Close Relationships (close + relationships)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Selected Abstracts

Personality and Close Relationships: Embedding People in Important Social Contexts

M. Lynne Cooper
ABSTRACT This special issue of the Journal of Personality is predicated on the assumption that close relationships provide the central stage for the drama of human experience. This all-important context both shapes and conditions the expression of personality, and thus must play an integral role in any truly adequate account of human behavior. The importance of this agenda is perhaps overshadowed only by its difficulty. Contributions to the present issue, therefore, take stock of past research, highlight current state-of-the-art research, and offer a vision of the next generation of research on personality and close relationships. The conceptual and methodological approaches highlighted in this issue remain faithful to the dynamic, interdependent, and multilayered nature of the processes linking personality and close relationships. [source]

Seventy Years of Research on Personality and Close Relationships: Substantive and Methodological Trends Over Time

M. Lynne Cooper
ABSTRACT The present review is based on a quantitative analysis of the abstracts for 477 studies published since 1932 on the topic of personality and close (romantic) relationships. This approach enables a "bird's-eye" view of the content and methods that have characterized research in this area and an examination of publication trends over time. Results showed that 60% of all published studies in this area relied exclusively on cross-sectional and self-report methods; that nearly all used convenience samples, though more than half used nonstudent samples; and that more than one-third relied exclusively on data from individuals rather than couples. Few studies appeared to include elaborated networks of constructs in either the personality or relationship domain or to attempt to integrate an elaborated model of personality with an elaborated relationship model. Examination of trends over time revealed a mixed picture, with increasing use of the least informative designs balanced by evidence of increasingly complex conceptual models. [source]

Adolescents' Attachment Representations and Their Capacity for Intimacy in Close Relationships

Ofra Mayseless
A secure state of mind with regard to attachment, as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), as well as attachment styles as assessed by questionnaires (the two most prevalent facets of attachment representations assessed in adolescence and adulthood) were examined as potential contributors to adolescents' capacity for intimacy. Eighty male Israeli adolescents were administered the two measures and reported on their impulsiveness during their senior year of high school. Four years later, at the end of their mandatory military service, they were interviewed regarding their capacity for intimacy, and they filled out questionnaires. State of mind with regard to attachment and attachment styles uniquely predicted capacity for romantic intimacy and affective relationships with friends. Impulsiveness interacted with attachment security (benefiting dismissing and avoidant participants, and hampering secure ones) in predicting romantic intimacy. The discussion underscores the distinctiveness and importance of different facets of attachment representations to close relationships with peers. [source]

Appraisal Detection Bias and Well-Being in Close Relationships: Couples Experiencing Assisted Reproduction Treatment

Rolf Kienle
Communication between partners about each other's individual stress appraisals is considered to be pivotal for dyadic coping. So far, very little effort has been made to investigate the effects of accurate or biased detection of the partner's stress appraisals. On the basis of a dyadic stress model we predicted low appraisal detection bias among partners to be associated with better emotional well-being. Furthermore, we predicted appraisal detection bias to moderate the relationship between received support and well-being. Indicators of affect and depressive symptoms, spousal emotional support, and self- and partner-rated stress appraisals from 80 couples were assessed at two points in time during early phases of assisted reproduction treatment (in-vitro fertilisation and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection). Results indicated a protective effect of low appraisal detection bias on partners' affect. Contrary to our prediction, little or no appraisal detection bias in support-providing partners and higher emotional support were associated with an increase of depressive symptoms in support-receiving partners. These findings are discussed in light of research on stress-increasing effects of received social support. [source]

Developmental Pathways in Close Relationships

Alan Fogel
Multiple case study developmental pathway research is needed to substantiate the theoretical propositions of the target article. [source]

A Secure Base from Which to Explore Close Relationships

Everett Waters
The theory of attachment as a secure-base relationship integrates insights about affect, cognition, and behavior in close relationships across age and culture. Empirical successes based on this theory include important discoveries about the nature of infant,caregiver and adult,adult close relationships, the importance of early experience, and about stability and change in individual differences. The task now is to preserve these insights and successes and build on them. To accomplish this, we need to continually examine the logic and coherence of attachment theory and redress errors of emphasis and analysis. Views on attachment development, attachment representation, and attachment in family and cross-cultural perspective need to be updated in light of empirical research and advances in developmental theory, behavioral biology, and cognitive psychology. We also need to challenge the theory by formulating and testing hypotheses which, if not confirmed, would require significant changes to the theory. If we can accomplish these tasks, prospects for important developments in attachment theory and research are greater than ever, as are the prospects for integration with other disciplines. [source]

The Unacknowledged Role of Emotion in Theories of Close Relationships: How Do Theories Feel+

Sally Planalp
Emotion clearly plays a leading role in close relationships and may even direct their development, durability, and dissolution. In theories of close relationships, however, emotion is often given only a supporting role. Recent research in the study of emotion suggests several ways in which existing theories might be enriched by letting emotion into the limelight: Social exchange theory could become more intuitively appealing by incorporating recent research on the role of emotion in decision making. Dialectical theories could be enriched by incorporating emotions that provide feelings of dialectical tension and drive movement between poles. Stage theories of relational development could be elaborated by including how feelings change as relationships develop and deteriorate. [source]

Exchange and Development: A Dynamical, Complex Systems Perspective

Reuben M. Baron
Close relationships are complex systems that are frequently reorganized on the basis of prevailing communal and exchange norms. [source]

Reconciliation and consolation in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus)

Elisabetta Palagi
Abstract Although reconciliation in bonobos (Pan paniscus) has previously been described, it has not been analyzed heretofore by the postconflict (PC) match-control (MC) method. Furthermore, although reconciliation has been investigated before in this species, consolation has not. In this study we analyzed agonistic and affiliative contacts in all sex-class combinations to clarify and reevaluate the occurrence of reconciliation in bonobos via the PC-MC method. We also investigated the occurrence of consolation by analyzing the victims' triadic contact tendency (TCT), the influence of the sex of victims, and the relative occurrence of consolation and reconciliation. We collected 167 pairs of PC-MC observations in a captive group of bonobos (in Apeldoorn, The Netherlands). The conciliatory tendency (CCT) we obtained was tendentially lower than the mean value previously found for Yerkes captive chimpanzees. Close relationships, which were present in all female,female (FF) and some male,female (MF) dyads, positively affected reconciliation rates. When only adult PC-MC pairs (157) were considered, the mean TCTs and CCTs did not differ significantly. When we focused on types of PC affiliative contact, in the case of consolation we found a striking preference for sociosexual patterns. As to the relative occurrence of consolation and reconciliation, the highest level of the former was found in the absence of the latter. When reconciliation took place, consolation generally preceded it, suggesting that consolation may be a substitutive behavior. Our findings suggest that even if reconciliation remains the best option, consolation may be an alternative substitute for reconciliation that is used to buffer the tension originating from an unresolved conflict. Reconciliation and consolation are complex phenomena that are probably related to the life history of a group. Given that few studies have been conducted on this subject, we can not at this time make any generalizations regarding conflict resolution in certain species by comparing results among studies. Am. J. Primatol. 62:15,30, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The dark side of close relationships.

By Brian H. Spitzberg.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Local Food, Local Engagement: Community-Supported Agriculture in Eastern Iowa

Brandi Janssen
Abstract This paper examines some of the daily realities of operating a Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm in eastern Iowa and addresses the concept of community among growers. Popular depictions of local foods systems often emphasize the close relationships that develop between producers and consumers. This picture, however, may gloss over the necessary complexities of a healthy local food system. CSA has been promoted as a direct marketing strategy for small-scale growers and touted as a way of developing positive relationships between producers and consumers. Nevertheless, it is also important to understand that successful CSA initiatives are often reliant on a broad network of support that includes more than just growers and eaters. Ethnographic descriptions of CSA farms presented here show how involvement by media and other organizations contribute to successful CSAs as well as an overall concept of "civic agriculture." These descriptions also show that access to affordable, reliable labor tends to be among the greatest challenges for CSA growers. [source]

The importance of family management, closeness with father and family structure in early adolescent alcohol use

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
Cherine Habib
ABSTRACT Aims To examine the importance of family management, family structure and father,adolescent relationships on early adolescent alcohol use. Design Cross-sectional data was collected across 30 randomly selected Australian communities stratified to represent a range of socio-economic and regional variation. Setting Data were collected during school time from adolescents attending a broad range of schools. Participants The sample consisted of a combined 8256 students (aged 10,14 years). Measurements Students completed a web-based survey as part of the Healthy Neighbourhoods project. Findings Family management,which included practices such as parental monitoring and family rules about alcohol use,had the strongest and most consistent relationship with alcohol use in early adolescence. Adolescents reporting higher family management were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time, less likely to drink alcohol in the preceding 30 days and less likely to have had an alcohol binge. Adolescents reporting emotionally close relationships with their fathers were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time and less likely to have had an alcohol binge in the preceding fortnight. Conclusions Findings indicate that family management practices may contribute to alcohol abstinence in adolescents. Furthermore, emotionally close father,adolescent relationships may also foster abstinence; however, fathers' drinking behaviours need to be considered. [source]

Adult attachment dimensions and recollections of childhood family context: associations with dispositional optimism and pessimism

Kati Heinonen
The present study tested the theoretically inferred but not yet empirically tested association between dispositional optimism,pessimism and attachment security among 423 Finnish women and men. A second-order latent variable representing a generalized representation of attachment insecurity in close relationships that included two latent constructs, the one representing romantic adult attachment dimensions and the other representing recollections of attachment-related childhood family relationship, was associated with greater pessimism; the adult attachment dimension of high anxiety had unique and additional explanatory power, not accounted for by the generalized representation of attachment-related insecurity. The model explained 48% of the variance in pessimism. The results clearly emphasize that additional studies are needed to clarify the role of interpersonal processes in dispositional optimism,pessimism. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The anxiety buffering function of close relationships: mortality salience effects on the readiness to compromise mate selection standards

Gilad Hirschberger
This research examines the utility of a terror management approach to understanding the motivations and emotional consequences of compromise in mate selection. One hundred and sixty-eight undergraduates completed a self-esteem scale and a scale tapping ideal mate characteristics, and were then assigned either to a mortality salience, physical pain salience, or neutral condition. Half of the participants rated their readiness to compromise ideal mate standards and the remaining half completed a neutral scale. Then, participants completed a scale tapping their emotional state. Mortality salience led participants to significantly compromise their mate requirements. This effect seemed to be most pronounced among high self-esteem participants who also experienced the greatest amount of guilt when compromising under mortality salient conditions. Low self-esteem participants who compromised under mortality salient conditions reacted with higher levels of shame. The results are discussed in terms of the anxiety buffering functions of close relationships. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quantifying the relationship between soil organic carbon and soil physical properties using shrinkage modelling

P. Boivin
Summary Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) may strongly affect soil structure and soil physical properties, which in turn may have feedback effects on the soil microbial activity and SOC dynamics. Such interactions are still not quantitatively described and accounted for in SOC dynamics modelling. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that soil shrinkage curve (ShC) analysis allows the establishment of close relationships between soil physical properties and SOC. We sampled a rice-cropped vertisol, a cambisol under conventional tillage and no-tillage and a restored cambisol. Soil samples were analysed for clay and SOC content, bulk volume, hydro-structural stability and plasma and structural pore volumes changes on the full water content range using ShC analysis. Although the soils behaved differently according to their constituents and history, changes in SOC linearly affected most of the soil physical properties, with stronger effects than changes in clay content. The observed effects of increasing SOC, such as increasing hydro-structural stability, specific bulk volume and water retention, agreed well with previously reported results. However, using ShC measurement and modelling allowed the observation of all these different effects simultaneously for small changes in SOC, and in a single measurement. Moreover, the relation between SOC changes and physical properties could be quantified. ShC analysis may, therefore, be used to account for the effect of changes in SOC on soil physical properties. [source]

Proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult rat brain correlates with the presence of vimentin-expressing astrocytes

GLIA, Issue 4 2001
Gérard Alonso
Abstract It is well established that proliferation of progenitor cells persists within the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) in the adult brain. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the rate of cell proliferation within these germinative zones could be correlated to the occurrence of a particular glial environment. The cell proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administrated to rats under different physiological and experimental conditions known to modify the rate of progenitor cell proliferation. Within both germinative zones, BrdU-labeled nuclei were associated with cell bodies immunostained for the neuronal marker polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, but not for the glial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or vimentin (VIM). In all the rats examined, however, proliferating (BrdU-labeled) cells always exhibited close relationships with immature-like astrocytes that expressed both GFAP and VIM. There was a dramatic decrease of cell proliferation in the DG from both the aged rats and the corticosterone-treated adult rats that was correlated with a decreased expression of vimentin by the astrocytes present in this region. In contrast, both cell proliferation and vimentin expression were only slightly affected in the SVZ from these two treatment groups. Conversely, after either adrenalectomy or a surgical lesion through the lateral hippocampus, the increase in cell proliferation observed in the DG was correlated to the occurrence of an increased number of GFAP and VIM double immunostained structures in these regions. All together, these data suggest that immature-like astrocytes present in the germinative zones may provide a microenvironment involved in sustaining the proliferation of progenitor cells. GLIA 34:253,266, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Manifestations of Relationship Conceptualizations in Conversation

Leanne K. Knobloch
A question fundamental to the study of interpersonal communication in close relationships is how the characteristics people associate with their relationships are evident in their conversation. We begin by explicating 3 key aspects of relationship conceptualizations: reliance on relational knowledge, interdependence, and mutual commitment. Then we advance hypotheses linking those relationship conceptualizations with features of people's content and relational messages. We report the results of a study in which 120 dating couples engaged in videotaped conversations. Findings offered modest support for our predictions regarding reliance on relational knowledge; results were less consistent with our hypotheses involving interdependence and mutual commitment. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for understanding how perceptions of relationships are apparent in conversation. [source]

Quasiparticle approximations and electron propagator theory

J. V. Ortiz
Abstract A comparison of quasiparticle concepts arising from the Dyson equation of electron propagator theory and from orbital functional theory shows close relationships between self,energy expressions in the former to correlation potentials in the latter. Detailed formulae are presented for second-order theories with general occupation numbers. Limitations of the Dyson and Landau quasiparticle concepts in the context of perturbative correlation formulae are discussed. Numerical results on N2, H2O, and their valence ionization energies are presented. Comparisons are made between total energy differences, orbital energies, and transition operator results. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2003 [source]

Integer programming solution approach for inventory-production,distribution problems with direct shipments

Miguel A. Lejeune
Abstract We construct an integrated multi-period inventory,production,distribution replenishment plan for three-stage supply chains. The supply chain maintains close relationships with a small group of suppliers, and the nature of the products (bulk, chemical, etc.) makes it more economical to rely upon a direct shipment, full-truck load distribution policy between supply chain nodes. In this paper, we formulate the problem as an integer linear program that proves challenging to solve due to the general integer variables associated with the distribution requirements. We propose new families of valid cover inequalities, and we derive a practical closed-form expression for generating them, upon the determination of a single parameter. We study their performances through benchmarking several branch-and-bound and branch-and-cut approaches. Computational testing is performed using a large-scale planning problem faced by a North American company. [source]

Goals and Social Relationships: Windows Into the Motivation and Well-Being of "Street Kids",

Esther Usborne
Research investigating homeless youth or, as they prefer, "street kids," has primarily described their dysfunction. In order to more thoroughly document their psychological reality and account for variability in their functioning, this study explored the close relationships and personal projects of 50 street kids. Self-determination theory provides a theoretical framework for hypotheses concerning the relationships that social networks and goals have with motivation and subjective well-being. The size of participants' social networks was positively related to internalization and positive well-being. Goal pursuit was also positively related to internalization and positive well-being. These findings,along with descriptive information documenting street kids' motivation, well-being, and family contact,afford us a view beyond their dysfunction, and elucidate factors associated with their optimal functioning. [source]

Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and biogeography in Neotropical Brotogeris parakeets

Camila C. Ribas
Abstract Aim, We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Brotogeris (Psittacidae) using several distinct and complementary approaches: we test the monophyly of the genus, delineate the basal taxa within it, uncover their phylogenetic relationships, and finally, based on these results, we perform temporal and spatial comparative analyses to help elucidate the historical biogeography of the Neotropical region. Location, Neotropical lowlands, including dry and humid forests. Methods, Phylogenetic relationships within Brotogeris were investigated using the complete sequences of the mitochondrial genes cyt b and ND2, and partial sequences of the nuclear intron 7 of the gene for Beta Fibrinogen for all eight species and 12 of the 17 taxa recognized within the genus (total of 63 individuals). In order to delinetae the basal taxa within the genus we used both molecular and plumage variation, the latter being based on the examination of 597 skin specimens. Dates of divergence and confidence intervals were estimated using penalized likelihood. Spatial and temporal comparative analyses were performed including several closely related parrot genera. Results,Brotogeris was found to be a monophyletic genus, sister to Myiopsitta. The phylogenetic analyses recovered eight well-supported clades representing the recognized biological species. Although some described subspecies are diagnosably distinct based on morphology, there was generally little intraspecific mtDNA variation. The Amazonian species had different phylogenetic affinities and did not group in a monophyletic clade. Brotogeris diversification took place during the last 6 Myr, the same time-frame as previously found for Pionus and Pyrilia. Main conclusions, The biogeographical history of Brotogeris implies a dynamic history for South American biomes since the Pliocene. It corroborates the idea that the geological evolution of Amazonia has been important in shaping its biodiversity, argues against the idea that the region has been environmentally stable during the Quaternary, and suggests dynamic interactions between wet and dry forest habitats in South America, with representatives of the Amazonian biota having several independent close relationships with taxa endemic to other biomes. [source]

Zoogeography of the southern African ascidian fauna

Carmen Primo
Abstract Aim, To describe the biogeography of the ascidian fauna of southern Africa, to compare the results obtained with those reported for other fauna and flora of the same region, and to speculate about the origin of ascidians in the region. Location, Southern Africa extending over 4000 km from Mossâmedes (15° S,12° E) to Inhaca Island (26°30, S,33° E), including Vema Seamount (31°40, S,8 °20, E), Amsterdam-Saint Paul Islands (38° S,77°30, E) and the Tristan-Gough Islands (38° S,12°20, W). Methods, We constructed a presence/absence matrix of 168 species for 26 biogeographical divisions, 21 classical biogeographical regions described by Briggs (Marine zoogeography, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1974) and five provinces within the southern African region. We considered the following limits and divisions into provinces for the southern African region: Namibia, Namaqua, Agulhas and Natal as proposed by Branch et al. (Two oceans. A guide to the marine life of southern Africa, David Philip Publishers, 1994), and the West Wind Drift Islands province (WWD) according to Briggs (Global biogeography, Elsevier Health Sciences, Amsterdam, 1995). To examine the biogeographical structure, species and divisions were classified using cluster analysis (based on UPGMA as the aggregation algorithm) with the Bray,Curtis index of similarity. This classification was combined with MDS ordination. Main conclusions, Four main groups were obtained from the analysis of affinities among species: (1) species present in the WWD, separated by a high percentage of endemisms and a low number of species with a southern African distribution. Moreover, in the light of the species distribution and the results of further analysis, which revealed that they are completely separated and not at all related to the southern African region, it appears that there are no close relationships among the different islands and seamounts of the West Wind Drift Island province. This province was therefore removed from the remaining analyses; (2) species with a wide distribution; (3) species of colder waters present in Namaqua and Agulhas provinces, a transitional temperate area in which gradual mixing and replacement of species negate previous hypotheses on the existence of a marked distributional break at Cape of Good Hope; (4) species of warmer waters related to Natal province. The classification into biogeographical components was dominated by the endemic (47%), Indo-Pacific (25%) and cosmopolitan (13%) components. The analysis of affinities among biogeographical areas separated Namibia from the rest of the southern African provinces and showed that it was related to some extent to the Antarctic region because of the cold-temperate character of the province and the low sampling effort; Namaqua, Agulhas and Natal were grouped together and found to be closely related to the Indo-West Pacific region. In general, our results were consistent with those obtained for other southern African marine invertebrates. The frequency distribution of solitary/colonial strategies among provinces confirmed the domination of colonial organisms in tropical regions and solitary organisms in colder regions. Finally, we speculate that the southern African ascidian fauna mainly comprises Indo-Pacific, Antarctic and eastern Atlantic ascidians. [source]


John Kowal
The onset of chronic illness is one of the most pervasive health problems facing North Americans today. Only recently have researchers and clinicans seriously examined chronic physical conditions in the context of close relationships. This article briefly reviews the literature on chronic illness in adult couples. Initially, the focus is on the reciprocal link between close relationships and chronic physical conditions. A number of clinical approaches for working with chronic illness in couples are outlined, a particular case is made for the utility of emotionally focused therapy, and a case study is presented. [source]

The Social Ecology of Marriage and Other Intimate Unions

Ted L. Huston
This article provides an interdisciplinary framework for studying marital and other intimate relationships. Three levels of analysis are distinguished: (a) the society, characterized in terms of both macrosocietal forces and the ecological niches within which particular spouses and couples function; (b) the individual spouses, including their psychosocial and physical attributes, as well as the attitudes and beliefs they have about each other and their relationship; and (c) the marriage relationship, viewed as a behavioral system embedded within a larger network of close relationships. The discussion focuses primarily on the interplay between the spouses and their marriage, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing, both analytically and operationally, the individual from the dyadic (or group) levels of analysis. It is also argued that in order to appreciate how marriages work, social scientists must understand not only how these 2 levels of analysis interpenetrate each other but also how macrosocietal forces and the ecological niches within which couples live impinge on partners and their marital relationship. [source]

Self-Monitoring: Individual Differences in Orientations to the Social World

Christopher Leone
ABSTRACT In their articles in this special section of the Journal of Personality, the authors have focused their attention on the role of individual differences in self-monitoring for a variety of interpersonal phenomena. In so doing, the authors have provided an overview of the theoretical and empirical contributions of the psychology of self-monitoring to the domains of interest: close relationships, consumer behavior, behavior in the workplace, and social interaction. As each of the contributing authors to this special section suggests, much more theoretical and empirical work is in order if the impact of individual differences in self-monitoring for the phenomena reviewed here is to be fully appreciated. Moreover, the four domains of interest represented in this special section by no means exhaust the areas to which theorists and researchers have applied or can apply the psychology of individual differences in self-monitoring. Given the large nomological network that currently exists involving the self-monitoring construct, it is anticipated that the breadth and depth of applications of the psychology of self-monitoring will only continue to expand as it has in the last 30 years since the appearance of the construct in the literature. [source]

Personality and Close Relationships: Embedding People in Important Social Contexts

M. Lynne Cooper
ABSTRACT This special issue of the Journal of Personality is predicated on the assumption that close relationships provide the central stage for the drama of human experience. This all-important context both shapes and conditions the expression of personality, and thus must play an integral role in any truly adequate account of human behavior. The importance of this agenda is perhaps overshadowed only by its difficulty. Contributions to the present issue, therefore, take stock of past research, highlight current state-of-the-art research, and offer a vision of the next generation of research on personality and close relationships. The conceptual and methodological approaches highlighted in this issue remain faithful to the dynamic, interdependent, and multilayered nature of the processes linking personality and close relationships. [source]

Finding the Person in Personal Relationships

Harry T. Reis
ABSTRACT The search for dispositional factors that influence the course and conduct of close relationships has long and popular roots. No cogent theory of interpersonal processes would deny that dispositional factors matter, and, furthermore, both scholarly and lay analyses often emphasize them. Although existing research has made progress in understanding how dispositions affect behavior in ongoing relationships, when all is said and done, this progress has been modest. In this paper, we discuss several interlocking theoretical and methodological principles that may facilitate movement to the next (and more sophisticated) generation of theory and research. We draw particularly on interdependence theory to discuss the concepts of relationship and persons-in-relationship. Central to our analysis is the principle that interaction in relationships is an inherently dynamic, temporal, and thoroughly interdependent process that cannot be properly understood from examination of the static, global dispositions of one of its members. To provide grounding for our analysis, we also discuss several specific implications of these concepts for the conduct of research seeking to understand personality in relationships. [source]

The apparent electrical conductivity as a surrogate variable for predicting earthworm abundances in tilled soils

Monika Joschko
Abstract Noninvasive geophysical methods have a great potential for improving soil-biological studies at field or regional scales: they enable the rapid acquisition of soil information which may help to identify potential habitats for soil biota. A precondition for this application is the existence of close relationships between geophysical measurements and the soil organism of interest. This study was conducted to determine whether field measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) are related to abundances of earthworms in tilled soils. Relationships between ECa and earthworm populations were investigated along transects at 42 plots under reduced and conventional tillage at a 74 ha field on sandy-loam soil in NE Germany. Relations were analyzed with linear-regression and spatial analysis. The apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was quantitatively related to earthworm abundances sampled 5 months after the geophysical measurements. No relationship was found, however, in plots under conventional tillage when analyzed separately. If earthworm abundances were known at every other location along the transects and if the state-space approach was used for analysis, the analysis of ECa measurements and earthworm abundances indicated that 50% of the earthworm samples could have been substituted by ECa measurements. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the potential of ECa measurements for predicting earthworm habitats in tilled soil. [source]

Life strategies of solitary undissepimented rugose corals from the upper member of the Picos de Europa Formation (Moscovian, Carboniferous, Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain)

LETHAIA, Issue 3 2001
Rugose corals belonging to the orders Metriophyllina, Stereolasmatina and Plerophyllina have been identified in the upper member of the Picos de Europa Formation (Moscovian). Corals occur in crinoidal limestones containing common bryozoans. The coral assemblage shows a high diversity. Mode of preservation and spatial distribution of corals demonstrate close relationships with biogenic components such as crinoids, bryozoans, brachiopods and bivalves. The morphology of corals provides valuable data for identifying their life strategies, four of which have been identified: liberosessile with straight growth, liberosessile with curved growth, fixosessile with straight growth and fixosessile with curved growth. Most corals from the Picos de Europa Formation appear to have been fixosessile with straight growth; they attached themselves to bioclasts and subsequently developed radiciform processes (mainly talons) to remain straight. [source]

Sex-biased natal dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in American black bears as revealed by spatial genetic analyses

Abstract We tested the hypothesis that sex-biased natal dispersal reduces close inbreeding in American black bears, a solitary species that exhibits nearly complete male dispersal and female philopatry. Using microsatellite DNA and spatial data from reproductively mature bears (, 4 years old), we examined the spatial genetic structure of two distinct populations in New Mexico from 1993 to 2000. As predicted, relatedness (r) and the frequency of close relationships (parent,offspring or full siblings) decreased with distance among female dyads, but little change was observed among male or opposite-sex dyads. Neighbouring females were more closely related than neighbouring males. The potential for inbreeding was low. Most opposite-sex pairs that lived sufficiently close to facilitate mating were unrelated, and few were close relatives. We found no evidence that bears actively avoided inbreeding in their selection of mates from this nearby pool, as mean r and relationship frequencies did not differ between potential and actual mating pairs (determined by parentage analysis). These basic patterns were apparent in both study areas despite a nearly two-fold difference in density. However, the sex bias in dispersal was less pronounced in the lower-density area, based on proportions of bears with male and female relatives residing nearby. This result suggests that male bears may respond to reduced competition by decreasing their rate or distance of dispersal. Evidence supports the hypothesis that inbreeding avoidance is achieved by means of male-biased dispersal but also indicates that competition (for mates or resources) modifies dispersal patterns. [source]