Cold Remedies (cold + remedy)

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Detection and validated quantification of nine herbal phenalkylamines and methcathinone in human blood plasma by LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization

JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 2 2007
Jochen Beyer
Abstract The herbal stimulants Ephedra species, Catha edulis (khat), and Lophophora williamsii (peyote) have been abused for a long time. In recent years, the herbal drug market has grown owing to publicity on the Internet. Some ingredients of these plants are also ingredients of cold remedies. The aim of the presented study is to develop a multianalyte procedure for detection and validated quantification of the phenalkylamines ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, methylpseudoephedrine, cathinone, mescaline, synephrine (oxedrine), and methcathinone in plasma. After mixed-mode solid-phase extraction of 1 ml of plasma, the analytes were separated using a strong cation exchange separation column and gradient elution. They were detected using a Q-Trap LC-ESI-MS/MS system (MRM mode). Calibration curves were used for quantification using norephedrine- d3, ephedrine- d3, and mescaline- d9 as internal standards. The method was validated according to international guidelines. The assay was selective for the tested compounds. It was linear from 10 to 1000 ng/ml for all analytes. The recoveries were generally higher than 70%. Accuracy ranged from , 0.8 to 20.0%, repeatability from 2.5 to 12.3%, and intermediate precision from 4.6 to 20.0%. The lower limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml for all analytes. No instability was observed after repeated freezing and thawing or in processed samples. The applicability of the assay was tested by analysis of authentic plasma samples after ingestion of different cold medications containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, and after ingestion of an aqueous extract of Herba Ephedra. After ingestion of the cold medications, only the corresponding single alkaloids were detected in human plasma, whereas after ingestion of the herb extract, all six ephedrines contained in the plant were detected. The presented LC-MS/MS assay was found applicable for sensitive detection and accurate and precise quantification of all studied analytes in plasma. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 8 2008
Article first published online: 12 MAY 200
Glargine preferred to lispro as type 2 add-on Basal insulin glargine (Lantus) and insulin lispro (Humalog) at mealtimes improved glycaemic control equally well in patients with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled by oral agents, but patient satisfaction was greater with basal insulin (Lancet 2008;371:1073-84). The 44-week APOLLO trial, funded by Sanofi Aventis, was a nonblinded randomised comparison of basal and prandial insulin regimens added to oral treatment in 418 patients. It found similar reductions in HbA1C (,1.7 vs ,1.9 per cent respectively). Fasting and nocturnal glucose levels were lower with insulin glargine and postprandial levels were lower with insulin lispro. The basal regimen was associated with fewer hypoglycaemic events (5.2 vs 24 per patient per year), less weight gain (3.01 vs 3.54kg) and greater improvement in patient satisfaction scores. Treating hypertension cuts mortality in over-80s Treating hypertension in the over-80s reduces all-cause mortality by 21 per cent, the HYVET study has shown (N Engl J Med online: 31 March 2008; doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa 0801369). Compared with placebo, treatment with indapamide alone or with perindopril for an average of 1.8 years also reduced the incidence of fatal stroke by 39 per cent, cardiovascular death by 23 per cent and heart failure by 64 per cent. The incidence of stroke was reduced by 30 per cent but this was of borderline statistical significance. Fewer serious adverse events were reported with treatment than with placebo. New work for NICE The DoH has announced the 18th work programme for NICE. Seven public health interventions include preventing skin cancer, smoking by children and excess weight gain during pregnancy. Public health guidance will include the provision of contraceptive services for socially disadvantaged young people. Two new clinical guidelines are sedation in young people and management of fractured neck of femur. New technology appraisals may include eight therapies for cancer, two new monoclonal antibodies for psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, an oral retinoid for severe chronic hand eczema and methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Combinations no better against CV disease Taking ezetimibe and simvastatin (Inegy) does not appear to slow the progression of atherosclerosis more than high-dose simvastatin alone, say researchers from The Netherlands (N Engl J Med 2008;358: 1431-43). In patients with hypercholesterolaemia, there was no difference in regression or progression of atherosclerosis after two years' treatment with simvastatin 80mg per day alone or combined with ezetimibe 10mg per day. Adverse event rates were similar. In patients with vascular disease or high-risk diabetes, there was no difference between the ACE inhibitor ramipril 10mg per day or the ARB telmisartan (Micardis) 80mg per day as monotherapy, or their combination, in the risk of a composite outcome of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke and admission for heart failure (N Engl J Med 2008;358:1547-59). Combined treatment was associated with higher risks of hypotensive symptoms, syncope and renal dysfunction. Twice-daily celecoxib increases CV risk Taking celecoxib (Celebrex) twice daily carries a higher risk of cardiovascular events than the same total dose taken once daily, a metaanalysis suggests (Circulation 2008; doi: 10.1161/ CIRCULATIONAHA.108. 764530). The analysis of six placebo-controlled trials involving a total of 7950 patients taking celecoxib for indications other than rheumatoid arthritis found that the combined risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure or thromboembolic event increased with dose over the range 400-800mg per day. The risk was significantly greater with 200mg twice daily (HR 1.8) than 400mg once daily (HR 1.1). Patients at greatest baseline risk were at disproportionately increased risk from celecoxib. Long-term etanercept effective in AS An open-label study suggests that etanercept (Enbrel) remains effective in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in the long term (Ann Rheum Dis 2008;67:346-52). Of 257 patients who completed six months' treatment with etanercept and who entered the nonblinded extension study, 126 completed a total of 168-192 weeks' treatment. The commonest adverse events were injection-site reactions (22 per cent), headache (20 per cent) and diarrhoea (17.5 per cent). The annual rate of serious infections was 0.02 per person. Response and partial remission rates after 192 weeks were similar to those reported after 96 weeks. Metformin reduces risk Metformin reduces the risk of developing diabetes in individuals at increased risk, a meta-analysis suggests (Am J Med 2008;121:149-57.e2). The study included 31 mostly small, randomised, controlled trials involving a total of 4570 participants and lasting at least eight weeks (8267 patient-years of treatment). Metformin was associated with reductions in body mass (,5.3 per cent), fasting glucose (,4.5 per cent) and insulin resistance (,22.6 per cent); lipid profiles also improved. The odds of developing diabetes were reduced by 40 per cent,an absolute risk reduction of 6 per cent over 1.8 years. MHRA clarifies cough and colds advice Press reports mistakenly suggested that the MHRA had banned some cough and cold remedies when it issued new guidance on treating young children, the MHRA says. The Agency's advice followed a review of over-thecounter cough and cold medicines for children by the Commission on Human Medicines. Children under two are at increased risk of adverse reactions and should no longer be treated with products containing antihistamine (chlorphenamine, brompheniramine, diphenhydramine), antitussives (dextromethorphan, pholcodine), expectorants (guaifenesin, ipecacuanha) and decongestants (phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, oxymetazoline and xylometazoline). The MHRA said these products, which are classified as general sale medicines, should be removed from open shelves until available in new packaging that complies with the advice. They may still be supplied by a pharmacist for the treatment of older children. Coughs and colds should be treated with paracetamol or ibuprofen for fever, a simple glycerol, honey or lemon syrup for cough, and vapour rubs and inhalant decongestants for stuffy nose. Saline drops can be used to thin and clear nasal secretions in young babies. Parents are being urged not to use more than one product at a time to avoid inadvertently administering the same constituent drug twice. Perindopril brand switch Servier Laboratories is replacing its current formulations of perindopril (Coversyl, Coversyl Plus) with a new product that is not bioequivalent. The current Coversyl brand contains perindopril erbumine (also known as tert -butylamine). The new formulation contains perindopril arginine; it will be distinguished by new brand names (Coversyl Arginine, Coversyl Arginine Plus) and new packaging. Coversyl 2, 4 and 8mg tablets are equivalent to Coversyl Arginine 2.5, 5 and 10mg. Servier says the change is part of the simplification and harmonisation of global manufacturing; the arginine salt is already used in other countries and offers greater stability and a longer shelf-life. Both Coversyl and Coversyl Arginine will be in the supply chain for the next few weeks. Generic perindopril will continue to be the erbumine salt and prescriptions for generic perindopril are not affected. New from NICE Diabetes in pregnancy: management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period. Clinical Guidance No. 63, March 2008 This clinical guideline focuses on additional aspects of care for women with gestational diabetes (88 per cent of cases) or pre-existing diabetes (of which about 40 per cent is type 2 diabetes) and their babies. To date, insulin aspart (NovoRapid) is the only drug in the guideline specifically licensed for use in pregnancy and NICE advises obtaining informed consent to implement its recommendations for using other insulins and oral hypoglycaemic agents. As with other guidelines, NICE begins by stressing the importance of patient-centred care and involving women in decisions about their treatment. The guideline is divided into six sections, dealing with consecutive periods of pregnancy. Preconceptual planning should include empowering women to help them reduce risks, optimising glycaemic control (after retinal assessment) and increasing monitoring intensity, and providing information about the effects of pregnancy on diabetes. Metformin may be recommended as an adjunct or alternative to insulin, but other oral hypoglycaemic agents should be replaced with insulin, although glibenclamide is an option during pregnancy. Isophane insulin is the preferred long-acting insulin; lispro (Humalog) and aspart are considered safe to use. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers should be replaced with other antihypertensive agents and statins should be discontinued. Recommendations for screening and treatment of gestational diabetes build on previous guidance (CG62). Drug treatment will be needed by 10-20 per cent , this includes insulin (soluble, aspart or lispro) and/or metformin or glibenclamide, tailored to individual need. Antenatal care includes optimising glycaemic control. Insulin lispro or aspart should be considered in preference to soluble insulin. If glycaemic control cannot be achieved with insulin injections, an insulin pump may be indicated. The guideline includes a timetable for appointments and the care that should offered after each interval. Recommendations for intrapartum care, which supplement those in CG55, include frequent monitoring of blood glucose. Neonatal care includes recommendations for monitoring and screening the infant and the management of hypoglycaemia. Postnatal care (supplementing CG37) involves adjusting maternal treatment to avoid hypoglycaemia and recommendations for returning to community care. Metformin and glibenclamide are the only oral agents suitable for breastfeeding women. Women with gestational diabetes need advice about glycaemic control and planning for future pregnancies. Lifestyle advice and measurement of annual fasting plasma glucose should be offered. Inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of chronic asthma in adults and in children aged 12 years and over. Technology Appraisal No. 138, March 2008 The latest technology appraisal of asthma treatments covers inhaled steroids for adults and children over 12 with chronic asthma. It makes only two recommendations. First, the cheapest appropriate option is recommended. Second, when a steroid and a long-acting beta2-agonist are indicated, the decision to prescribe a combined inhaler or separate devices should take into account therapeutic need and likely adherence. Combined inhalers are currently less expensive than separate devices, though they may not remain so. When a combined inhaler is chosen it should be the cheapest. NICE concludes that, at equivalent doses, there is little difference in the effectiveness or adverse event profile of the available steroids or the fixed-dose combinations. According to specialist advice, choosing the best device for an individual remains the overriding concern. Continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Technology Appraisal No. 139, March 2008 NICE recommends continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for adults with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnoea, and for those with a milder disorder if quality of life and functioning are impaired and alternative strategies such as lifestyle change have failed. Diagnosis and treatment is the responsibility of a specialist team. A CPAP device costs 250-550 and lasts for seven years. Copyright 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]


Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of the Aqueous Extract of Acacia karroo Stem Bark in Experimental Animals

BASIC AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
Adeolu A. Adedapo
The extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract showed a good analgesic effect characterized by a significant reduction in the number of writhes with two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) used when compared to the untreated control group. In the tail immersion test, the extract at the doses used (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased reaction time to pain after 30 min. of oral administration of the extract. Indomethacin at 10 mg/kg served as reference drug in all these tests. The results gave a scientific basis to the traditional uses of Acacia karroo mainly for wound poultices, eye treatments and cold remedies. [source]


Use of over-the-counter medicines in children

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY PRACTICE, Issue 4 2003
John McIntyre senior lecturer in child health
ABSTRACT Objective To assess the reasons for over-the-counter (OTC) medicine use in children and the sociodemographic factors influencing this choice of self-care rather than GP consultation. Method Questionnaires were sent to the home address of a randomly generated list of children under 12 years of age from three GP practices in the East Midlands selected to represent bottom, middle and top tertiles of deprivation on the basis of the Jarman score. Analysis using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests was used to identify associated factors (number of carers in the home, number of children, deprivation score, parent/carer's age, age and number of children in the house) of the responses. Setting Primary care setting in the East Midlands region of England. Key findings From 424 completed questionnaires returned (response rate 61%), 413 parents/carers had purchased OTC medicines. Fifty-one different products had been purchased, with analgesic/antipyretic and cough/cold remedies the most frequently bought. The most commonly reported reasons for parent/carer initiated medication were to avoid troubling the GP with minor childhood ailments (79% of respondents) and to have medicines available in case of future need (74%). Cost was a barrier to buying OTC medicines for the more deprived. Advice-seeking behaviour was associated with the symptom, the number of children, affluence and the age of the child. Conclusion Parent/carer initiated use of OTC medication is widespread, particularly for analgesic/antipyretic and cough/cold remedies. Differences in advice-seeking behaviour are associated with the presenting symptom and a variety of sociodemographic factors. [source]