Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Cognition

  • entrepreneurial cognition
  • human cognition
  • impaired cognition
  • moral cognition
  • negative cognition
  • normal cognition
  • social cognition
  • spatial cognition

  • Terms modified by Cognition

  • cognition research

  • Selected Abstracts


    Article first published online: 1 SEP 200
    First page of article [source]


    Article first published online: 14 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Risk factors for incident mild cognitive impairment , results from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe)

    T. Luck
    Luck T, Riedel-Heller SG, Luppa M, Wiese B, Wollny A, Wagner M, Bickel H, Weyerer S, Pentzek M, Haller F, Moesch E, Werle J, Eisele M, Maier W, van den Bussche H, Kaduszkiewicz H for the AgeCoDe Study Group. Risk factors for incident mild cognitive impairment , results from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). Objectives:, To provide age- and gender-specific incidence rates of MCI among elderly general practitioner (GP) patients (75+ years) and to identify risk factors for incident MCI. Method:, Data were derived from the longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). Incidence was calculated according to the ,person-years-at-risk' method. Risk factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression models. Results:, During the 3-year follow-up period, 350 (15.0%) of the 2331 patients whose data were included in the calculation of incidence developed MCI [person-years (PY) = 6198.20]. The overall incidence of MCI was 56.5 (95% confidence interval = 50.7,62.7) per 1000 PY. Older age, vascular diseases, the apoE ,4 allele and subjective memory complaints were identified as significant risk factors for future MCI. Conclusion:, Mild cognitive impairment is frequent in older GP patients. Subjective memory complaints predict incident MCI. Especially vascular risk factors provide the opportunity of preventive approaches. [source]

    Do healthy preterm children need neuropsychological follow-up?

    Preschool outcomes compared with term peers
    Aim, The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method, A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33 weeks' gestational age and who were free from major neurosensory disability (16 males, 19 females; mean gestational age 29.4wk, SD 2.2wk; mean birthweight 1257g, SD 327g) and 50 term-born comparison children (25 males, 25 females; mean birthweight 3459g, SD 585g) were assessed at 4 years of age. Cognition was measured using the Griffiths Mental Development scales while neuropsychological abilities (language, short-term memory, visual,motor and constructive spatial abilities, and visual processing) were assessed using standardized tests. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore the effects of preterm birth and sociodemographic factors on cognition, and to adjust neuropsychological scores for cognitive level and maternal education. Results, The mean total Griffiths score was significantly lower in preterm than in term children (97.4 vs 103.4; p<0.001). Factors associated with higher Griffiths score were maternal university education (,=6.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7,11.7) and having older siblings or a twin (,=4.0; 95% CI 0.5,7.6). At neuropsychological assessment, preterm children scored significantly lower than term comparison children in all tests except lexical production (Boston Naming Test) and visual-processing accuracy. After adjustment for cognitive level and maternal education, differences remained statistically significant for verbal fluency (p<0.05) and comprehension, short-term memory, and spatial abilities (p<0.01). Interpretation, Neuropsychological follow-up is also recommended for healthy very preterm children to identify strengths and challenges before school entry, and to plan interventions aimed at maximizing academic success. [source]

    Evidence for implicit sequence learning in dyslexia

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2002
    Steve W. Kelly
    Abstract Nicolson and Fawcett (Cognition 1990; 35: 159,182) have suggested that a deficit in the automatization of skill learning could account for the general impairments found in dyslexia. Much of the evidence for their claims has been collected via a dual task paradigm, which might allow for alternative explanations of the data. The present study examines automatic skill learning in a single task paradigm and extends previous studies by independently examining the contribution of stimulus-based and response-based learning. The task replicates Mayr's (J. Exp. Psychol.: Learning Memory Cognition 1996; 22: 350,364) methodology in the Serial Reaction Time task by exposing participants to two structured displays, simultaneously. Learning is measured by comparing RT to the learned sequence against RT to a random display. This study demonstrates learning for both dyslexic and control groups for a spatial sequence which was observed and a concurrent non-spatial sequence which was responded to via a keypress. Learning of the sequence did not seem to depend on awareness of the sequence structure. These results suggest that automatic skill learning is intact in dyslexic individuals. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cognition and Behavior in Normal-Form Games: An Experimental Study

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 5 2001
    Miguel Costa-Gomes
    This paper reports experiments designed to study strategic sophistication, the extent to which behavior in games reflects attempts to predict others' decisions, taking their incentives into account. We study subjects' initial responses to normal-form games with various patterns of iterated dominance and unique pure-strategy equilibria without dominance, using a computer interface that allowed them to search for hidden payoff information, while recording their searches. Monitoring subjects' information searches along with their decisions allows us to better understand how their decisions are determined, and subjects' deviations from the search patterns suggested by equilibrium analysis help to predict their deviations from equilibrium decisions. [source]

    How Corporate Entrepreneurs Learn from Fledgling Innovation Initiatives: Cognition and the Development of a Termination Script

    Andrew C. Corbett
    Through a parallel examination of literatures on new product development termination and entrepreneurial cognition, this study explores a specific form of human capital development: learning from failure. Specifically we advance the literature on entrepreneurial human capital by linking cognitive scripts used by corporate entrepreneurs in project termination decisions to corresponding levels of learning. Our longitudinal investigation of technology-based firms suggests that corporate entrepreneurs use three types of termination scripts: (1) undisciplined termination, (2) strategic termination, and (3) innovation drift. We illustrate the presence of each script and analyze learning implications during innovation projects (action learning) and after termination (post-performance learning). Based on our analysis we suggest that organizational learning is dependent upon the type of termination script individuals employ. [source]

    The Distinctive and Inclusive Domain of Entrepreneurial Cognition Research

    Ronald K. Mitchell
    Through mapping both distinctive and inclusive elements within the domain of entrepreneurial cognition research, we accomplish our task in this introductory article to Volume 2 of the Special Issue on Information Processing and Entrepreneurial Cognition: to provide a fitting backdrop that will enhance the articles you will find within. We develop and utilize a "boundaries and exchange" concept to provide a lens through which both distinctive and inclusive aspects of the entrepreneurship domain are employed to frame this special issue. [source]

    Introduction to Theme 1: Cognition and the dental student

    Peter Gaengler
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cognition in essential tremor: should we worry about progressive cognitive decline?

    E. Tolosa
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Missing Link in Cognition.

    Origins of self-reflective consciousness
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Motor Cognition What Actions Tell the Self

    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cognitive performance following endarterectomy in asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis

    J. Aharon-Peretz
    Cognition and the effects of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) were evaluated in 22 non-demented subjects with vascular risk factors (VRF) and asymptomatic severe carotid artery stenosis (ASCAS), 14 volunteers with VRF but without stenosis, and 24 healthy controls (HC) without VRF. Non-demented subjects with VRF, with or without carotid stenosis scored inferior to HC. It is concluded that carotid stenosis is not a primary cause of cognitive deterioration and CEA does not improve cognition in patients with ASCAS. [source]

    Discussion on ,Personality psychology as a truly behavioural science' by R. Michael Furr

    Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
    Yes We Can! A Plea for Direct Behavioural Observation in Personality Research MITJA D. BACK and BORIS EGLOFF Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany Furr's target paper (this issue) is thought to enhance the standing of personality psychology as a truly behavioural science. We wholeheartedly agree with this goal. In our comment we argue for more specific and ambitious requirements for behavioural personality research. Specifically, we show why behaviour should be observed directly. Moreover, we illustratively describe potentially interesting approaches in behavioural personality research: lens model analyses, the observation of multiple behaviours in diverse experimentally created situations and the observation of behaviour in real life. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Categories of Behaviour Should be Clearly Defined PETER BORKENAU Department of Psychology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany The target paper is helpful by clarifying the terminology as well as the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches to collect behavioural data. Insufficiently considered, however, is the clarity of the categories being used for the coding of behaviour. Evidence is reported showing that interjudge agreement for retrospective and even concurrent codings of behaviour does not execeed interjudge agreement for personality traits if the categories being used for the coding of behaviour are not clearly defined. By contrast, if the behaviour to be registered is unambiguously defined, interjudge agreement may be almost perfect. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviour Functions in Personality Psychology PHILIP J. CORR Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Furr's target paper highlights the importance, yet under-representation, of behaviour in published articles in personality psychology. Whilst agreeing with most of his points, I remain unclear as to how behaviour (as specifically defined by Furr) relates to other forms of psychological data (e.g. cognitive task performance). In addition, it is not clear how the functions of behaviour are to be decided: different behaviours may serve the same function; and identical behaviours may serve different functions. To clarify these points, methodological and theoretical aspects of Furr's proposal would benefit from delineation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. On the Difference Between Experience-Sampling Self-Reports and Other Self-Reports WILLIAM FLEESON Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Furr's fair but evaluative consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of behavioural assessment methods is a great service to the field. As part of his consideration, Furr makes a subtle and sophisticated distinction between different self-report methods. It is easy to dismiss all self-reports as poor measures, because some are poor. In contrast, Furr points out that the immediacy of the self-reports of behaviour in experience-sampling make experience-sampling one of the three strongest methods for assessing behaviour. This comment supports his conclusion, by arguing that ESM greatly diminishes one the three major problems afflicting self-reports,lack of knowledge,and because direct observations also suffer from the other two major problems afflicting self-reports. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What and Where is ,Behaviour' in Personality Psychology? LAURA A. KING and JASON TRENT Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA Furr is to be lauded for presenting a coherent and persuasive case for the lack of behavioural data in personality psychology. While agreeing wholeheartedly that personality psychology could benefit from greater inclusion of behavioural variables, here we question two aspects of Furr's analysis, first his definition of behaviour and second, his evidence that behaviour is under-appreciated in personality psychology. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Naturalistic Observation of Daily Behaviour in Personality Psychology MATTHIAS R. MEHL Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA This comment highlights naturalistic observation as a specific method within Furr's (this issue) cluster direct behavioural observation and discusses the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) as a naturalistic observation sampling method that can be used in relatively large, nomothetic studies. Naturalistic observation with a method such as the EAR can inform researchers' understanding of personality in its relationship to daily behaviour in two important ways. It can help calibrate personality effects against act-frequencies of real-world behaviour and provide ecological, behavioural personality criteria that are independent of self-report. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Measuring Behaviour D. S. MOSKOWITZ and JENNIFER J. RUSSELL Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Furr (this issue) provides an illuminating comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of various methods for assessing behaviour. In the selection of a method for assessing behaviour, there should be a careful analysis of the definition of the behaviour and the purpose of assessment. This commentary clarifies and expands upon some points concerning the suitability of experience sampling measures, referred to as Intensive Repeated Measurements in Naturalistic Settings (IRM-NS). IRM-NS measures are particularly useful for constructing measures of differing levels of specificity or generality, for providing individual difference measures which can be associated with multiple layers of contextual variables, and for providing measures capable of reflecting variability and distributional features of behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviours, Non-Behaviours and Self-Reports SAMPO V. PAUNONEN Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada Furr's (this issue) thoughtful analysis of the contemporary body of research in personality psychology has led him to two conclusions: our science does not do enough to study real, observable behaviours; and, when it does, too often it relies on ,weak' methods based on retrospective self-reports of behaviour. In reply, I note that many researchers are interested in going beyond the study of individual behaviours to the behaviour trends embodied in personality traits; and the self-report of behaviour, using well-validated personality questionnaires, is often the best measurement option. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. An Ethological Perspective on How to Define and Study Behaviour LARS PENKE Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK While Furr (this issue) makes many important contributions to the study of behaviour, his definition of behaviour is somewhat questionable and also lacks a broader theoretical frame. I provide some historical and theoretical background on the study of behaviour in psychology and biology, from which I conclude that a general definition of behaviour might be out of reach. However, psychological research can gain from adding a functional perspective on behaviour in the tradition of Tinbergens's four questions, which takes long-term outcomes and fitness consequences of behaviours into account. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What is a Behaviour? MARCO PERUGINI Faculty of Psychology, University of Milan,Bicocca, Milan, Italy The target paper proposes an interesting framework to classify behaviour as well as a convincing plea to use it more often in personality research. However, besides some potential issues in the definition of what is a behaviour, the application of the proposed definition to specific cases is at times inconsistent. I argue that this is because Furr attempts to provide a theory-free definition yet he implicitly uses theoretical considerations when applying the definition to specific cases. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Is Personality Really the Study of Behaviour? MICHAEL D. ROBINSON Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA Furr (this issue) contends that behavioural studies of personality are particularly important, have been under-appreciated, and should be privileged in the future. The present commentary instead suggests that personality psychology has more value as an integrative science rather than one that narrowly pursues a behavioural agenda. Cognition, emotion, motivation, the self-concept and the structure of personality are important topics regardless of their possible links to behaviour. Indeed, the ultimate goal of personality psychology is to understanding individual difference functioning broadly considered rather than behaviour narrowly considered. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Linking Personality and Behaviour Based on Theory MANFRED SCHMITT Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany My comments on Furr's (this issue) target paper ,Personality as a Truly Behavioural Science' are meant to complement his behavioural taxonomy and sharpen some of the presumptions and conclusions of his analysis. First, I argue that the relevance of behaviour for our field depends on how we define personality. Second, I propose that every taxonomy of behaviour should be grounded in theory. The quality of behavioural data does not only depend on the validity of the measures we use. It also depends on how well behavioural data reflect theoretical assumptions on the causal factors and mechanisms that shape behaviour. Third, I suggest that the quality of personality theories, personality research and behavioural data will profit from ideas about the psychological processes and mechanisms that link personality and behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Apparent Objectivity of Behaviour is Illusory RYNE A. SHERMAN, CHRISTOPHER S. NAVE and DAVID C. FUNDER Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA It is often presumed that objective measures of behaviour (e.g. counts of the number of smiles) are more scientific than more subjective measures of behaviour (e.g. ratings of the degree to which a person behaved in a cheerful manner). We contend that the apparent objectivity of any behavioural measure is illusory. First, the reliability of more subjective measures of behaviour is often strikingly similar to the reliabilities of so-called objective measures. Further, a growing body of literature suggests that subjective measures of behaviour provide more valid measures of psychological constructs of interest. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Personality and Behaviour: A Neglected Opportunity? LIAD UZIEL and ROY F. BAUMEISTER Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Personality psychology has neglected the study of behaviour. Furr's efforts to provide a stricter definition of behaviour will not solve the problem, although they may be helpful in other ways. His articulation of various research strategies for studying behaviour will be more helpful for enabling personality psychology to contribute important insights and principles about behaviour. The neglect of behaviour may have roots in how personality psychologists define the mission of their field, but expanding that mission to encompass behaviour would be a positive step. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cognition following bilateral deep brain stimulation surgery of the subthalamic nucleus for Parkinson's disease

    Casey H. Halpern
    Abstract Objective Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by significant motor dysfunction and various non-motor disturbances, including cognitive alterations. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an increasingly utilized therapeutic option for patients with PD that yields remarkable success in alleviating disabling motor symptoms. DBS has additionally been associated with changes in cognition, yet the evidence is not consistent across studies. The following review sought to provide a clearer understanding of the various cognitive sequelae of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS while taking into account corresponding neuroanatomy and potential confounding variables. Design A literature search was performed using the following inclusion criteria: (1) at least five subjects followed for a mean of at least 3 months after surgery; (2) pre- and postoperative cognitive data using at least one standardized measure; (3) adequate report of study results using means and standard deviations. Results Two recent meta-analyses found mild post-operative impairments in verbal learning and executive function in patients who underwent DBS surgery. However, studies have revealed improved working memory and psychomotor speed in the ,on' vs ,off' stimulation state. A deficit in language may be a consequence of the surgical procedure. Conclusions While cognitive decline has been observed in some domains, our review of the data suggests that STN DBS is a worthwhile and safe method to treat PD. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Olanzapine does not enhance cognition in non-agitated and non-psychotic patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia

    John Kennedy
    Abstract Objective This was an exploratory study of olanzapine as potential treatment for improvement in cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease without prominent psychobehavioral symptoms. Methods Non-psychotic/non-agitated patients (n,=,268) with Alzheimer's disease, who had baseline Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of 14,26 were randomized to treatment with olanzapine (2.5 to 7.5,mg/d) or placebo for 26 weeks. The primary objectives were to determine if treatment with olanzapine improved cognition as indexed by the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale for Cognition (ADAS-Cog) and the Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change (CIBIC) after 26 weeks of therapy. Results Patients treated with olanzapine vs placebo experienced significant worsening ADAS-Cog scores at weeks 12 (p,=,0.03) and 26 (p,=,0.004). Changes in CIBIC scores were not significantly different between treatment groups at either assessment. A post hoc analysis revealed that olanzapine-treated patients with more cognitive impairment at baseline (MMSE scores of 14,18) (n,=,35) experienced significantly greater deterioration in ADAS-Cog performance than patients in the placebo group (n,=,24; p,<,0.001); whereas in patients with less cognitive impairment (n,=,78, baseline MMSE scores of 23,26) between-group ADAS-Cog changes were not significant. Conclusions In this 26-week study non-psychotic/non-agitated patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with olanzapine experienced significant worsening of cognition as compared to placebo. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Music, Language, and Cognition: And Other Essays in the Aesthetics of Music by kivy, peter

    First page of article [source]

    Fitness and Cognition: Encouraging Findings and Methodological Considerations for Future Work

    Eleanor M. Simonsick PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cytokines and Cognition,The Case for A Head-to-Toe Inflammatory Paradigm

    Craig J. Wilson MBBS
    The brain is not only immunologically active of its own accord, but also has complex peripheral immune interactions. Given the central role of cytokines in neuroimmmunoendocrine processes, it is hypothesized that these molecules influence cognition via diverse mechanisms. Peripheral cytokines penetrate the blood-brain barrier directly via active transport mechanisms or indirectly via vagal nerve stimulation. Peripheral administration of certain cytokines as biological response modifiers produces adverse cognitive effects in animals and humans. There is abundant evidence that inflammatory mechanisms within the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to cognitive impairment via cytokine-mediated interactions between neurons and glial cells. Cytokines mediate cellular mechanisms subserving cognition (e.g., cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways) and can modulate neuronal and glial cell function to facilitate neuronal regeneration or neurodegeneration. As such, there is a growing appreciation of the role of cytokine-mediated inflammatory processes in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Consistent with their involvement as mediators of bidirectional communication between the CNS and the peripheral immune system, cytokines play a key role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation seen in stress and depression. In addition, complex cognitive systems such as those that underlie religious beliefs, can modulate the effects of stress on the immune system. Indirect means by which peripheral or central cytokine dysregulation could affect cognition include impaired sleep regulation, micronutrient deficiency induced by appetite suppression, and an array of endocrine interactions. Given the multiple levels at which cytokines are capable of influencing cognition it is plausible that peripheral cytokine dysregulation with advancing age interacts with cognitive aging. [source]

    Hypertension and Cognition: Enough to be Confused

    Giovanni Gambassi MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Sleep Apnea, Delirium, Depressed Mood, Cognition, and ADL Ability After Stroke

    Olov Sandberg MD
    OBJECTIVES: The incidence of sleep apnea and stroke increases with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of sleep apnea after stroke and its relationship to delirium, depressed mood, cognitive functioning, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), and psychiatric and behavior symptoms. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit. PARTICIPANTS:133 patients (78 women and 55 men, mean age 77.1 ± 7.7 years) consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit. MEASUREMENTS: All patients underwent overnight respiratory sleep recordings at 23 ± 7 days (range 11 to 41 days) after suffering a stroke. The patients were assessed using the Organic Brain Syndrome Scale, Montgomery-Ĺsberg-Depression-Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Barthel-ADL Index. Sleep apnea was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 10 or more. RESULTS: The median of the AHI for the studied sample (N = 133) was 13 (range 0,79; interquartile range 6,28). Fifty-nine percent fulfilled the criteria for sleep apnea; 52% with first-ever stroke had sleep apnea. More patients with sleep apnea than without were delirious, depressed, or more ADL-dependent. Sleep apnea patients also had a higher frequency of ischemic heart disease and had more often suffered from an earlier cerebral infarction. Multivariate analysis showed that obesity, low ADL scores, ischemic heart disease, and depressed mood were independently associated with sleep apnea. Low ADL scores, apnea-related hypoxemia, body mass index ,27, and impaired vision were independently associated with delirium. The presence of sleep apnea was not associated with any specific type of stroke or location of the brain lesion. CONCLUSIONS:Sleep apnea is common in stroke patients and is associated with delirium, depressed mood, latency in reaction and in response to verbal stimuli, and impaired ADL ability. We suggest a trial investigating whether delirium, depressed mood, and ADL ability improve with nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment of sleep apnea in stroke patients. [source]

    Primacy of Affect Over Cognition in Determining Adult Men's Condom,Use Behavior: A Review,

    Tina R. Norton
    Prior research suggests that failure to use condoms can be understood within the context of condom-related attitudes. We reviewed quantitative and qualitative literature on adult men's condom-use attitudes; condom-related attitudinal beliefs were classified as cognitive (e.g., effectiveness) or affective (e.g., pleasure-related), and their relationships to behavior were examined. To determine differences in the effects of cognitive and affective beliefs, we conducted a critical qualitative review, a meta-analysis, and a "vote-count." In support of the primacy of affect hypothesis (Zajonc, 1984), cognitive beliefs were weaker predictors of condom use than were affective beliefs. Results suggest that HIV-prevention interventions will have greater success by addressing negative affective reactions to condom use in addition to promoting the protective value of condoms. [source]

    Assessing Human Impact of Organizational Crises: Reliability and Validity of the Triage Assessment Scale for Organizations (TAS:O)

    Christian Conte
    The present study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Triage Assessment Survey: Organizations (TAS:O), a 27-item, 5-point, Likert summated rating scale. One hundred and seventeen participants responded to the TAS:O after reading mild, moderate, marked and severe organizational crisis scenarios. The overall Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability were both .93. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed three factors, supporting the hypothesis that the TAS:O is comprised of three distinct factors (i.e., Affect, Behavior, and Cognition). An analysis of variance provided evidence that the TAS:O has the capacity to distinguish among mild, moderate, marked, and severe crises. Because this research is the first to evaluate the TAS:O, further studies are needed to strengthen confidence in the psychometric properties of this scale. [source]

    Culture and Identity-Protective Cognition: Explaining the White-Male Effect in Risk Perception

    Dan M. Kahan
    Why do white men fear various risks less than women and minorities? Known as the "white-male effect," this pattern is well documented but poorly understood. This article proposes a new explanation: identity-protective cognition. Putting work on the cultural theory of risk together with work on motivated cognition in social psychology suggests that individuals selectively credit and dismiss asserted dangers in a manner supportive of their cultural identities. This dynamic, it is hypothesized, drives the white-male effect, which reflects the risk skepticism that hierarchical and individualistic white males display when activities integral to their cultural identities are challenged as harmful. The article presents the results of an 1,800-person study that confirmed that cultural worldviews interact with the impact of gender and race on risk perception in patterns that suggest cultural-identity-protective cognition. It also discusses the implications of these findings for risk regulation and communication. [source]

    Temporal Changes in Brain Volume and Cognition in a Randomized Treatment Trial of Vascular Dementia

    Joseph P. Broderick MD
    ABSTRACT Objective. To measure changes in brain and ischemic volume over time by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of a randomized treatment trial of vascular dementia. Methods. Participants who met criteria for vascular dementia underwent comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological testing on entrance, during, and at completion of the 1-year study. For those centers who had easily available MRI, MRI of the brain was to be performed on entry and completion of the study. Image analysis was performed on all balanced and T2-weighted MR films to determine ventricular, sulcal, ischemic, and hemispheric brain volumes. Results. Of the 105 patients who met the criteria for vascular dementia, 40 had a baseline MRI study that met protocol requirements and was of excellent image quality. The baseline ventricular volume in these 40 patients with high-quality MR correlated with most measures of cognitive and behavioral function, including the total Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Score (ADAS) (r= 0.51, P= .0024), as well as activities of daily living (r= 0.61, P= .0002). The baseline ischemic brain volume correlated well only with the gait and postural stability scale (r= 0.74, P= .009). Of the 40 participants, 25 had MRI studies at baseline and at completion of the study that were comparable and of excellent image quality. For these 25 patients, the mean ventricular volumes increased by 9% over the study year (P= .001) and the mean ischemic brain volume increased by 18% (P= .01). Temporal changes in the sulcal and nonischemic brain volume did not reach significance. None of the 14 clinical score measures changed significantly between baseline and completion of the study in these 25 patients. Conclusion. In summary, ventricular volume correlated well with cognitive measures in patients with vascular dementia and was a more sensitive marker for change during the study year than the clinical scales used in this study. This study also points out the practical limitations of brain imaging as a surrogate measure of clinical outcome in multicenter randomized treatment trials of brain disease. [source]

    A Three-Factor Model of Trait Anger: Dimensions of Affect, Behavior, and Cognition

    René Martin
    The structure of trait anger was tested in a study of 24 self-report scales. Exploratory factor analyses in an undergraduate sample (N= 457) yielded a two-factor model (comprising cynicism and aggression) and a three-factor model (representing angry emotions, aggressive behaviors, and cynicism). Subsequent evaluations, including confirmatory factor analyses, indicated that the three-factor model provided the best characterization of the trait anger domain. The three-factor solution was consistent with an ,ABC' conceptualization of trait anger, consisting of the dimensions of affect, behavior, and cognition. The three factors showed strikingly different associations with the Big Five personality traits. Angry Affect was most strongly related to Neuroticism, whereas Behavioral Aggression was associated with low Agreeableness. Cynical Cognition represented a blend of neurotic and disagreeable characteristics. Modest mean-level differences were observed between the genders for each factor. [source]

    Acute Alcohol Effects on Inhibitory Control and Implicit Cognition: Implications for Loss of Control Over Drinking

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
    Matt Field
    Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, and it alters implicit alcohol cognitions including attentional bias and implicit associations. These effects are seen after doses of alcohol which do not lead to global impairments in cognitive performance. We review studies which demonstrate that the effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are associated with the ability of alcohol to prime alcohol-seeking behavior. We also hypothesize that alcohol-induced changes in implicit alcohol cognitions may partially mediate alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink. Based on contemporary theoretical models and conceptualizations of executive function, impulsivity, and the motivational salience of alcohol-related cues, we speculate on other aspects of cognition that may underlie alcohol's effects on alcohol seeking. Inconsistencies in existing research and priorities for future research are highlighted, including dose effects and the potential interactions between chronic heavy drinking and the acute effects of alcohol on these cognitive processes. [source]

    Influence of Alcohol Use Experience and Motivational Drive on College Students' Alcohol-Related Cognition

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2009
    Roisin M. O'Connor
    Background:, Cognitive processes are thought to be pivotal to risk for heavy drinking. However, few studies have examined the alcohol cue-activated positive and negative semantic memory networks that may be pivotal to drinking behavior. Moreover, much is to be understood about the influences of cognitive processes, particularly in high-risk drinking samples such as college students. The current study examines the sequential process of alcohol cues activating valenced semantic memory networks, and the influences of prior drinking experience and individual differences in motivational drive on this automatic (implicit) cognitive process. Methods:, Participants (N = 138, 52% women) were college freshmen prescreened to represent the full range of drinking experience (i.e., current abstainers, light and heavy drinkers). Participants completed self-reports of past month alcohol use, and individual differences in behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral approach/activation system (BAS). Alcohol cue-elicited positive and negative semantic memory networks were assessed using a priming task. Results:, Results from the priming task revealed that for light drinkers alcohol cues were equally as likely to activate positive and negative semantic memory networks, suggesting relatively neutral cue-elicited alcohol attitudes. Conversely, for heavy drinkers, alcohol cues more readily activated positive relative to negative semantic memory networks, suggesting relatively positive cue-elicited alcohol attitudes. Furthermore, positive alcohol cue-elicited semantic memory networks (positive attitudes) were evident for individuals characterized by a strong BAS and weak BIS (as hypothesized) and those characterized by a weak BAS and weak BIS. Conclusions:, The findings suggest that alcohol-cue elicited positive semantic memory networks may be pivotal to risk for heavy drinking. Specifically, it is via the influence on this cognitive process that prior drinking experience and individual differences in motivational drive, respectively, may maintain and predispose individuals to risk for heavy alcohol use. [source]

    Cognition, Language Contact, and the Development of Pragmatic Comprehension in a Study-Abroad Context

    LANGUAGE LEARNING, Issue 1 2008
    Naoko Taguchi
    This study examined two issues: (a) whether there are gains in accurate and speedy comprehension of second language (L2) pragmatic meaning over time and (b) whether the gains are associated with cognitive processing ability and the amount of language contact in an L2 environment. Forty-four college students in a US institution completed three measures three times over a 4-month period: (a) the pragmatic listening test that measured the ability to comprehend implied speaker intentions, (b) the lexical access test that measured ability to make speedy semantic judgment, and (c) the language contact survey that examined the amount of time learners spent in L2 outside the class. The learners' pragmatic comprehension was analyzed for accuracy (the scores on the pragmatic listening test) and comprehension speed (the average time taken to answer items correctly). Results showed that the learners made significant improvement on comprehension speed but not on accuracy of comprehension. Lexical access speed was significantly correlated with comprehension speed but not with accuracy. The amount of speaking and reading outside class that the students reported on the language contact survey significantly correlated with the gains in comprehension speed but not with accuracy of comprehension. [source]

    Mirror Neurons, the Motor System and Language: From the Motor Theory to Embodied Cognition and Beyond

    Jonathan H. Venezia
    The motor theory of speech perception states that phonetic segments in the acoustic speech stream activate stored motor commands in the brain that give rise to perception of discrete speech sounds. The motor theory fell out of favor when growing evidence from lesion and behavioral studies led aspects of the theory to appear untenable. However, with the recent discovery of mirror neurons and their potential role in action understanding, interest in the motor theory of speech perception is renewed. We review the function and properties of mirror neurons in monkeys, and briefly describe the current literature that focuses on the role of a putative human mirror system in cognition and language processing. Further, we describe proposed evidence for the involvement of the motor system in perceptive speech processing, and point out ambiguities in the literature that arise from the tight coupling of sensory and motor processes in speech comprehension. An alternative theory proposing that sensory representations in superior temporal cortex are mapped onto frontal production networks is offered. We cite evidence that confirms the failure of the motor theory to accurately describe perceptive processes in speech, and promote the conclusion that speech representations are fundamentally sensory in nature. [source]