Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Chicks

  • broiler chick
  • cuckoo chick
  • grouse chick
  • hatched chick
  • magellanic penguin chick
  • neonatal chick
  • penguin chick

  • Terms modified by Chicks

  • chick chorioallantoic membrane
  • chick development
  • chick diet
  • chick embryo
  • chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane
  • chick growth
  • chick limb
  • chick limb bud
  • chick liver
  • chick mortality
  • chick rearing
  • chick retina
  • chick survival

  • Selected Abstracts

    Chick provisioning by the Yellow-nosed Albatross Diomedea chlororhynchos: response of foraging effort to experimentally increased costs and demands

    IBIS, Issue 1 2000
    First page of article [source]

    Chick Lit: The New Woman's Fiction by Suzanne Ferris and Mallory Young, Editors

    Linda S. Coleman
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Distribution and Cytoarchitecture of Sympathetic Neurons Innervating the Pineal Gland in Chick: A CTB-HRP Study

    L. Jia
    Summary The neurons in bilateral superior cervical ganglia (SCG) innervating the chick pineal gland were labelled by using the technique of retrograde axonal labelling with cholera toxin B subunit linked to horseradish peroxidase (CTB-HRP). To our results, perikarya of these sympathetic neurons distributed from rostral to caudal in the SCG, and mainly localized in the opposite side of the paravertebral trunk. The fibres of these neurons were collected by the cephalic carotid nerve. According to the sizes of somal area and dendritic field, these sympathetic neurons projecting to the pineal gland were classified into four major groups: group I cells (52.4%) with a small somal area (303.5 ,m2 on average) and narrow dendritic field (3767.8 ,m2 on average), group II cells (39.0%) with a middle-sized somal area (473.3 ,m2) and middle-sized dendritic field (7522.2 ,m2), group III cells (6.4%) with a middle-sized somal area (473.4 ,m2) and wide dendritic field (13 104.4 ,m2), and group IV cells (2.2%) with a large somal area (940.7 ,m2) and wide dendritic field (14 553.2 ,m2). Of these pineal projecting neurons, most took on a lesser dendritic field. The neurons with small or middle-sized dendritic field from group I and II were about 91.4% of the total neurons labelled with CTB-HRP, and the neurons with wide dendritic field from group III and IV were less with 8.6%. [source]

    Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Nucleus Geniculatus Lateralis Ventralis Demonstrated by WGA-HRP in the Chick

    M. Hu
    Summary Fibre connections of the chick nucleus geniculatus lateralis ventralis (GLv) were investigated using the axonal tracing method with wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). After an injection of WGA-HRP into the GLv, many labelled neurons were observed in layer i of the stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale (SGFS) in the ipsilateral tectum opticum (TO) and in the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM). In the TO-GLv projection, cells of origin were located in the deeper part of layer i of the TO and were topographically distributed along the direction from the rostrodorsal part to the caudoventral part of the TO relating to a rostrocaudal axis of the GLv. In the LM-GLv connection, the dorsal and ventral parts of the LM connected reciprocally with the rostral and caudal halves of the GLv, respectively. In contrast, in the GLv efferent connection, labelled axon terminals spread widely in the ipsilateral area pretectalis without any clear topographical arrangement. [source]

    Physiological and Behavioral Differences in Magellanic Penguin Chicks in Undisturbed and Tourist-Visited Locations of a Colony

    corticoesterona; ecoturismo; perturbación humana; Spheniscus magellanicus Abstract:,Studies examining anthropogenic effects on wildlife typically focus on adults and on behavioral responses rather than the physiological consequences of human disturbances. Here we examined how Magellanic Penguin ( Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks living in either tourist-visited or undisturbed areas of a breeding colony were affected by human visitation by comparing the baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone during three periods of the breeding season. Newly hatched chicks in visited areas had higher corticosterone stress responses than newly hatched chicks in undisturbed areas (p =0.007), but baseline levels were similar (p =0.61). By 40,50 days of age and around fledging time, both visited and undisturbed chicks showed a robust corticosterone stress response to capture. Tourist-visited chicks did not flee when approached by humans, however, whereas undisturbed chicks fled significantly sooner (i.e., when approached no closer than 9 m; p < 0.0001). Although it is unknown whether Magellanic Penguin chicks raised in visited areas suffer negative consequences from the elevation of the corticosterone stress response at hatching, they do exhibit behavioral habituation to human contact by the time they are ready to fledge. Unlike adults living in tourist areas, however, fledging chicks in visited areas do not have a decreased stress response to capture and restraint. Our results show that the coupling of behavioral and physiological habituation in Magellanic Penguins is complex and life-history context may greatly affect the ability of wildlife to adapt to anthropogenic disturbances. Resumen:,Los estudios de los efectos antropogénicos sobre la vida silvestre se centran típicamente en adultos y en las respuestas conductuales en lugar de las consecuencias fisiológicas de las perturbaciones humanas. Aquí examinamos el efecto de la visita de humanos sobre pollos de pingüino (Spheniscus magellanicus) en áreas visitadas por turistas o no perturbadas mediante la comparación de los niveles, base e inducidos por estrés, de corticoesterona durante tres períodos de la temporada reproductiva. Los pollos recién eclosionados en áreas visitadas tuvieron mayor respuesta de la corticoesterona al estrés que los pollos recién eclosionados en áreas no perturbadas (p =0.007), pero los niveles básicos fueron similares (p =0.61). A los 40,50 días y en la etapa de volantón, los pollos visitados y no perturbados mostraron una marcada respuesta de la corticoesterona al estrés al ser capturados. Sin embargo, los pollos visitados por turistas no huyeron cuando se les acercaron humanos, mientras que los pollos no perturbados huyeron significativamente antes (i.e., acercamiento a más de 9 m; p < 0.0001). Aunque se desconoce si los pollos de pingüino criados en áreas visitadas sufren consecuencias negativas por la elevación de la corticosterona en respuesta al estrés al eclosionar, si presentan acostumbramiento conductual al contacto con humanos al momento que están listos para dejar el nido. Sin embargo, a diferencia de adultos que viven en áreas turísticas, los pollos volantones en las áreas visitadas no tienen una disminución en la respuesta al estrés cuando son capturados y sujetados. Nuestros resultados muestran la complejidad de la combinación del acostumbramiento conductual y fisiológico en Spheniscus magellanicus y que el contexto de la historia de vida puede afectar a la habilidad de la vida silvestre para adaptarse a las perturbaciones antropogénicas. [source]

    Bacteria divert resources from growth for magellanic penguin chicks

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 6 2002
    Jaime Potti
    Abstract The influence of bacteria on the growth of their wild avian hosts is unknown. We tested experimentally whether administration of a wide-spectrum antibiotic (cephalosporine) during early development of magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks had any effect on their growth rates in the wild. Chicks that were injected in two occasions with cephalosporine grew faster than control untreated chicks. The positive effect of medication on nestling growth disappeared after the treatment ceased, did not alter haematological indices indicative of health status, had no influence on chick survival until near independence and was related to a changed bacterial composition of the faecal microbiota of treated chicks when compared with that from control chicks. These results were similar to those obtained for poultry with antimicrobials promoting growth and chick nutrient assimilation rates. Gram-positive bacilli in the diphtheroid genus Corynebacterium are likely candidates to cause decreased growth rates in magellanic penguin chicks. [source]

    Experimentally Constrained Virulence is Costly for Common Cuckoo Chicks

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Chicks of some avian brood parasites show high virulence by eliminating all host progeny in the nest whereas others develop in the presence of host nestmates. Common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) chicks are typically highly virulent parasites as they attempt to evict all host eggs and chicks soon after hatching. However, several features of nest design, including steep walls and/or cavity nests, may effectively prevent cuckoo hatchlings from evicting nestmates. A previous observational study showed low success of cuckoo chicks in evicting progeny of a cavity nester host, the redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) but cuckoo chicks showed low survival both when reared alone or in mixed broods with host nestmates. Whether poor cuckoo performance was caused by eviction costs and/or by the effect of presence of host chicks per se remains unclear. We experimentally cancelled any potential eviction costs by removing host eggs immediately after the cuckoo hatched and creating mixed broods 5 days later when the eviction instinct of the cuckoo already ceased. Cuckoos that were forced to compete with host nestlings experienced lower provisioning rates, poorer growth, and lower fledging success than control lone cuckoos. Cuckoos in mixed broods that survived until fledging fledged later, and at lower masses, than those in the sole cuckoo group. Thus, the cuckoo gens specializing on redstarts is similar to other cuckoo gentes, whose chicks are more successful in evicting host nestmates, and it does not benefit from the presence of host brood. Cohabitation with host nestlings then should be viewed as a maladaptive by-product of host cavity nest design. [source]

    Brood reduction in the Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena

    IBIS, Issue 2 2003
    Janusz Kloskowski
    Brood reduction in Red-necked Grebes Podiceps grisegena breeding on fish ponds in south-eastern Poland occurred either through the desertion of the last-laid eggs after partial hatching of the clutch and/or the selective starvation of the smallest chicks. Abandonment of unhatched eggs was not influenced by the number of young already hatched or by the breeding date, but it was more likely in larger clutches and in families suffering chick starvation. Chicks from the largest broods had a higher probability of survival until fledging than those from single-chick broods. Larger chicks obtained food more successfully through better positioning during food delivery. In families that did not suffer brood reduction, chicks were better provisioned with food than in reduced broods. Although allocation of food among chicks in reduced broods was more skewed to the disadvantage of the younger siblings, dominant chicks obtained less food prior to brood reduction than dominant siblings in unreduced broods. Sibling aggression did not differ between unreduced and reduced broods before death of the weakest chicks. Post-laying adjustment of the number of offspring to prevailing feeding conditions occurred at two stages: by parental manipulation of the number of hatched eggs at the time when parents and chicks leave the nest and by competition between chicks. It is suggested that late egg desertion may be an adaptive mechanism of brood-size adjustment, when elimination of the weakest chicks through sibling competition is not very efficient. [source]

    Body condition, growth rates and diet of Skylark Alauda arvensis nestlings on lowland farmland

    IBIS, Issue 3 2001
    Factors affecting the diet, body condition and growth rates of Skylark chicks were assessed to examine their relationship to their agricultural environment during a critical period in the life cycle of this rapidly declining species. Rainfall explained the greatest amount of variation in body condition and growth rates and had a negative effect on both. Body condition indices were a good predictor of the likelihood of future partial brood loss to starvation. Low body condition in grass fields was related to a low diversity in the diet. Chicks fed insect larvae had higher body condition indices than those not fed larvae. Larger broods tended to have higher growth rates than smaller ones, whereas smaller broods tended to have higher body condition indices. Natural brood size reduction through the non-hatching of eggs resulted in higher body condition indices than were found in nests with the same number of chicks where all eggs hatched, this effect being independent of absolute brood size. There was no significant difference between crop types in the distance adult birds flew to forage for food for nestlings and foraging crop destination had no effect on chick development. Differences between crop types in chick diet could be related to the documented effects of pesticides on different prey species. We suggest that recent agricultural changes have affected diet and possibly body condition, but that these effects are unlikely to have been an important factor in recent population declines. [source]

    Chick provisioning rates and growth in Blacklbrowed Albatross Diomedea melanophris and Grey-headed Albatross D. chrysostoma at Bird Island, South Georgia

    IBIS, Issue 4 2000
    We compared the parental division of labour and the pattern and rate of parental provisioning by two sympatric species of albatross of similar mass and breeding timetable but differing in diet and in the duration of chick-rearing. Using electronic weighing platforms inside artificial nests, we recorded chick mass of Black-browed Albatross and Grey-headed Albatross at Bird Island, South Georgia every 10 minutes for both species in 1993 and 1994 and for each species in two other years between 1990 and 1996. The chick mass data (nearly one million weighings) were used to calculate meal mass (over 5000 meals) and intervals between meals. Adult birds were fitted with radio-transmitters which allowed each meal to be allocated to the appropriate parent. The combination of meal mass and foraging trip duration were used to calculate provisioning rates for chicks and individual adults. Overall, Black-browed Albatrosses delivered significantly lighter meals (569 g) than Grey-headed Albatrosses (616 g) but more frequently (every 2.07 days and 2.50 days respectively). Thus combining foraging trip data for both parents, Black-browed Albatross chicks received a meal every 1.22 days compared with 1.26 days for Greyheaded Albatross. These rates did not differ significantly. The contribution of each sex of each species in chick provisioning fluctuated between years, being similar in some years or biased towards males in others. Chicks of both species that failed to fledge received smaller, less frequent meals than successful chicks. In 1990 and 1994, Black-browed Albatross chick provisioning rates were lower than in 1992 and 1993. In 1990, both meal mass and trip duration were affected, but only in 1994 was trip duration longer. Greyheaded Albatross chick provisioning rate was lower in 1994 than in other years but trip duration was longer. In each species, significant changes in meal mass and trip duration occurred within the chick-rearing period. Chick provisioning rates invariably declined before chicks attained their peak mass. For both species, chick growth rates and peak and fledging mass, but not fledging age, were affected by differences in provisioning rate. [source]

    Fly or die: the role of fat stores in the growth and development of Grey-headed Albatross Diomedea chrysostoma chicks

    IBIS, Issue 2 2000
    Chicks of albatrosses, like other Procellariiformes, become independent at a mass similar to their parents but during growth attain a peak mass some 30% or more greater, before losing mass prior to fledging. The current views are that this high peak mass represents chicks storing fat reserves as an energy sink, or as an insurance against periodic food scarcity, or as a Consequence of natural stochastic variation in provisioning rate. We analysed growth and body composition of Grey-headed Albatross Diomedea chrysostoma chicks at Bird Island, South Georgia in 1984 and 1986, two years of very different food availability. In 1984 when overall breeding success was only 28% (the lowest in 20 years and less than halt that in 1986), chicks were significantly smaller in terms of peak mass (by 37%), primary length (by 25%), liver, lung, heart and kidney size (by 18,34%) and fat (by 75,80%) but not significantly different in terms of skeletal (tarsus, culmen, ulna, sternum) or muscle (pectoral, leg) size. Despite these differences, there were some important similarities in the patterns of growth in both years. Up to the attainment of peak mass, most of the growth of organs and of skeletal structures was completed and little fat was deposited. In the remaining part of the chick-rearing period, feather growth and acquisition of fat stores were undertaken. Thus Grey-headed Albatross chicks begin to acquire substantial fat stores only during the later part of the development period; this is contrary to the predictions of any of the existing hypotheses concerning provisioning patterns and the role of fat stores in Procellariiformes. We propose that the deposition of fat in the later stages of chick growth is an adaptation to: (a) ensure against energy demands and/or nutritional stress affecting the quality of flight feathers (many of which are not renewed for up to three years after fledging); and (b) provide an energy reserve for chicks to use in the critical period immediately after independence. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Ileal endogenous amino acid flow of broiler chickens under high ambient temperature

    A. F. Soleimani
    Summary High environmental temperature has detrimental effects on the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acute heat stress on endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow in broiler chickens. A total of 90, day-old broiler chicks were housed in battery cages in an environmentally controlled chamber. Chicks were fed a nitrogen-free diet on day 42 following either no heat exposure (no-heat) or 2 weeks exposure to 35 ± 1 °C for 3 h from days 28 to 42 (2-week heat) or 1 week exposure to 35 ± 1 °C for 3 h from days 35 to 42 (1 week heat). The most abundant amino acid in the ileal flow was glutamic acid, followed by aspartic acid, serine and threonine in non-heat stressed group. The EAA flow in 1-week heat and 2-week heat birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those under no heat exposure (14682, 11161 and 9597 mg/kg of dry matter intake respectively). Moreover, the EAA flow of 2-week heat group was less than 1-week heat group by approximately 36%. These observations suggest that the effect of heat stress on EAA flow is mostly quantitative; however, heat stress may also alter the content of EAA flow qualitatively. [source]

    Dietary phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) regulates the activity of intestinal mucosa phytase

    E. M. Onyango
    Summary The role of dietary phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) in the regulation of intestinal mucosa phytase was investigated in chicks. Seven-day-old chicks were grouped by weight into six blocks of three cages with six birds per cage. Three purified diets [a chemically defined casein diet, a chemically defined casein diet plus sodium phytate (20 g/kg diet) and a chemically defined casein diet plus sodium phytate (20 g/kg diet) and microbial phytase (1000 units/kg diet)] were randomly assigned to cages within each block. Chicks were fed experimental diets from 8 to 22 days of age then killed, and duodenal mucosa and left tibia removed. Phytase activity in duodenal mucosa, growth performance and bone ash content were determined. Addition of phytate to the chemically defined casein diet reduced (p < 0.05) the Vmax of the duodenal brush border phytase, but the Km of the enzyme was not affected. Addition of phytate also reduced (p < 0.05) weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and percentage ash. Addition of microbial phytase fully restored the feed efficiency (p < 0.05), but Vmax and body weight gain were only partially restored (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it would seem that dietary phytates non-competitively inhibit intestinal mucosa phytase. [source]

    Vitamin A nutrition of growing cockatiel chicks (Nymphicus hollandicus)

    E. A. Koutsos
    Summary The experiments examined the physiological response of growing cockatiel chicks to varying levels of dietary vitamin A (VA) or , -carotene and the rate of liver VA uptake. Adult cockatiels breeding pairs (n = 10 pairs) were fed a VA-deficient diet for approximately 90 days prior to onset of egg laying. Breeding pairs were then allowed to feed their chicks diets containing either 0 IU VA/kg, 4000 IU VA/kg, or 2.4 mg , -carotene/kg. After 5 weeks, chicks fed 0 IU VA developed poor feathering, facial dermatitis and reduced body weight (p < 0.05). Liver VA was higher in chicks fed 4000 IU VA or 2.4 mg , -carotene vs. those fed 0 IU VA (p < 0.05). Duodenal , -actin and 15,15,-dioxygenase mRNA expression was similar to that of growing chickens, and greatest for cockatiel chicks fed 0 IU VA (p < 0.01). Chicks fed 0 IU VA had keratinization of the bursa and oral mucosa, and reduced bursa development and lymphocyte density (p < 0.05). Finally, when chicks fed 0 IU VA were orally gavaged with 20 IU VA/g body weight, maximal liver retinol uptake occurred between 0 and 24 h and reached a plateau at 36 h. These data demonstrate that VA deficiency can be prevented with 4000 IU VA/kg diet or 2.4 mg , -carotene/kg diet, although , -carotene conversion to VA may be lower in cockatiels than chickens. [source]

    Intracerebroventricular administration of GABA-A and GABA-B receptor antagonists attenuate feeding and sleeping-like behavior induced by L -pipecolic acid in neonatal chicks

    T. Takagi
    Abstract It has been demonstrated that L -pipecolic acid (L -PA), a major metabolic intermediate of L -lysine (L -Lys) in the mammalian and chicken brain, is involved in the functioning of the GABAergic system. A previous study has shown that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L -PA suppressed feeding and induced sleep-like behavior in neonatal chicks; however, the precise relationship between the GABAergic system and L -PA has not been clarified. In the present study, the role of the GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the suppression of food intake and induction of sleeping-like behavior by L -PA was investigated. Chicks were injected i.c.v. with the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin or GABA-B antagonist CGP54626 along with L -PA. Although suppression of food intake by L -PA was restored partially by co-injection with CGP54626, but not picrotoxin, sleep-like behavior induced by L -PA was suppressed significantly by both antagonists. These results suggested that L -PA activated both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, and GABA-B receptors alone contributed to food intake whereas both receptors contributed to sleep-like behavior. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Estimation of metabolisable energy content of date pit and its effect on lipid and protein oxidation in broiler chicks

    Mojtaba Zaghari
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate date pit as a feed ingredient in broiler chick diets. In the first experiment, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of date pit was determined using 72 Ross (308) broiler chicks. Broiler chicks received experimental diets from 25 to 30 days of age. Two diets were fed: diet 1, basal diet and diet 2, 60% basal diet + 40% date pit. Date pit ileal AMEn was estimated to be 704 kcal kg,1. The second study was conducted to evaluate the AMEn value obtained and also the effectiveness of using a commercial multi-enzyme in diets containing date pit. Diets with three levels of date pit (10, 20 and 30% date pit) with or without enzyme supplementation were fed to broiler chicks from day old to 42 days of age. RESULTS: Chicks receiving different levels of dietary date pit had comparable body weight to those fed on corn,soybean meal diet. Both date pit levels and enzyme supplementation had a significant effect on feed conversion ratio. Plasma total antioxidant levels of positive control were significantly lower than the experimental diets. CONCLUSION: Results obtained in our study suggested that date pit could be used as a feed ingredient in the diet of broiler chicks without any negative effect on performance. Furthermore, date pit may have beneficial effects on plasma antioxidant status in broiler chicks. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Nutrient utilisation and performance of broilers in response to processed flaxseed dietary levels and vitamin B6 supplementation

    Yingran Shen
    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the effects of processing and dietary inclusion level of flaxseed on broiler performance and nutrient utilisation. Flaxseed was included in the diet fed to day-old broilers for the first 3 weeks as whole seed, ground seed, autoclaved whole seed, ground autoclaved whole seed or whole seed pelleted with the other ingredients, at levels of 0, 100, 120 and 140 g kg,1. Chicks fed the pelleted flaxseed-containing diets had heavier body weights, consumed more feed and had better feed/gain ratios than those fed the other flaxseed-containing diets during the 3 weeks period (P < 0.01). The flaxseed level in the diet also had very significant (P < 0.01) effects on body weight and feed/gain ratio at the end of weeks 1 and 3, with the diets containing 100 g kg,1 flaxseed resulting in better performance than the other flaxseed-containing diets. Among the flaxseed containing diets, the pelleted diets led to higher apparent ether extract digestibilities, with values of 778 and 770 g kg,1 for the diets containing 100 and 140 g kg,1 flaxseed respectively. This better utilisation of ether extract by young broilers may explain the significantly (P < 0.05) higher AMEn (apparent metabolisable energy) value of 2924 kcal kg,1 for the pelleted 140 g kg,1 flaxseed-containing diet. This was 15.4,17.5% higher than for the diets with the same level of flaxseed but provided as raw or autoclaved whole seed. The pelleting of flaxseed allowed an inclusion rate of 100 g kg,1 without any reduction in the performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Postnatal effects of incubation length in mallard and pheasant chicks

    OIKOS, Issue 3 2004
    Jan-Åke Nilsson
    Eggs of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were incubated in clutches arranged to stimulate embryos to hatch earlier or later than normal. This manipulation of hatching time was achieved by combining eggs of different age in the same clutch. To ensure hatching synchrony, embryos communicate with each other during the last stage of incubation, resulting in either a delay or an acceleration of hatching. Embryos of both species that accelerated their hatching time suffered a higher mortality rate after hatching. Combining mortality with the proportion of hatchlings that suffered from leg deformities, impeding their movements, resulted in a cost also to pheasant chicks delaying their hatching. Chicks of both species accelerating hatching time had a lower minimum mass and a shorter tarsus length than control chicks, whereas chicks delaying hatching time either grew as well or slightly better than control chicks. Mallard chicks had better balance and mobility immediately after hatching the longer they stayed in the egg. This indicates that the period immediately before hatching, is an important period for muscular and organ maturity. Reducing this period results in costs affecting post-hatching survival. The strategy to assure synchronous hatching in mallards and pheasants probably reflect a trade-off between the negative effects of shifting the age at hatching away from normal and differences in predation risk during different stages of reproduction. [source]

    Calcium antagonists, diltiazem and nifedipine, protect broilers against low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling

    Ying YANG
    ABSTRACT This study was designed to determine whether calcium antagonists, diltiazem and nifedipine, can depress low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in broilers (also known as ascites) and to characterize their efficacy on hemodynamics and pulmonary artery function. Chicks were randomly allocated into six experimental groups and orally administered with vehicle, 5.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)/12 h nifedipine or 15.0 mg/kg BW/12 h diltiazem from 16 to 43 days of age under low temperature. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), the ascites heart index (AHI), the erythrocyte packed cell volume (PCV) and the relative percentage of medial pulmonary artery thickness were examined on days 29, 36 and 43. The data showed that administration of diltiazem protected broilers from low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. Although nifedipine prevented mPAP from increasing during the early stage, it did not suppress the development of PH during the late stage and did not keep heart rate (HR), PCV, AHI and the thickness of pulmonary small artery smooth muscle layer at the normal levels. Taken together, our results showed that diltiazem can effectively prevent low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension in broilers with fewer side-effects and may be a potential compound for the prevention of this disease in poultry industry. [source]

    Effect of methionine hydroxy analog-free acid on growth performance and chemical composition of liver of broiler chicks fed a corn,soybean based diet from 0 to 6 weeks of age

    Chaiyapoom BUNCHASAK
    ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out to determine the effects of liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analog-free acid (LMA) and dry DL-methionine (DLM) on growth performance, carcass quality and chemical composition of the livers of broiler chicks during 0,6 weeks of age. Four hundred and fifty male commercial broiler chicks (Ross strain) were used. The chicks were divided into three groups, and each group consisted of six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were kept in floor pens, and water and feed were supplied ad libitum throughout the experiment. Three experimental diets were provided as follows: (i) corn,soybean-based diet deficient in methionine; (ii) methionine-deficient corn,soybean-based diet supplemented with DLM to meet the methionine requirements of broiler chicks; and (iii) methionine-deficient corn,soybean-based diet supplemented with LMA (1.25-fold (w/w) the amount of DLM supplied to the second group, given an assumption that 100 units of liquid LMA can be replaced by 80 units DLM to give similar performance results). During the starter period, the weight gains of chicks fed LMA or DLM were significantly greater than those in chicks receiving the methionine-deficient diet (P < 0.05), and the addition of LMA significantly improved weight gain compared with the addition of DLM. Adding DLM or LMA significantly improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) and percentage of uniformity (P < 0.05). No significant differences between the effects of DLM and LMA on these parameters were found. During the grower period (3,6 weeks of age), weight gain, FCR, uniformity and feed intake of chicks that received diet supplemented with DLM or LMA were superior to those of the methionine-deficient group (P < 0.05). Chicks fed LMA had the same bodyweight gain and uniformity as those fed DLM. However, adding LMA resulted in a significant increase of FCR resulting from excess feed consumption. Outer breast meat yields were significantly improved and abdominal fat was significantly decreased when methionine sources were added (P < 0.05), and adding LMA tended to promote edible meat growth better than did adding DLM. Although no significant effects of methionine sources on the chemical composition of the liver were seen, adding methionine sources tended to increase liver fat content. In conclusion, it seems that the bioefficacy of LMA relative to DLM is not less than 80%. Therefore, chicks fed with diet supplemented with 1.25-fold (w/w) as much LMA as DLM might exceed requirements for growth performance, while meeting requirements for meat production. Moreover, the relative bioefficacies of LMA and DLM between the starter and grower periods may perhaps be different. [source]

    Teratogenic effect of bis-diamine on embryonic rat heart

    Masao Nakagawa
    ABSTRACT, Bis-diamine induces conotruncal anomalies including persistent truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, interruption of the aortic arch, and ventricular septal defect in rat embryos when administered to the mother. Bis-diamine also induces extracardiac malformations including thymic hypoplasia, facial dysmorphism, forelimb anomalies and diaphragmatic hernia. However, the teratogenic mechanisms of this chemical in early developing rat hearts have not been fully established. Chimeric studies in chick and quail embryos demonstrated that the cranial neural crest cells reached the cardiac outflow tract, contributing to aorticopulmonary and truncal septation. Since an ablation of the cranial neural crest also produced the conotruncal anomalies, bis-diamine is proposed to disturb the normal migration of cardiac neural crest cells to the heart. Based on our data concerning cardiac anomalies induced by bis-diamine, we reviewed how the cardiac malformations were morphologically established in early developing rat hearts. Our data showed that 1) cardiovascular anomalies induced by bis-diamine are time- and species or strain- dependent. 2) bis-diamine reduces the number of neural crest cells migrating to participate in the conotruncal septation, 3) bis-diamine induces anomalous coronary arteries, thin ventricular walls and epicardial defects, and 4) some embryos cultured in the medium containing bis-diamine had extra-cardiac abnormalities including abnormal location of the otic placodes and delay in mid brain closure. Conclusively, bis-diamine does not appear to merely affect the cardiac development, but rather disturbs normal development of all the organs contributed to by neural crest cells. [source]

    Retrovirus vector-mediated gene transfer into the chick optic vesicle by in ovo electroporation

    Hiraki Sakuta
    Owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye has been used as a readily accessible model for studying the molecular mechanisms behind the patterning of the central nervous system. Although methods of genetic analysis have not been established as in the mouse, the chick is convenient for analyzing the functions of genes by in ovo electroporation of retroviral vectors. In this review, we describe the retroviral vector-mediated transfer of genes into the chick optic vesicle by in ovo electroporation. A rapid, efficient, and sustained expression of transgenes is achieved by this approach. [source]

    Transgenic analysis of the medaka mesp-b enhancer in somitogenesis

    Harumi Terasaki
    Somitogenesis is a critical step during the formation of metameric structures in vertebrates. Recent studies in mouse, chick, zebrafish and Xenopus have revealed that several factors, such as T-box genes, Notch/Delta, Wnt, retinoic acid and FGF signaling, are involved in the specification of nascent somites. By interacting with these pathways, the Mesp2-like bHLH transcription factors are transiently expressed in the anterior presomitic mesoderm and play a crucial role in somite formation. The regulatory mechanisms of Mesp2 and its related genes during somitogenesis have been studied in mouse and Xenopus. However, the precise mechanism that regulates the transcriptional activity of Mesp2 has yet to be determined. In our current report, we identify the essential enhancer element of medaka mesp-b, an orthologue of mouse Mesp2, using transgenic techniques and embryo manipulation. Our results demonstrate that a region of approximately 2.8 kb, upstream of the mesp-b gene, is responsible for both the initiation and anterior localization of mesp-b transcription within a somite primordium. Furthermore, putative motifs for both T-box transcription factors and Notch/Delta signaling are present in this enhancer region and are essential for activity. [source]

    Endoderm development in vertebrates: fate mapping, induction and regional specification

    Kimiko Fukuda
    The formation of the vertebrate body plan begins with the differentiation of cells into three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Cells in the endoderm give rise to the epithelial lining of the digestive tract, associated glands and respiratory system. One of the fundamental problems in developmental biology is to elucidate how these three primary germ layers are established from the homologous population of cells in the early blastomere. To address this question, ectoderm and mesoderm development have been extensively analyzed, but study of endoderm development has only begun relatively recently. In this review, we focus on the ,where', ,when' and ,how' of endoderm development in four vertebrate model organisms: the zebrafish, Xenopus, chick and mouse. We discuss the classical fate mapping of the endoderm and the more recent progress in characterizing its induction, segregation and regional specification. [source]

    ,-Microseminoprotein-related molecules may participate in formation of the mesoderm in the chick embryo

    Aditi Karandikar
    It has previously been shown that human ,-microseminoprotein enhances development of mesodermal structures in the chick embryo. The present study was carried out to elucidate the mechanism of action of human ,-microseminoprotein in the chick embryo. ,-Microseminoprotein brought about significant modulation of expression of Brachyury in gastrulating embryos. In approximately 50% of the treated embryos, Brachyury expression was enhanced around the Hensen's node. These cells not only expressed higher levels of Brachyury, but also appeared to switch off Brachyury expression prematurely, postinvagination. The spatial modulation of Brachyury is not clearly reflected in the northern blots, indicating that ,-microseminoprotein treatment results in redistribution of available transcripts or that the upregulation is compensated for by early switching off of Brachyury postinvagination. Because higher levels of Brachyury during gastrulation are believed to result in early exit of cells from the primitive streak, ,-microseminoprotein treatment appeared to have stimulated morphogenetic movements by upregulating Brachyury around the Hensen's node. This deduction was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic analysis that showed that altered morphogenetic movements accompany modulation of Brachyury. The specific responses elicited by ,-microseminoprotein indicate presence of a structurally related molecule in the chick. By western blotting, similar molecules were indeed detected in the chicken seminal plasma and in chick embryos. These data strongly suggest that ,-microseminoprotein-related molecule(s) participates in mesoderm formation in the chick embryo. [source]

    Signaling pathways regulating the expression of Prx1 and Prx2 in the chick mandibular mesenchyme

    Aikaterini-El Doufexi
    Abstract Prx1 and Prx2 are members of the aristaless-related homeobox genes shown to play redundant but essential roles in morphogenesis of the mandibular processes. To gain insight into the signaling pathways that regulate expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme, we used the chick as a model system. We examined the patterns of gene expression in the face and the roles of signals derived from the epithelium on the expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme. Our results demonstrated stage-dependent roles of mandibular epithelium on the expression of Prx in the mandibular mesenchyme and provide evidence for positive roles of members of the fibroblast and hedgehog families derived from mandibular epithelium on the expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme. Our studies suggest that endothelin-1 signaling derived from the mesenchyme is involved in restricting the expression of Prx2 to the medial mandibular mesenchyme. Developmental Dynamics 237:3115,3127, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of the NET family member Zfp503 is regulated by hedgehog and BMP signaling in the limb

    Edwina McGlinn
    Abstract The NET/Nlz family of zinc finger transcription factors contribute to aspects of developmental growth and patterning across evolutionarily diverse species. To date, however, these molecules remain largely uncharacterized in mouse and chick. We previously reported that limb bud expression of Zfp503, the mouse orthologue of zebrafish nlz2/znf503, is dependent on Gli3. Here, we show that Zfp503/Znf503 is expressed in a restricted pattern during mouse and chick embryogenesis, with particularly dynamic expression in the developing limbs, face, somites, and brain. We also add to our previous data on Gli3 regulation by showing that the anterior domain of Zfp503 expression in the mouse limb is responsive to genetic and nongenetic manipulation of hedgehog signaling. Finally, we demonstrate that posterior expression of Znf503 in the chick limb is responsive to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, indicating that Zfp503/Znf503 may act at the nexus of multiple signaling pathways in development. Developmental Dynamics 237:1172,1182, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Muscle stem cells and model systems for their investigation

    Nicolas Figeac
    Abstract Stem cells are characterized by their clonal ability both to generate differentiated progeny and to undergo self-renewal. Studies of adult mammalian organs have revealed stem cells in practically every tissue. In the adult skeletal muscle, satellite cells are the primary muscle stem cells, responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy, and regeneration. In the past decade, several molecular markers have been found that identify satellite cells in quiescent and activated states. However, despite their prime importance, surprisingly little is known about the biology of satellite cells, as their analysis was for a long time hampered by a lack of genetically amenable experimental models where their properties can be dissected. Here, we review how the embryonic origin of satellite cells was discovered using chick and mouse model systems and discuss how cells from other sources can contribute to muscle regeneration. We present evidence for evolutionarily conserved properties of muscle stem cells and their identification in lower vertebrates and in the fruit fly. In Drosophila, muscle stem cells called adult muscle precursors (AMP) can be identified in embryos and in larvae by persistent expression of a myogenic basic helix,loop,helix factor Twist. AMP cells play a crucial role in the Drosophila life cycle, allowing de novo formation and regeneration of adult musculature during metamorphosis. Based on the premise that AMPs represent satellite-like cells of the fruit fly, important insight into the biology of vertebrate muscle stem cells can be gained from genetic analysis in Drosophila. Developmental Dynamics 236:3332,3342, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Rab23 GTPase is expressed asymmetrically in Hensen's node and plays a role in the dorsoventral patterning of the chick neural tube

    Naixin Li
    Abstract The mouse Rab23 protein, a Ras-like GTPase, inhibits signaling through the Sonic hedgehog pathway and thus exerts a role in the dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord. Rab23 mouse mutant embryos lack dorsal spinal cord cell types. We cloned the chicken Rab23 gene and studied its expression in the developing nervous system. Chick Rab23 mRNA is initially expressed in the entire neural tube but retracts to the dorsal alar plate. Unlike in mouse, we find Rab23 in chick already expressed asymmetrically during gastrulation. Ectopic expression of Rab23 in ventral midbrain induced dorsal genes (Pax3, Pax7) ectopically and reduced ventral genes (Nkx2.2 and Nkx6) without influencing cell proliferation or neurogenesis. Thus, in the developing brain of chick embryos Rab23 acts in the same manner as described for the caudal spinal cord in mouse. These data indicate that Rab23 plays an important role in patterning the dorso-ventral axis by dorsalizing the neural tube. Developmental Dynamics 236:2993,3006, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Potential roles for BMP and Pax genes in the development of iris smooth muscle

    Abbie M. Jensen
    Abstract The embryonic optic cup generates four types of tissue: neural retina, pigmented epithelium, ciliary epithelium, and iris smooth muscle. Remarkably little attention has focused on the development of the iris smooth muscle since Lewis ([1903] J. Am. Anat. 2:405,416) described its origins from the anterior rim of the optic cup neuroepithelium. As an initial step toward understanding iris smooth muscle development, I first determined the spatial and temporal pattern of the development of the iris smooth muscle in the chick by using the HNK1 antibody, which labels developing iris smooth muscle. HNK1 labeling shows that iris smooth muscle development is correlated in time and space with the development of the ciliary epithelial folds. Second, because neural crest is the only other neural tissue that has been shown to generate smooth muscle (Le Lievre and Le Douarin [1975] J. Embryo. Exp. Morphol. 34:125,154), I sought to determine whether iris smooth muscle development shares similarities with neural crest development. Two members of the BMP superfamily, BMP4 and BMP7, which may regulate neural crest development, are highly expressed by cells at the site of iris smooth muscle generation. Third, because humans and mice that are heterozygous for Pax6 mutations have no irides (Hill et al. [1991] Nature 354:522,525; Hanson et al. [1994] Nat. Genet. 6:168,173), I determined the expression of Pax6. I also examined the expression of Pax3 in the developing anterior optic cup. The developing iris smooth muscle coexpresses Pax6 and Pax3. I suggest that some of the eye defects caused by mutations in Pax6, BMP4, and BMP7 may be due to abnormal iris smooth muscle. Developmental Dynamics 232:385,392, 2005. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]