl- N -[1-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]aniline] (dipmpea, 4), were synthesized and fully characterized. The intermolecular hydroamination of a terminal alkyne, such as 1-octyne, with primary aromatic amines in the presence of these cationic rhodium(I) catalysts occurred in an anti-Markovnikov fashion. The rhodium complexes catalyzed the regioselective formation of the E- isomer of the corresponding imine, without the formation of the Z -isomer or the Markovnikov product. These compounds are also presented as efficient regioselective catalysts for the hydroamination of anilines in the presence of air and/or water. [source]

    Homogeneous Hydrogenation of Tri- and Tetrasubstituted Olefins: Comparison of Iridium-Phospinooxazoline [Ir-PHOX] Complexes and Crabtree Catalysts with Hexafluorophosphate (PF6) and Tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (BArF) as Counterions

    Bettina Wüstenberg
    Abstract Four iridium complexes with achiral phosphino-oxazoline (PHOX) ligands were readily prepared in two steps starting from commercially available phenyloxazolines. The air-stable complexes with tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (BArF) as counterion showed high reactivity in the hydrogenation of a range of tri- and tetrasubstituted olefins. The best results were obtained with an iridium complex (11) derived from a dicyclohexylphosphino-oxazoline ligand bearing no additional substituents in the oxazoline ring. With several substrates, which gave only low conversion with the Crabtree catalyst, [Ir(Py)(PCy3)(COD)]PF6, full conversion was observed. The productivity of the Crabtree catalyst could be strongly increased by replacing the hexafluorophosphate anion with tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate. In one case, in the hydrogenation of a tetraalkyl-substituted CC bond, [Ir(Py)(PCy3)(COD)]BArF gave higher conversion than catalyst 11. However, with several other substrates complex 11 proved to be superior. [source]

    Thin Layer Chromatography for the Detection of Unexpected Reactions in Organometallic Combinatorial Catalysis

    Olivier Lavastre
    Abstract Thin layer chromatography (TLC) represents a fast and inexpensive alternative to NMR spectroscopy or analytical methods based on chromatography for the detection of unexpected products in organometallic combinatorial catalysis. This screening test led to the detection of the catalytic system [Ir(COD)Cl]2/PPh3 for isomerisation of diolefinic substrates instead the expected ring closing metathesis (RCM) reaction. [source]