Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Cognitive

  • children cognitive
  • mild cognitive
  • other cognitive
  • specific cognitive

  • Terms modified by Cognitive

  • cognitive ability
  • cognitive ability test
  • cognitive activity
  • cognitive adaptation
  • cognitive appraisal
  • cognitive approach
  • cognitive architecture
  • cognitive aspect
  • cognitive assessment
  • cognitive avoidance
  • cognitive behavior therapy
  • cognitive behavioral therapy
  • cognitive behavioral treatment
  • cognitive behaviour therapy
  • cognitive behavioural intervention
  • cognitive behavioural therapy
  • cognitive behavioural treatment
  • cognitive benefit
  • cognitive bias
  • cognitive biase
  • cognitive burden
  • cognitive capability
  • cognitive capacity
  • cognitive change
  • cognitive characteristic
  • cognitive closure
  • cognitive complexity
  • cognitive complications
  • cognitive component
  • cognitive consequence
  • cognitive construct
  • cognitive control
  • cognitive correlate
  • cognitive data
  • cognitive decline
  • cognitive defect
  • cognitive deficit
  • cognitive delay
  • cognitive demand
  • cognitive deterioration
  • cognitive development
  • cognitive difference
  • cognitive difficulty
  • cognitive dimension
  • cognitive disabilities
  • cognitive disability
  • cognitive disorders
  • cognitive dissonance theory
  • cognitive distortion
  • cognitive disturbance
  • cognitive domain
  • cognitive dysfunction
  • cognitive effects
  • cognitive element
  • cognitive enhancement
  • cognitive enhancer
  • cognitive error
  • cognitive evaluation
  • cognitive examination
  • cognitive factor
  • cognitive failure
  • cognitive feature
  • cognitive flexibility
  • cognitive foundation
  • cognitive function
  • cognitive function test
  • cognitive functioning
  • cognitive impact
  • cognitive impairment
  • cognitive improvement
  • cognitive impulsivity
  • cognitive index
  • cognitive intervention
  • cognitive interview
  • cognitive level
  • cognitive limitation
  • cognitive load
  • cognitive loss
  • cognitive map
  • cognitive mapping
  • cognitive measure
  • cognitive mechanism
  • cognitive mediator
  • cognitive model
  • cognitive models
  • cognitive neuroscience
  • cognitive outcome
  • cognitive pattern
  • cognitive performance
  • cognitive perspective
  • cognitive phenotype
  • cognitive problem
  • cognitive process
  • cognitive processing
  • cognitive profile
  • cognitive psychologist
  • cognitive psychology
  • cognitive reaction
  • cognitive rehabilitation
  • cognitive representation
  • cognitive research
  • cognitive reserve
  • cognitive resource
  • cognitive response
  • cognitive restructuring
  • cognitive schema
  • cognitive science
  • cognitive score
  • cognitive screen
  • cognitive skill
  • cognitive state
  • cognitive status
  • cognitive strategy
  • cognitive strength
  • cognitive structure
  • cognitive style
  • cognitive subscale
  • cognitive symptom
  • cognitive syndrome
  • cognitive system
  • cognitive task
  • cognitive techniques
  • cognitive test
  • cognitive test battery
  • cognitive test score
  • cognitive testing
  • cognitive theory
  • cognitive therapy
  • cognitive training
  • cognitive triad
  • cognitive value
  • cognitive variable
  • cognitive view

  • Selected Abstracts


    This study evaluated the utility of generic teamwork skills training for enhancing the effectiveness of action teams. Results from 65 4-person action teams working on an interdependent command and control simulator revealed that generic teamwork skills training had a significant and positive impact on both cognitive and skill-based outcomes. Trained team members evidenced higher levels of declarative knowledge regarding teamwork competencies and demonstrated greater proficiency in the areas of planning and task coordination, collaborative problem-solving, and communication. Furthermore, results indicated that cognitive and skill based outcomes were interrelated. Team members' declarative knowledge regarding teamwork competencies positively affected planning and task coordination, collaborative problem solving, and communication skills. However, we found that the effects of declarative knowledge differed across team members depending on their roles and responsibilities. The team benefited the most from the knowledge held by the team member who occupied the most critical position in the workflow. Implications of these findings for future research and practice are discussed. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Hans Brunnström
    First page of article [source]


    Jeffrey S. Whiting
    Cognitive and behavioral models have become popular methods for creating autonomous self-animating characters. Creating these models present the following challenges: (1) creating a cognitive or behavioral model is a time-intensive and complex process that must be done by an expert programmer and (2) the models are created to solve a specific problem in a given environment and because of their specific nature cannot be easily reused. Combining existing models together would allow an animator, without the need for a programmer, to create new characters in less time and to leverage each model's strengths, resulting in an increase in the character's performance and in the creation of new behaviors and animations. This article provides a framework that can aggregate existing behavioral and cognitive models into an ensemble. An animator has only to rate how appropriately a character performs in a set of scenarios and the system then uses machine learning to determine how the character should act given the current situation. Empirical results from multiple case studies validate the approach. [source]

    Cognitive,behavioral therapy with childhood anxiety disorders: Functioning in adolescence

    Katharina Manassis M.D.
    Abstract We examined anxiety symptoms, anxiety-related impairment, and further treatment in adolescents who received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety disorders 6,7 years previously. Forty-three adolescents and their parents (14 boys, 29 girls; mean age 16.7 years) participated in structured telephone interviews. Participants (68% of initial sample of 63) did not differ in age, diagnostic profile, socioeconomic status, or initial severity from nonparticipants but more girls than boys participated. Indices based on child- and parent-reported symptoms and impairment were calculated, and within-sample comparisons by age, gender, diagnosis, and initial severity were done using t tests. Predictors of symptoms and impairment were also examined. On average, adolescents reported modest levels of anxiety-related impairment. Further treatment for anxiety had occurred in 30% (13 of 43) of patients. Stepwise regressions found female gender and diagnosis other than generalized anxiety disorder predictive of increased symptoms by parent report, and initial severity predicted adolescent-reported impairment. Adolescents showed limited internalizing symptomatology and impairment but almost one third had required further treatment. Studies comparing treated and untreated samples are needed to clarify whether CBT alters the natural history of childhood anxiety disorders and to replicate our findings regarding predictors of symptomatology and impairment. Depression and Anxiety 00:000,000, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes: More than IQ scores

    Glen P. Aylward
    Abstract Improved survival in preterm infants has broadened interest in cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes. The incidence of major disabilities (moderate/severe mental retardation, neurosensory disorders, epilepsy, cerebral palsy) has remained consistent, but high prevalence/low severity dysfunctions (learning disabilities, ADHD, borderline mental retardation, specific neuropsychological deficits, behavioral disorders) have increased. The follow-up literature contains methodologic problems that make generalizations regarding outcome difficult, and these are discussed. Although mean IQs of former VLBW infants generally are in the low average range and are 3,9 points below normal birth weight peers, these scores mask subtle deficits in: visual-motor and visual-perceptual abilities, complex language functions, academics (reading, mathematics, spelling and writing), and attentional skills. There is an increased incidence of non-verbal learning disabilities, need for special educational assistance, and behavioral disorders in children born prematurely. Males have more problems, and there is a trend for worsening outcome over time, due to emergence of more subtle deficits in response to increased performance demands. In addition to IQ and achievement testing in follow-up, there should be evaluation of executive functions and attention, language, sensorimotor functions, visuospatial processes, memory and learning, and behavioral adjustment. MRDD Research Reviews 2002;8:234,240. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Findings from a multidisciplinary clinical case series of females with Rett syndrome

    Hilary Cass BSc FRCPCH
    Systematic data from a multidisciplinary clinical assessment of a large series of females with Rett syndrome (RS; n=87) is presented. Participants' ages ranged from 2 years 1 month to 44 years 10 months. Areas assessed included oromotor skills, feeding problems, growth, breathing abnormalities, mobility, postural abnormalities and joint deformities, epilepsy, hand use and stereotypies, self-care, and cognitive and communication skills. Many previously reported trends in the presentation of RS over time were confirmed, notably the increasingly poor growth and near pervasiveness of fixed joint deformities and scoliosis in adulthood. In contrast, there was a slight trend towards improved autonomic function in adulthood, whereas feeding difficulties increased into middle childhood and then reached a plateau. Improvements in mobility into adolescence were followed by a decline in those skills in adulthood. Levels of dependency were high, confirming findings from previous studies. Despite the presence of repetitive hand movements, a range of hand-use skills was seen in individuals of all ages. Cognitive and communication skills were limited, but there was little evidence of deterioration of these abilities with age. These findings confirm that RS is not a degenerative condition and indicate that intervention and support to maintain and increase motor skills, daily living skills, and cognitive and communicative functioning are appropriate targets for individuals with RS. [source]

    Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 3 2010
    Flavio Cunha
    This paper formulates and estimates multistage production functions for children's cognitive and noncognitive skills. Skills are determined by parental environments and investments at different stages of childhood. We estimate the elasticity of substitution between investments in one period and stocks of skills in that period to assess the benefits of early investment in children compared to later remediation. We establish nonparametric identification of a general class of production technologies based on nonlinear factor models with endogenous inputs. A by-product of our approach is a framework for evaluating childhood and schooling interventions that does not rely on arbitrarily scaled test scores as outputs and recognizes the differential effects of the same bundle of skills in different tasks. Using the estimated technology, we determine optimal targeting of interventions to children with different parental and personal birth endowments. Substitutability decreases in later stages of the life cycle in the production of cognitive skills. It is roughly constant across stages of the life cycle in the production of noncognitive skills. This finding has important implications for the design of policies that target the disadvantaged. For most configurations of disadvantage it is optimal to invest relatively more in the early stages of childhood than in later stages. [source]

    Individualized assessment and treatment program for alcohol dependence: results of an initial study to train coping skills

    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
    Mark D. Litt
    ABSTRACT Aims Cognitive,behavioral treatments (CBT) are among the most popular interventions offered for alcohol and other substance use disorders, but it is not clear how they achieve their effects. CBT is purported to exert its beneficial effects by altering coping skills, but data supporting coping changes as the mechanism of action are mixed. The purpose of this pilot study was to test a treatment in which coping skills were trained in a highly individualized way, allowing us to determine if such training would result in an effective treatment. Design Participants were assigned randomly to a comprehensive packaged CBT program (PCBT), or to an individualized assessment and treatment program (IATP). The IATP program employed experience sampling via cellphone to assess coping skills prior to treatment, and provided therapists with a detailed understanding of patients' coping strengths and deficits. Setting Out-patient treatment. Participants A total of 110 alcohol-dependent men and women. Measurements Participants in both conditions completed experience sampling of situations, drinking and coping efforts prior to, and following, 12 weeks of treatment. Time-line follow-back procedures were also used to record drinking at baseline and post-treatment. Findings IATP yielded higher proportion of days abstinent (PDA) at post-treatment (P < 0.05) than did PCBT, and equivalent heavy drinking days. IATP also elicited more momentary coping responses and less drinking in high-risk situations, as recorded by experience sampling at post-treatment. Post-treatment coping response rates were associated with decreases in drinking. Conclusions The IATP approach was more successful than PCBT at training adaptive coping responses for use in situations presenting a high risk for drinking. The highly individualized IATP approach may prove to be an effective treatment strategy for alcohol-dependent patients. [source]

    Cognitive Deficits during Status Epilepticus and Time Course of Recovery: A Case Report

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2007
    Wim Van Paesschen
    Summary:, We describe a young woman with progressive cognitive and neurological deficits during a parietal lobe status epilepticus (SE). Ictal FDG-PET showed left parietal lobe hypermetabolism and frontal lobe hypometabolism with concomitant EEG slowing. Cognitive and neurological deficits fully reversed more than 1 year after seizure remission, and were associated with normalization of FDG-PET and EEG. Our findings suggest that ictal hypometabolism and EEG delta activity at a distance from the epileptic focus were seizure-related phenomena, possibly representing inhibition in seizure propagation pathways, which could be responsible for the epileptic encephalopathy. [source]

    The Influence of Comorbid Depression on Seizure Severity

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2003
    Joyce A. Cramer
    Summary:,Purpose: To determine the relation between depressive symptoms and seizure severity among people with epilepsy. Methods: A postal questionnaire was used to survey a nationwide community sample about seizures and depression. The Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) assessed the severity and bothersomeness of seizure components. The Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale categorized levels of depression. Results: Respondents categorized as having current severe (SEV, n = 166), mild,moderate (MOD, n = 74), or no depression (NO, n = 443) differed significantly in SSQ scores (all p < 0.0001). People with SEV or MOD reported significantly worse problems than did those with NO depression for overall seizure recovery (mean, 5.3, 4.9, 4.5, respectively); overall severity (5.0, 4.5, 4.2); and overall seizure bother (5.3, 4.8, 4.4) (all p < 0.005). Cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of seizure recovery also were rated worse among people with SEV than with NO depression (all p < 0.05). Symptoms of depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of all components of generalized tonic,clonic seizure severity (r = 0.33,0.48; all p < 0.0001), and partial seizures (r = 0.31,0.38; all p < 0.01). Conclusions: Clinically depressed people with epilepsy reported higher levels of perceived severity and bother from seizures, as well as greater problems with overall seizure recovery than did nondepressed people experiencing similar types of seizures. The pervasive influence of depressive symptoms on reports of seizure activity suggests that people with epilepsy should be screened for depression. These data highlight the importance of detecting and treating depression among people with epilepsy. [source]

    Cognitive,Emotional,Behavioural Therapy for the eating disorders: working with beliefs about emotions

    Emma Corstorphine
    Abstract A subgroup of eating-disordered patients have particular difficulty in tolerating negative mood states and existing interventions seem to be less effective when working with such cases. This clinical practice paper outlines a Cognitive,Emotional,Behavioural Therapy (CEBT). This intervention is aimed at enabling patients to challenge the basis of their emotional distress, and thus to reduce the need for the function of the associated eating behaviours. The intervention draws on range of models and techniques, including cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectical behavioural therapy, mindfulness training and experiential exercises. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Cognitive and behavioural characteristics are associated with personality dimensions in patients with eating disorders

    M. Vervaet
    DSM-IV categorizes eating disorders according to behavioural and cognitive characteristics. Based on personality-related and biological research, hypotheses have been formulated to explain differences in the symptomatology between the various types of eating disorders. Therefore, the study of the association between personality-related characteristics and behavioural and cognitive characteristics may contribute to our understanding of the causes and course of eating disorders. This study aimed, first, at describing personality characteristics (using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory) in a group of eating disordered patients (n,=,272) according to the type of eating disorder. Three groups were compared: restricting anorexics (n,=,71), purging anorexics (n,=,84) and bulimics (n,=,118). Secondly, the association between personality characteristics and cognitive and behavioural aspects, using the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, was measured. In bulimics, positive correlations were found between novelty seeking on the one hand and external and emotional eating and bulimia on the other. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant correlation between novelty seeking and body dissatisfaction in bulimics. The significant difference between the restricting and purging type of anorexics regarding self-directedness, and restrained and emotional eating and drive for thinness corresponded with the significant negative correlation between these characteristics. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Cognitive,behavioral treatment for alcohol dependence: a review of evidence for its hypothesized mechanisms of action

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2000
    Jon Morgenstern
    Objective. This review examined support for the hypothesis that cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for alcohol dependence works through increasing cognitive and behavioral coping skills. Method. Ten studies were identified that examined the hypothesized mechanisms of action of CBT. These studies involved random assignment (or its near equivalent) of participants to CBT and at least one comparison condition. Results. Although numerous analyses of the possible causal links have been conducted to evaluate whether CBT works through increasing coping, the results indicate little support for the hypothesized mechanisms of action of CBT. Conclusions. Research has not yet established why CBT is an effective treatment for alcohol dependence. Negative findings may reflect methodological flaws of prior studies. Alternatively, findings may indicate one or more conceptual assumptions underlying CBT require revision. [source]

    Paternal contribution to fetal alcohol syndrome

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Ernest Abel
    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes for the child. Many women who drink during pregnancy also have male partners who abuse alcohol. Existing data on paternal effects of alcohol abuse during the preconceptual period and at the time of conception are reviewed. Epidemiological data offer some support for a paternal influence on birth weight, congenital heart defects, and some evidence of mild cognitive impairments. Animal data have demonstrated decreased litter size, increased prevalence of low birth weight fetuses and mixed data on risk of malformations. Increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas bacterial infection has been reported. Cognitive and behavioral findings are the most robust effects. These include learning and memory deficits, hyperactivity, and poor stress tolerance. Multiple causal mechanisms for a paternal effect have been suggested, but none seems satisfactory to explain all findings. Further research is needed on paternal effects in animals and human populations. The results of this research may influence prevention activities. [source]

    Cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors in an APPswe/PS1 bigenic model of Alzheimer's disease

    M. Filali
    Neuropsychiatric signs are critical in primary caregiving of Alzheimer patients and yet have been relatively ignored in murine models. In the present study, APPswe/PS1 bigenic mice had higher levels of irritability than non-transgenic controls as measured in the touch escape test. Moreover, APPswe/PS1 mice showed poorer nest building than controls and a higher duration of immobility in the forced swimming assay. These results are concordant with the hypothesis of increased apathy and depression-like behavior in an Alzheimer's disease model. In addition, APPswe/PS1 bigenic mice were deficient in retention of passive avoidance learning and left,right discrimination learning, concordant with previous findings in other Alzheimer-like models. [source]

    Huntington's disease with onset ages greater than 60 years

    Kunihiro Yoshida
    We examined five patients with late-onset Huntington's disease (HD), who developed chorea as an initial symptom at age 60 or later. The mean disease duration from the onset of chorea was approximately 8 years (range, 2,16 years). All carried expanded HD alleles with 39 or 40 CAG repeats. Cognitive or psychiatric decline was observed in four patients, the mean duration of the disease being approximately 10 years. One of them had been institutionalized in a nursing home undiagnosed for a long time. Late-onset HD patients with shorter repeat expansions may be overlooked in Japan. Non-disabling chorea, mild cognitive or psychiatric decline in such patients are sometimes unrecognized or misunderstood as aging-related phenomena, and do not come to medical attention. Considering the potential genetic risk to younger generations, however, genetic testing on such late-onset HD patients should be conducted with careful genetic counseling and psychological support for their family members. [source]

    The effectiveness of Cognitive,Behavioural Therapy with hopeful elements to prevent the development of depression in young people: a systematic review

    Anthony Venning B Hth Sci (Hons), B Soc
    Abstract Background, The onset of depression during adolescence can adversely impact future functioning. Cognitive,Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has been suggested to prevent depression in adolescence by providing an individual with the ability to interpret and the tools to deal with the impact of negative life events. Objective, Examine the best available evidence to determine the effectiveness of CBT to prevent the onset of depression in young people, and assess whether the incorporation of hopeful elements makes CBT more effective. Search strategy, A comprehensive three-step search strategy was developed to find both published and unpublished studies in English from 1987 to March 2007. Papers selected for retrieval were then assessed for methodological validity by two independent reviewers. Selection criteria, Papers that used a randomised controlled design and investigated the efficacy of CBT to prevent the onset of depression in young people between the age of 10 years and 16 years were included. Papers were included if the CBT involved between four and 15 sessions, a follow-up period of between 3 and 24 months and included typical strategies, such as the identification of negative and irrational beliefs, the establishment of links between thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and provided tools so participants could self-monitor these. Data analysis, Data were extracted using the standard tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute, pooled in a meta-analysis, and then grouped and analysed according to the amount of hopeful elements the CBT was judged to contain. Results and conclusion, Limited evidence was found to indicate that CBT, regardless of its content (i.e. with or without hopeful elements), is effective at preventing the onset of clinical levels of depression in young people on a sustained basis. Nonetheless, given the devastating impact that depression can have on young people's future functioning, further research is needed to develop effective interventions to equip young people with the cognitive skills to buffer its onset on a more sustained basis and to enable them to reach and sustain mental health. [source]

    Cognitive and Mobility Profile of Older Social Dancers

    Joe Verghese MD
    OBJECTIVES: To define the cognitive and physical attributes of regular social dancing so as to help establish its health benefits and help plan future dance interventions to prevent adverse outcomes in older adults such as falls, slow gait, and dementia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey with two-group comparison. SETTING: Bronx County, New York. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four cognitively normal older social dancers (OSDs) were compared with 84 age-, sex-, and education-matched older nondancers (ONDs) participating in a community-based study. MEASUREMENTS: Motor and cognitive performance was assessed using validated clinical and quantitative methods. RESULTS: There were no differences in the frequency of participation in other cognitive and physical leisure activities, chronic illnesses, or falls between OSDs and ONDs. Cognitive test performance was not different between OSDs and ONDs. OSDs had better balance but not strength than ONDs. OSDs had a longer mean stride±standard deviation than ONDs (117.8±10.5 cm vs 103.4±20.2 cm, P=.008) on quantitative gait assessment, with a more stable pattern during walking with reduced stance time (63.9% vs 65.9%, P=.01), longer swing time (36.1% vs 34.1%, P=.01), and shorter double support time (27.9% vs 30.9%, P=.03). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that long-term social dancing may be associated with better balance and gait in older adults. [source]

    Cognitive and Functional Decline in Adults Aged 75 and Older

    Sandra A. Black PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To simultaneously examine the influence of functional disability on the development of cognitive impairment and the influence of cognitive status on the development of functional disability over time and compare findings across ethnic groups. DESIGN: A population-based longitudinal study. SETTING: Galveston County, Texas. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred sixty-five community-dwelling Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and non-Hispanic whites, aged 75 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Baseline measures included demographics, self-reported chronic medical conditions, functional disability, and cognitive status. Longitudinal measures included functional decline and cognitive decline. RESULTS: Substantial functional decline was associated with each additional error on the mental status measure; substantial cognitive decline was associated with each additional antecedent disability. These findings were evident across all three ethnic groups, even when taking into account the effects of demographic factors and chronic health conditions, although the specific chronic health conditions that influenced cognitive and functional decline were found to vary across the three ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, rather than simply being correlated markers of increasing frailty, cognitive and functional decline appear to influence the development of one another. Clinicians need to be aware of these associations, which may affect the direction of preventive care and rehabilitation in the oldest old. Appropriate intervention may result in the prevention or delay of functional disability and cognitive decline. Awareness of the specific chronic health conditions that increase the risk for cognitive or functional decline in various ethnic groups, and the effect of comorbid disease, may also help efforts to prevent decline in older adults. [source]

    An Intervention to Increase Fluid Intake in Nursing Home Residents: Prompting and Preference Compliance

    Sandra F. Simmons PhD
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a three-phase, behavioral intervention to improve fluid intake in nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN: Controlled clinical intervention trial. SETTING: Two community NHs. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three incontinent NH residents. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention consisted of three phases for a total of 32 weeks: (1) 16 weeks of four verbal prompts to drink per day, in between meals; (2) 8 weeks of eight verbal prompts per day, in between meals; and (3) 8 weeks of eight verbal prompts per day, in between meals, plus compliance with participant beverage preferences. MEASUREMENTS: Between-meal fluid intake was measured in ounces by research staff during all three phases of the intervention. Percentage of fluids consumed during meals was also estimated by research staff for a total of nine meals per participant (3 consecutive days) at baseline and at 8 and 32 weeks into the intervention. Serum osmolality, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine values were obtained for all participants in one of the two sites at the same three time points. RESULTS: The majority (78%) of participants increased their fluid intake between meals in response to the increase in verbal prompts (phase 1 to 2). A subset of residents (21%), however, only increased their fluid intake in response to beverage preference compliance (phase 3). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of intervention participants who had laboratory values indicative of dehydration compared with the control participants. Cognitive and nutritional status were predictive of residents' responsiveness to the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: A behavioral intervention that consists of verbal prompts and beverage preference compliance was effective in increasing fluid intake among most of a sample of incontinent NH residents. Verbal prompting alone was effective in improving fluid intake in the more cognitively impaired residents, whereas preference compliance was needed to increase fluid intake among less cognitively impaired NH residents. [source]

    Cognitive and Physiological Determinants of Symptom Perception and Interpretation

    Motohiro Nakajima
    The purpose of the current study was to test the aspects of MacGregor and Fleming's model of symptom reporting and illness interpretation. Participants were randomly assigned to cognitive cue (Chemical or No Chemical), sensory cue (Odor or No Odor), and somatic arousal (Exercise or No Exercise) conditions. The findings suggested that although somatic arousal primarily determines whether one experiences symptoms, and expectations,or one's mental model,determine the nature of the attribution regarding the cause of the symptoms, it appears that both the attribution about the cause of the symptoms and the amount of somatic arousal experienced combine to produce the intensity of negative symptoms. [source]

    Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood

    Patricia Howlin
    Background, Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method, The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19,55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results, Data from the cross-sectional study (n = 92; mean age = 32 years) indicated that IQ was comparable across age groups (Full-Scale IQ mean = 56,57) with Verbal IQ being slightly higher than Performance IQ. Daily Living Skills (as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) were significantly higher in older individuals. Language abilities showed no consistent age-related differences. On formal tests of language, comprehension scores were higher than expressive language scores for almost all individuals, although this pattern was not replicated on the Vineland. In the longitudinal study, a follow-up of 47 individuals (mean age = 37 years) first assessed 12 years previously, similar trajectories were found. IQ remained very stable (FSIQ = 61,62 at both time points); there were significant improvements on the Social and Daily Living domains of the Vineland and significant decreases in Maladaptive scores. There were no improvements in language over time. Conclusions, The data indicate that adults with WS (at least up to the age of 50 years) show no evidence of deterioration in cognitive skills. Adaptive abilities continue to develop although language shows relatively little improvement with time. [source]

    Health and Psychiatric Disparities in Children with Cognitive and Developmental Delays: Implications for Health Policy in Quebec

    Jennifer S. Nachshen
    Background, Previous research on psychiatric and health disparities according to level of cognitive functioning has focused on adults within an American healthcare context. The current study compares children with and without cognitive and developmental delays in Quebec, Canada, using physician billing data from a longitudinal study of low-income, francophone families. Canada is an ideal context for studying medical billing data as its equal access healthcare system removes many socioeconomic biases. Methods, A large sample (n = 1050) of children is used to describe psychiatric and health disparities, as well as differences in Ambulatory Care Sensitive (ACS) conditions and primary healthcare, between children with (n = 107) and without (n = 943) diagnoses in their billing history indicative of delays. Results, The findings demonstrated a relatively high level of psychiatric diagnoses for children with delays. However, no difference was found between children with and without delays in regard to emergency room visits and hospitalizations for ACS conditions and primary healthcare. Conclusions, The findings suggest that, within a universal healthcare system, disparities in primary healthcare may not emerge until adulthood in individuals with delay status. [source]

    Cognitive,behavior therapy for PTSD in rape survivors

    Lisa H. Jaycox
    In recent years, new data have appeared, further suggesting the utility of cognitive,behavioral interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to sexual assault. In this article, we present a model of cognitive,behavioral treatment (CBT) for PTSD in rape survivors. Emotional-processing theory, which proposes mechanisms that underlie the development of disturbances following rape, is reviewed. A CBT-based therapy (Prolonged Exposure) is presented that entails education about common reactions to trauma, relaxation training, imaginal reliving of the rape memory, exposure to trauma reminders, and cognitive restructuring. Current research regarding the use of prolonged exposure is discussed. The case example of a young female rape survivor is described in detail, and her prior substance dependence and intense shame are highlighted. The therapy was successful in reducing the client's symptoms of PTSD, as well as her depressive symptoms, and these gains were maintained at a one-year follow-up assessment. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session 58: 891,906, 2002. [source]

    Depressive symptom patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease and other older adults

    Kristi J. Erdal
    Research on depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) has suggested that PD patients experience a qualitatively different depression from that of other older adults, endorsing fewer cognitive symptoms of depression (e.g., guilt, failure) and greater somatic (e.g., poor sleep) and mood symptoms (e.g., sadness, hopelessness); however, this has never been tested directly. In the present study, two PD groups, one with cognitive impairment (PD + CI; n = 26) and one without cognitive impairment (PD; n = 45), and three control groups of older adults were compared on measures of depressive symptomatology. The control groups included a physically disabled group (n = 46), a cognitively impaired group (CI; n = 21), and a healthy group (n = 50). Confirmatory factor analysis verified a four-factor model of depressive symptoms (Cognitive, Mood, Somatic, and Fatigue symptoms). Comparisons revealed that the PD group had a depressive-symptom pattern that was not significantly different from the disabled and healthy groups. The PD + CI group had a symptom pattern that was more similar to the CI group than to the PD group. Implications for the conceptualization of depression in older adults are discussed. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 57: 1559,1569, 2001. [source]

    Cognitive,behavioral therapy with gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients

    Steven A. Safren
    Cognitive,behavioral therapy (CBT) can be adapted to a wide range of clinical difficulties and presenting problems that face lesbians, gay men, and bisexual persons. The following article presents general guidelines for and two case examples of the use of CBT. The first case is a gay male struggling with social phobia. This case is an example of how to adapt a structured, empirically supported cognitive,behavioral treatment focusing on social phobia to situations that are associated with his sexual orientation. The second is a woman struggling with multiple issues including coming out. This case provides an example of how to add specific cognitive,behavioral techniques to coming-out issues within the context of a more eclectic, longer-term therapy. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session 57: 629,643, 2001. [source]

    Institutionalization of the Family and Marriage: Questioning Their Cognitive and Relational Realities

    Jetse Sprey
    This paper argues that to explain the institutionalization processes named the family and marriage, it is necessary to recognize the ontological distinction between their cognitive and relational realities. Institutionalization is an ordering process analogous to instinct in animal societies. In that capacity the human family and marriage collectively order the care and social placement of offspring. Given the biology of Homo sapiens, the family preceded the onset of the human race by millions of years, whereas marriage, the contract that legitimates the social placement of offspring, represents a strictly cultural aspect of human social evolution. The current state and uncertain future of the cognitive and relational components of the institutions of the family and marriage are addressed. [source]

    Behavioural Assays to Model Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Depression and Anxiety in Rats

    M. D. S. Lapiz-Bluhm
    Animal models have been used extensively to investigate neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, and their treatment. However, the aetiology and pathophysiology of many such disorders are largely unknown, which makes validation of animal models particularly challenging. Furthermore, many diagnostic symptoms are difficult to define, operationalise and quantify, especially in experimental animals such as rats. Thus, rather than attempting to model complex human syndromes such as depression in their entirety, it can be more productive to define and model components of the illness that may account for clusters of co-varying symptoms, and that may share common underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In preclinical investigations of the neural regulatory mechanisms linking stress to depression and anxiety disorders, as well as the mechanisms by which chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs may exert their beneficial effects in these conditions, we have employed a number of behavioural tests in rats to model specific cognitive and anxiety-like components of depression and anxiety disorders. In the present study, we review the procedures for conducting four such behavioural assays: the attentional set-shifting test, the elevated-plus maze, the social interaction test and the shock-probe defensive burying test. The purpose is to serve as a guide to the utility and limitations of these tools, and as an aid in optimising their use and productivity. [source]

    Developmental evaluation at age 4: Validity of an Italian parental questionnaire

    Anna Maria Dall'Oglio
    Aim: To validate an Italian parental questionnaire designed to evaluate the neuropsychological and behavioural developmental status of 4-year-olds and identify children in need of further evaluation. Methods: The questionnaire (Questionario per la valutazione dello Sviluppo di bambini a 4 anni , Genitori (QS4-G) ) consisted of 93 questions divided into 10 areas: language, visual-motor abilities, memory/attention, fine and gross motor and self-help abilities, lateralisation, social skills, stress, sleep, alimentation and evacuation. It was distributed to 263 parents of 4-year-olds: 94 healthy preterm (gestational age <33 weeks and/or <1500 g, without major neurosensory damage); 44 children with developmental disorders and 125 children with typical development. Cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations were performed using standardised tests. Results: The internal consistency of the areas was adequate (Cronbach's alpha: 0.69,0.79). The correlation coefficients (r=|0.30|,|0.68|) with standardised tests (Griffiths, Vineland and neuropsychological tests) indicated a good concurrent validity. The receiver operating characteristic curve, for predicting a Griffiths Quotient less than 81, showed an area under the curve of 0.90 and a high diagnostic and discriminatory capacity (sensitivity of 0.88 and specificity of 0.84) for the optimal cut-off (value 48.4). Conclusion: The QS4-G seems to be a valid tool for identifying 4-year-old children at risk for low or borderline cognitive development and/or problematic behaviour who need a complete assessment. It can describe individual neuropsychological profiles. QS4-G is not a diagnostic tool. It is useful for outcome studies in preterm children and in other pathologies. It could also be useful for preschooler prevention programmes. [source]

    Dynamic Interracial/Intercultural Processes: The Role of Lay Theories of Race

    Ying-yi Hong
    ABSTRACT This paper explores how the lay theory approach provides a framework beyond previous stereotype/prejudice research to understand dynamic personality processes in interracial/ethnic contexts. The authors conceptualize theory of race within the Cognitive,Affective Personality System (CAPS), in which lay people's beliefs regarding the essential nature of race sets up a mind-set through which individuals construe and interpret their social experiences. The research findings illustrate that endorsement of the essentialist theory (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) versus the social constructionist theory (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) are associated with different encoding and representation of social information, which in turn affect feelings, motivation, and competence in navigating between racial and cultural boundaries. These findings shed light on dynamic interracial/intercultural processes. Relations of this approach to CAPS are discussed. [source]