Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Chemotherapy

  • adjuvant chemotherapy
  • anticancer chemotherapy
  • arterial infusion chemotherapy
  • cancer chemotherapy
  • cisplatin chemotherapy
  • combination chemotherapy
  • combined chemotherapy
  • concomitant chemotherapy
  • concurrent chemotherapy
  • consolidation chemotherapy
  • containing chemotherapy
  • conventional chemotherapy
  • cytotoxic chemotherapy
  • dose chemotherapy
  • effective chemotherapy
  • first-line chemotherapy
  • hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy
  • high dose chemotherapy
  • high-dose chemotherapy
  • hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy
  • induction chemotherapy
  • infusion chemotherapy
  • initial chemotherapy
  • intensive chemotherapy
  • intensive induction chemotherapy
  • intra-arterial chemotherapy
  • intraarterial chemotherapy
  • intraperitoneal chemotherapy
  • intravenous chemotherapy
  • local chemotherapy
  • low-dose chemotherapy
  • maintenance chemotherapy
  • multi-agent chemotherapy
  • multiagent chemotherapy
  • myeloablative chemotherapy
  • neo-adjuvant chemotherapy
  • neoadjuvant chemotherapy
  • oral chemotherapy
  • palliative chemotherapy
  • perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy
  • postoperative chemotherapy
  • preoperative chemotherapy
  • previous chemotherapy
  • prior chemotherapy
  • receiving chemotherapy
  • salvage chemotherapy
  • standard chemotherapy
  • systemic chemotherapy
  • undergoing chemotherapy

  • Terms modified by Chemotherapy

  • chemotherapy agent
  • chemotherapy alone
  • chemotherapy arm
  • chemotherapy combination
  • chemotherapy consisting
  • chemotherapy cycle
  • chemotherapy group
  • chemotherapy only
  • chemotherapy patient
  • chemotherapy protocol
  • chemotherapy regime
  • chemotherapy regimen
  • chemotherapy resistance
  • chemotherapy response
  • chemotherapy schedule
  • chemotherapy treatment
  • chemotherapy trials

  • Selected Abstracts


    S. Syed
    Purpose Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is routinely used in the management of breast cancer, there is no definitive way of predicting which patients are more likely to respond to a particular therapy. The aim of this study was to identify markers that can be used to predict tumor response to chemotherapy in breast cancer. Methodology We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate blood microvessel density (MVD) (CD31), tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67), anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2), ER and PR expression, and HER-2/neu expression in core biopsy samples (taken before chemotherapy) from patients with locally advanced breast cancer (n = 20), receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy {anthracycline-based regimen (FEC100) (n = 10) vs single agent taxane regimen (docetaxel) (n = 10), and correlated these factors with tumor response (as assessed clinically and by tumor imaging) after 4 cycles of treatment. Results Tumors expressing low levels of Bcl-2 showed significantly greater reduction in size to both taxane (P < 0.05) and anthracycline-based (P < 0.01) regimens, compared to tumors expressing high levels of Bcl-2. Further, HER-2/neu positive tumors showed significantly greater reduction in size to taxane regimen (P < 0.05), while estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors showed a trend of greater reduction in size to anthracycline-based regimen (P = 0.06). Conclusions Bcl-2 and HER-2/neu expression may be useful markers to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. While subject numbers are still too low to draw firm conclusions, the current data indicates that HER-2/neu may specifically predict a positive tumor response to taxane regimen, and high Bcl-2 is a marker of chemoresistance. [source]


    S. Adie
    Purpose Pre-operative scanning for hepatic colorectal metastases surgery remains a challenge, especially in the age of neo-adjuvant chemo, which has marked biochemical & physical effects on the liver. We investigated helical CT and CT portography as pre-op planning tools. Methodology All patients who had resection of hepatic colorectal metastases between Jan 2004 and June 2006 were included. Patients were divided into those who received neo-adjuvant chemo and those who did not. The number of malignant hepatic lesions found on each scan was compared with those found on histopathology & intra-op ultrasound/examination. Accurate scans (scan lesions = true lesions), over-estimations (scan lesions > true lesions) and under-estimations (scan lesions < true lesions) were recorded. Results 25 patients had pre-op CT portography with neo-adjuvant chemo and 63 without. Accurate scans on a per-patient basis were 2 (8%) for the chemo group vs. 27 (43%) for the non-chemo group, p < 0.002. Notably, there were 17 (68%) over-estimates in the chemo group vs. 25 (40%) in the non-chemo group. There were 6 (24%) vs. 11 (17%) under-estimates respectively. 23 patients had pre-op helical CT with neo-adjuvant chemo and 64 without. Accurate scans on a per-patient basis were 7 (30%) for the chemo group vs. 26 (41%) in the non-chemo group, p = 0.388. There were 8 (35%) over-estimates in the chemo group vs. 12 (19%) in the non-chemo group. There were 8 (35%) vs. 26 (41%) under-estimates respectively. Conclusion While CT portography is useful for detecting occult hepatic metastases, there is evidence that over-estimation of disease is a problem, particularly when neo-adjuvant chemo was used. Helical CT also shows this trend although to a lesser extent. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 4 2007
    Michael Findlay
    Background: With poor cure rates in gastric cancer using surgery alone, the safety, efficacy and feasibility of preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy was investigated. Methods: Patients with advanced but operable gastric or cardio-oesophageal adenocarcinoma were staged using endoscopy, computed tomography scan and laparoscopy. If considered potentially resectable, they received chemotherapy (epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) for 9 weeks before and after surgery. Results: Of 59 participants entered, two were found to have metastatic disease and were excluded from the analysis. Of the participants, 10 were women and 47 men; their median age was 58 years (range 27,83 years) and median performance status 0 (range 0,1). Two of the 57 participants commencing chemotherapy did not undergo surgery (one sudden death, one new liver metastases). Grade 3 and 4 preoperative and postoperative toxicity rates were, respectively, neutropenia 22 and 18%, emesis 12 and 14% and other non-haematological toxicity <10 and <10%. Of the 55 who underwent surgery, 40 had apparently curative resections (clear or positive microscopic margins), 2 died after surgery (anastomotic leak, sepsis) and 16 had postoperative complications. Of these, 27 participants commenced postoperative chemotherapy and 21 completed it. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 19.6 and 22 months, respectively. Conclusion: Epirubicin, cisplatin and protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy was well-tolerated in the preoperative setting and did not appear to increase complication rates of surgery for advanced and operable stomach cancer. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy in the Australasian clinical setting and are in keeping with the results of a recently reported randomized trial, which demonstrated a significant survival advantage using this chemotherapy regimen. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 11 2003
    Ian M. Holdaway
    Background: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) appear to influence the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro, and epidemiological studies suggest higher serum IGF-I levels increase the risk of breast cancer. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 have therefore been measured in women with advanced breast cancer to determine if changes in serum levels predict the response to treatment by chemotherapy. Methods: Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels were measured in 14 patients before and after 1 week of chemotherapy. Changes in serum levels were compared with duration of survival. Results: Mean basal serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were not significantly different between patients with advanced breast cancer and controls or women with early breast cancer. Serum IGFBP-3 fell significantly 1 week after initiation of chemotherapy. Patient survival was not significantly related to baseline IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels, but when the fall in serum levels 1 week after starting treatment was expressed either as absolute change or as a percentage of baseline, those individuals with a decrease in IGFBP-3 greater than the median had significantly poorer survival (median survival 5.5 months vs 18 months). These results were independent of other prognostic variables such as previous disease-free survival, and were also unaffected by the change in serum albumin with treatment. The fall in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 with chemotherapy mainly occurred in those with hepatic metastases, but prediction of survival was explained solely by the extent of the fall in IGFBP-3. Conclusions: This preliminary study has shown that serum IGFBP-3 falls significantly following initiation of chemotherapy and the extent of reduction significantly predicts the response to treatment. [source]

    Management of cutaneous tuberculosis

    Evangeline B Handog
    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is an extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis, which may be classified based on the immunologic state of the host. Chemotherapy still remains the treatment of choice. The management of cutaneous TB follows the same guidelines as that of TB of other organs, which can be treated with a short course four-agent chemotherapeutic regimen given for 2 months followed by a two-drug regimen for the next 4 months. This chapter highlights current treatment recommendations for cutaneous TB. The important factors to consider in the choice of optimal treatment includes the type of cutaneous involvement, stage of the disease, level of immunity, and general condition of the patient. The highest priority in any cutaneous TB control program is the proper, accurate, and rapid detection of cases and the availability of chemotherapy to all tuberculosis patients until cure. Contact tracing is also an important component of efficient tuberculosis control. [source]

    Cutaneous melanoma: available therapy for metastatic disease

    Ahmad A. Tarhini
    ABSTRACT:, Survival of melanoma varies widely by stage, from a potentially highly curable disease when detected in early stages, to a disease with dismal prognosis when it reaches advanced inoperable stages. Stage IV melanoma defines distant metastasis and continues to comprise an ominous prognosis, with a median survival of 6,9 months. Currently, there is no therapeutic agent known to prolong survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Therapeutic approaches studied in metastatic melanoma include chemotherapy, biochemotherapy, nonspecific immune adjuvants, cancer-specific vaccines, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, and specific immunostimulants. Chemotherapy with single-agent dacarbazine is the only United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA)-approved chemotherapy agent for metastatic melanoma. Immunological approaches have yielded the only newly US-FDA-approved agent for metastatic disease in 30 years, high-dose bolus IL-2, based on durable responses in some patients with metastatic melanoma, but with associated high toxicity rate and cost. A number of novel therapeutic agents are undergoing active clinical investigation. [source]

    Impact of hemoglobin level on survival in definitive chemoradiotherapy for T4/M1 lymph node esophageal cancer

    S. Zenda
    SUMMARY., We retrospectively investigated the impact of the pre-chemoradiotherapy hemoglobin level (pre-CRT Hb level) for T4 and/or M1 lymph node (LYM) squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Chemotherapy consisted of protracted infusion with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) at 400 mg/m2/day on days 1,5 and 8,12, combined with cisplatin at 40 mg/m2/day on days 1 and 8, repeated twice at a 5-week interval. Concurrent radiation therapy was started on day 1 and delivered at 2 Gy/day for five days a week for a total radiation dose of 60 Gy, with a two-week break after a cumulative dose of 30 Gy. Several factors considered to be related with treatment outcome were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 48 patients with T4/M1 LYM (lymphocyte) esophageal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) between September 2002 and April 2005 were enrolled. The complete response rate to this regimen was 44% and median survival time was 13.6 months, with a median follow-up period of 26.8 months. Median pre-CRT Hb level was 13.5 (10.4,15.3) g/dL. The CR rate in patients with a pre-CRT Hb level of 13 g/dL or less was only 24% but it was 60% in those with a level that was more than 13 g/dL (P=0.01). As for survival, anovarevealed that a pre-CRT Hb of 13 g/dL or less was a significant prognostic factor with a hazard ratio of 0.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]); 0.21,0.97, P=0.04), while on manova, including performance status, tumor size, TNM stage and pre-CRT Hb level, a pre-CRT Hb level of 13 g/dL or less was the only significant prognostic factor, with a hazard ratio of 0.35 (95% CI; 0.13,0.90, P=0.03). In conclusion, the pre-CRT Hb level may be an important determinant of outcome in patients with T4/M1 LYM squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. [source]

    Once-per-cycle pegfilgrastim in breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel/epidoxorubicin/cyclophosphamide

    L. MONTELLA md
    MONTELLA L., ADDEO R., GUARRASI R., CENNAMO G., FAIOLA V., CAPASSO E., CARAGLIA M. & DEL PRETE S. (2010) European Journal of Cancer Care19, 200,204 Once-per-cycle pegfilgrastim in breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel/epidoxorubicin/cyclophosphamide The incidence of neutropenia following combination chemotherapy is significant in breast cancer and impairs patients' quality of life. Colony-stimulating factors significantly decrease the risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). Aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety profile of once-per-cycle pegfilgrastim in reducing FN in breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel (75 mg/m2), epidoxorubicin (75 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2) administered every 3 weeks. Thirty-five breast cancer patients were enrolled. Chemotherapy was administered in adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic setting respectively in 26, 4 and 5 patients. Toxicity was monitored with programmed clinical evaluation and blood sampling. All patients completed the therapeutic programme consisting of six cycles for overall 210 cycles. The FN appeared in 6 out of 35 patients (17%), requiring dose reduction in 3 patients. Hypertransaminasemia was registered in two patients. In one patient pegfilgrastim administration was stopped because of skin hypersensititivity reaction. In conclusion, pegfilgrastim was able to maintain doses and timing of docetaxel/epidoxorubicin/cyclophosphamide in almost all breast cancer patients treated in this series. The reduced need for daily administration of colony-stimulating factors, blood sampling, antibiotic therapy and hospitalization has a significant impact in terms of both quality of life and pharmaco-economic evaluations. [source]

    Isolated neck recurrence after definitive radiotherapy for node-positive head and neck cancer: Salvage in the dissected or undissected neck

    Stanley L. Liauw MD
    Abstract Background. The role of salvage neck dissection for isolated regional recurrences after definitive radiotherapy (RT) is ill-defined. Methods. Five-hundred fifty patients were treated with RT for lymph node,positive head and neck cancer. RT consisted of a median dose of 74.4 Gy. Chemotherapy was administered in 133 patients (24%). Patients were followed for neck failure after planned neck dissection (n = 341) or observation (n = 209). Salvage therapy was offered to those with isolated neck recurrences. Results. There were 54 (10%) failures in the neck at a median 3.7 months after RT (range, 0 to 17 months). Thirteen patients had isolated recurrences after receiving definitive RT with (n = 11) or without (n = 2) neck dissection. Nine patients underwent attempted surgical salvage with or without re-irradiation and 4 were successfully salvaged without major complications. Conclusions. Patients with neck failure after definitive therapy usually have poor outcomes, but salvage attempts may be successful in selected patients with an isolated neck recurrence. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 2007 [source]

    Response to paclitaxel and carboplatin in metastatic salivary gland cancer: A case report,

    Janet C. Ruzich DO
    Abstract Background Malignant tumors of the salivary gland are rare entities that are treated primarily by surgical resection. For patients with recurrent or unresectable disease, options include radiation therapy or chemotherapy; however, responses are few and of short duration. Patients with metastatic disease have been treated with chemotherapy, but, again, response rates have been low and of short duration. Methods A 52-year-old man was seen with a mass on his tongue. A biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma of a minor salivary gland. Ten months after surgical resection, neck dissection, and radiation therapy, the patient was found to have metastatic disease to the lung. Chemotherapy was initiated with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Results The patient obtained a complete response after six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel. Conclusions The use of carboplatin and paclitaxel in the setting of metastatic salivary gland cancer is a viable option. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 406,410, 2002 [source]

    Efficacy of splenectomy for hypersplenic patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH, Issue 12 2008
    Masashi Hirooka
    Aim:, Chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hypersplenism is generally unsatisfactory, as a lower-dose therapy is usually administered. Splenectomy may represent a better approach to overcoming the complication due to hypersplenism in patients with advanced HCC. This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate whether HCC patients who undergo splenectomy show improved prognosis. Methods:, We examined 34 HCC patients. Twenty-two had thrombocytopenia and/or leucopenia and underwent laparoscopic splenectomy. The completion rate of full-dose drug regimens, the response rate, the toxicity of chemotherapy and the cumulative survival rate were compared between the splenectomy and non-splenectomy groups. Results:, The response rate and the cumulative survival rate in the splenectomy group were significantly better than that in the non-splenectomy group. Conclusions:, Splenectomy is an efficient method for advanced HCC patients with hypersplenism treated by chemotherapy. [source]

    Simultaneous onset of acute inflammatory response, sepsis-like symptoms and intestinal mucosal injury after cancer chemotherapy

    Eiichi Tsuji
    Abstract Chemotherapy is 1 method for the treatment of cancer, but serious side effects can sometimes limit the dosage given. Mild fever and diarrhea are common side effects of cancer chemotherapy. Gastrointestinal injury induced by chemotherapeutic agents may result in bacterial/endotoxin translocation from the gut into the systemic circulation. An experimental study was therefore conducted to clarify the effect of systemic chemotherapeutic agents on gastrointestinal barrier function. Male Wistar rats were divided into a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) group (100 mg/kg/day for 4 days; n = 27) and a control group (n = 5). All rats were fasted and central venous catheterization was performed for total parenteral nutrition and blood sampling. Intestinal tissue was also sampled for pathological examination. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,) were determined by ELISA, bacterial translocation was quantified by lymph node culture and plasma endotoxin content of portal blood was measured by the Limulus -amebocyte-lysate test. In the 5-FU group on day 4, a proportion of rats exhibited severe watery diarrhea (73.9%) and occasional vomiting (86.2%). The levels of plasma TNF, and IL-6 were seen to increase, peaking at day 6 (IL-6, 350.0 ± 67.8 pg/ml; TNF,, 26.1 ± 3.2 pg/ml). The pathological findings also changed on day 4. On day 6, 90% of the rats in the 5-FU group showed dramatic sepsis-like manifestations, whereas the control group did not. Within the 5-FU group, only at day 6 was bacterial translocation in the rat mesenteric lymph nodes or significantly elevated levels of endotoxin evident. These results suggest that bacterial/endotoxin translocation might cause sepsis-like manifestations after systemic chemotherapy. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Brain metastases from testicular germ cell tumors: A retrospective analysis

    Norio Nonomura
    Objectives: To review our series of testicular germ cell tumors with brain metastases and to establish an optimal treatment strategy for them. Methods: Twenty-seven cases of testicular germ cell tumors from three institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Twenty-six were non-seminomatous tumors and only one was a seminoma. Based on the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification, two cases were classified as good prognosis, seven as intermediate prognosis and 18 as poor prognosis. Chemotherapy was carried out in all patients. Additionally, whole-brain radiotherapy was performed in 10 cases, stereotactic radiosurgery in six, whole-brain radiotherapy combined with stereotactic radiosurgery in three and complete surgical resection in five. Three patients received chemotherapy only. Cancer-specific 5- and 10-year survival rates were both 35.9%. The prognosis of those with brain metastases at the time of diagnosis tended to be better than those developing brain metastases during treatment. Those with a single brain metastasis showed significantly better survival than those with multiple brain metastases. No other significant prognostic factor was found at multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Testicular germ cell tumors with brain metastases can be managed with the combination of whole-brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and/or surgical resection in combination with chemotherapy. [source]

    Chagas' disease: an update on immune mechanisms and therapeutic strategies

    Silvia Beatriz Boscardin
    Abstract ,,Introduction ,,Chagas' disease ,,Chemotherapy ,,Immune response in experimental T. cruzi infection ,,Immune response in human beings infected with T. cruzi ,,Immune response in the treatment of chagasic infection ,,The need for new therapeutic alternatives for Chagas' disease ,,Conclusions The final decade of the 20th century was marked by an alarming resurgence in infectious diseases caused by tropical parasites belonging to the kinetoplastid protozoan order. Among the pathogenic trypanosomatids, some species are of particular interest due to their medical importance. These species include the agent responsible for Chagas' disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Approximately 8 to 10 million people are infected in the Americas, and approximately 40 million are at risk. In the present review, we discuss in detail the immune mechanisms elicited during infection by T. cruzi and the effects of chemotherapy in controlling parasite proliferation and on the host immune system. [source]

    Chemotherapy: the effect of oral cryotherapy on the development of mucositis

    erife Karagözo, lu MSc
    Aims and objective., The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of oral cryotherapy on the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in patients administered combined chemotherapy. Background., Mucositis has been of interest to scientists for more than 20 years. Unfortunately, this has not resulted in the development of standard procedures for prevention and management. To cope with this side-effect and to prevent opportunistic infections that may emerge during treatment, attempts are taken to provide preventative and comfort measures. In this context, cryotherapy (oral cooling) has become popular as a cheap and readily applicable method in preventing the developing due the rapid infusion of chemotherapy agents, or decreasing its severity. Design and method., Study involved 60 patients, 30 of whom were in the study group and 30 in the control group. Ice cubes at a size that can be moved easily in the mouth and whose corners have been smoothed in order that they will not cause irritation in the mouth has been used in oral cryotherapy in the study group. Oral chemotherapy was initiated five minutes before chemotherapy and maintained during venous infusions of etoposide (Vepesid®), platinol (Cisplatin®), mitomycin (Mitomycin-C®) and vinblastin (Velbe®) depending on the chemotherapy course. Results., According to Patient-Judged Mucositis Grading, the rate of mucositis is 36.7% in study group and 90.0% in control group, the difference between two groups being statistically significant (P < 0.05). According to Physician-Judged Mucositis Grading, the rate of mucositis is 10.0% in the study group and 50.0% in the control group, the difference between two groups being statistically significant (P < 0.05). Oral pH values decreased in 90% of the subjects in study group, i.e. mucositis risk was reduced whereas oral pH values remained unchanged or decreased in 86.7% of the subjects in the control group, namely mucositis risk increased. The difference between study and control groups in terms of the change in pH values after chemotherapy was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion., Our findings have demonstrated that oral cryotherapy makes an important contribution to the protection of oral health by reducing the mucositis score according to patient- and physician-judged mucositis score and by increasing oral pH values. Relevance to clinical practice., Aggressive cancer therapy places patients at greater risk for oral complications and treatment-related consequences. Unfortunately, prevention and/or treatment of such oral sequelae have often become overlooked as priorities of the treatment team. Effective approaches for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis have not been standardized, and vary considerably among institutions. Prophylactic measures begin with an increased emphasis on improved oral status. Oral cryotherapy, the therapeutic administration of cold, is a prophylactic measure for oral inflammation. The relevance for clinical practice will be to understand the content of mucositis; comprehensive care should focus on the prevention of this complication in the clinical practice. [source]

    Microtubules: dynamics, drug interaction and drug resistance in Leishmania

    K. G. Jayanarayan MS (Pharm)
    Summary Microtubules are cytoskeletal polymers essential for the survival of all eukaryotes. These proteins are the proposed cellular targets of many anticancerous, antifungal and antihelminthic drugs. Sufficient differences exist between the microtubules of kinetoplastid parasites like Leishmania and humans to explore the selective targeting of these proteins for therapeutic purposes. This review describes the basic structure of microtubules and its dynamics in general, with specific insights into leishmanial microtubules, the salient features of microtubule,drug interactions including the specificity of certain drugs for parasitic microtubules. Chemotherapy against leishmanial parasites is failing because of the emergence of drug resistant strains. The possible mechanisms of resistance to antimicrotubule agents along with insights into the role of microtubules in mediating drug resistance in Leishmania are discussed. [source]

    Chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Kwang-Hyub Han
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Chemotherapy for highly advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Kyuichi Tanikawa
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Monitoring the Effect of Chemotherapy in a Mixed Glioma by C-11-Methionine PET

    K. Herholz
    ABSTRACT The effect of chemotherapy with procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine in an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma was monitored by repeated positron emission tomography (PET) with C-11-methionine (C-11-MET). Chemotherapy caused a continuous decline of active tumor volume at a rate of approximately 2.4% per day, resulting in complete remission that persisted until the end of follow-up at 3 years. Thus, the authors conclude that C-11-MET PET may be useful for monitoring chemotherapy in gliomas and deserves further study. [source]

    Learning curve in cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    Bijan N. Moradi III MS
    Abstract Cytoreductive surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy have achieved good long-term results in patients with complete surgical eradication of their peritoneal dissemination but at the expense of significant perioperative morbidity and mortality. The high complication rate has been attributed to the steep learning curve associated with this procedure. We report on the current literature regarding the learning curve for this procedure and the key components that determine the success in learning this new skill. J. Surg. Oncol. 2009;100:293,296. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Current management of mucosal melanoma of the head and neck

    Jesus E. Medina MD
    Abstract While mucosal-based melanomas of the head and neck region are uncommon lesions, when they do arise they usually follow an inexorably aggressive course. Experience with these tumors is, necessarily, limited; as such, well-worked out treatment protocols for the treatment of such lesions are in short supply. It appears as though mucosal melanomas (MuMs) develop more frequently in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus region, and less often in the oral cavity. It seems that the incidence of nodal metastasis is significantly lower for sinonasal MuMs than it is for MuMs of the oral cavity; this observation may influence decisions about performing neck dissection as a function of location of the primary MuM. At present, surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment; however, anatomical complexities within the region can hamper attempts at complete excision. Radiotherapy has not traditionally been relied on for routine treatment of MuM, although some recent reports have challenged this view. Chemotherapy is, at present, employed principally in the treatment of disseminated disease and for palliation. As a diagnostic matter, MuM belongs to the class of tumors that, on light microscopy, may with some regularity be confused with other malignancies (including sarcomas, plasmacytomas, and carcinomas); as a consequence, this is a diagnosis which is often best confirmed by way of ancillary testing via immunohistochemical studies. A better grasp of the best means of treating MuM will likely come only when large referral centers are able to pool their experiences with these uncommon yet virulent malignancies. J. Surg. Oncol. 2003;83:116,122. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Combination Chemotherapy in Feline Lymphoma: Treatment Outcome, Tolerability, and Duration in 23 Cats

    D. Simon
    Background: Different chemotherapy regimes have been described for feline lymphoma with varying outcomes. Hypothesis: In cats with lymphoma, a long-term, multiagent chemotherapy protocol will be effective and carry acceptable toxicity. Animals: Twenty-three cats with histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma. Methods: Prospective, single-arm clinical trial in which cats were treated with a chemotherapy protocol consisting of a cyclic combination of l -asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and prednisolone with a planned total treatment time of 122 weeks. Results: Complete remission (CR) rate was 74% (n = 17). Fourteen percent of cats attained partial remission (PR). Median duration of first CR was 264 days (range, 45,2,485 days). Six-month, 1-, and 2,5-year remission rates were 75, 50, and 34%, respectively. Duration of PR ranged between 23 and 63 days. Median survival in cats with CR was 296 days (range, 50,2,520 days). Six-month, 1-, 2-, and 3,5-year survival rates in cats with CR were 82, 47, 34, and 27%, respectively. Survival of cats achieving PR ranged between 38 and 120 days. Of the analyzed variables, only anatomical location had a significant influence on remission duration (P=.022). Actual median treatment time in cats with CR was 128 days (18 weeks). Hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicosis was infrequent and mostly low grade. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: In this population of cats with lymphoma, chemotherapy was effective. With infrequent and mostly low-grade toxicosis, tolerability of the protocol may be considered good. [source]

    Continuous Low-Dose Oral Chemotherapy for Adjuvant Therapy of Splenic Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs

    Susan Lana
    Background: Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a highly metastatic and often rapidly fatal tumor in dogs. At present, conventional adjuvant chemotherapy provides only a modest survival benefit for treated dogs. Continuous oral administration of low-dose chemotherapy (LDC) has been suggested as an alternative to conventional chemotherapy protocols. Therefore, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of LDC using a combination of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and piroxicam as adjuvant therapy for dogs with stage II HSA. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that oral adjuvant therapy with LDC could be safely administered to dogs with HSA and that survival times would be comparable to those attained with conventional doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapy. Animals: Nine dogs with stage II splenic HSA were enrolled in the LDC study. Treatment outcomes were also evaluated retrospectively for 24 dogs with stage II splenic HSA treated with DOX chemotherapy. Methods: Nine dogs with stage II splenic HSA were treated with LDC over a 6-month period. Adverse effects and treatment outcomes were determined. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered etoposide were determined in 3 dogs. Overall survival times and disease-free intervals were compared between the 9 LDC-treated dogs and 24 DOX-treated dogs. Results: Dogs treated with LDC did not develop severe adverse effects, and long-term treatment over 6 months was well-tolerated. Oral administration of etoposide resulted in detectable plasma concentrations that peaked between 30 and 60 minutes after dosing. Both the median overall survival time and the median disease-free interval in dogs treated with LDC were 178 days. By comparison, the overall survival time and disease-free interval in dogs treated with DOX were 133 and 126 days, respectively. Conclusions: Continuous orally administered LDC may be an effective alternative to conventional high-dose chemotherapy for adjuvant therapy of dogs with HSA. [source]

    Treatment of Dogs with Oral Melanoma by Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy and Platinum-Based Chemotherapy (1987,1997)

    Kim P. Freeman
    This retrospective study in 39 dogs with incompletely resected oral melanoma examined the efficacy of hypofractionated radiation therapy and platinum-containing chemotherapy. All dogs were completely staged, with the majority of dogs classified as stage I. Dogs received 6 weekly fractions of 6-gray (Gy) megavoltage irradiation with a cobalt-60 unit or a 4-MeV (megaelectron volts) linear accelerator. Dogs received cisplatin (10,30 mg/m2 IV) or carboplatin (90 mg/m2 IV) chemotherapy 60 minutes before radiation delivery. Durations of local control, metastasis-free survival time, and overall survival time were recorded. By the Kaplan-Meier method, 15% of the dogs had local recurrence within a median time of 139 days. Fifty-one percent of the dogs developed metastatic disease within a median time of 311 days (range, 24,2,163 days). Median survival time for all 39 dogs was 363 days. The combined use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in this protocol provided local control consistent with previous studies. Low-dose chemotherapy was used with the intent of enhancing radiation therapy for the local control of an incompletely excised tumor. Survival times were longer than previously reported for dogs with oral malignant melanoma. Additional studies are required to determine whether these results were due to the effects of chemotherapy on microscopic disease or the enhanced local control provided by chemoradiation therapy. [source]

    Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, and Prednisolone (COP) in Cats with Malignant Lymphoma: New Results with an Old Protocol

    Erik Teske
    This retrospective study in 61 cats with malignant lymphomas examined the efficacy of a well-established chemotherapy protocol (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone [COP]) in the Netherlands, a country with a low prevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Twenty-two cats (36.1%) had mediastinal lymphoma, 11 (18.0%) had alimentary lymphoma, 7 (11.5%) had peripheral lymphoma, 8 (13.1%) had nasal lymphoma, and 13 (21.3%) had miscellaneous lymphoma (including renal lymphoma in 2 [3.3%]). Of the 54 cats that were tested, only 4 (7.4%) were FeLV positive. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 46 of the 61 cats (75.4%). The estimated 1- and 2-year disease-free periods (DFPs) in the 46 cats with CR were 51.4 and 37.8%, respectively, whereas the median duration of remission was 251 days. The overall estimated 1-year survival rate in all cats was 48.7%, and the 2-year survival rate was 39.9%, with a median survival of 266 days. The median survival time and the 1-year survival rate for mediastinal lymphoma were 262 days and 49.4%, respectively. Siamese cats had a more favorable prognosis for survival and remission than other breeds. Response to therapy in this study was shown to be a significant prognostic indicator. CR is necessary for long-term survival. Cats that did not achieve CR had little chance of survival for longer than 1 year. Young Siamese cats in this study had a greater tendency to develop mediastinal malignant lymphoma at a young age, and all were FeLV negative. In comparison with results reported in other studies with different combination chemotherapy protocols, these are among the highest percentages of remission and the longest survival rates for cats with malignant lymphoma. [source]

    Liver transplantation for malignancies in children,

    Sue V. McDiarmid
    Key Points 1. Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary pediatric liver malignancy. The majority of children with HB are resection candidates. Determining which children should undergo resection or primary liver transplantation is essential to the prognosis. 2. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common pediatric primary liver malignancy. Most children with HCC are not resection candidates. Transplantation offers improved survival for appropriate candidates in comparison with nontransplant options. 3. Unlike children with HCC, children with HB and extrahepatic spread to the lungs have acceptable transplant outcomes if the disease has been eradicated by chemotherapy or surgical removal at the time of transplantation. 4. Chemotherapy is an important adjuvant for improving outcomes for children with HB, but its benefits for children with HCC are unproven. 5. Demonstrated extrahepatic spread at the time of transplantation is a contraindication to transplantation for patients with HCC or HB. Macroinvasion at the time of transplantation is a relative contraindication to transplantation. 6. Children with primary hepatic malignancies who are transplant candidates should be prioritized on the deceased donor waiting list. However, the criteria for prioritizing adult HCC patients have not been proven to be relevant for children. Liver Transpl 16:S13-S21, 2010. © 2010 AASLD. [source]

    Quantitative 19F MR spectroscopy at 3 T to detect heterogeneous capecitabine metabolism in human liver

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
    Dennis Klomp
    Abstract Chemotherapy in non-responding cancer patients leads to unnecessary toxicity. A marker is therefore required that can predict the sensitivity of a specific tumour to chemotherapy, which would enable individualisation of therapy. 19F MR spectroscopy (19F MRS) can be used to monitor the metabolism of fluorinated drugs. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantified localised detection of fluorinated compounds in human liver. For this purpose, sensitivity-optimised localised 19F MRS methods at 3 T were used to detect MR signals from capecitabine, 5,DFUR, 5,DFCR and FBAL after oral intake of capecitabine. As the radio-frequency (rf) coil is made tuneable to 19F and 1H, the same localisation method is applied to obtain 1H MR signals of water and of the 19F metabolites. In addition, T1 measurements have been performed to correct for measurement-induced saturation effects. Finally, absolute tissue concentrations of capecitabine metabolites were obtained in vivo, which revealed a substantial spatial heterogeneity of these metabolites in human liver after chemotherapy. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Developing anticancer chemotherapy services in a developing country: Hodgkin lymphoma experience

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 4 2008
    Jagdish Chandra MD
    Abstract Background and Objective Reporting on how the cancer treatment facilities were developed at a medical college hospital in India and the profile and outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at this new center were the objectives of the study. Methods Patients under 18 years with a diagnosis of HL were evaluated using abdominal ultrasonography, CT scan examination of chest, abdomen and pelvis and bone marrow examination. Most patients were treated with combination chemotherapy. Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Pathology were involved for evaluation. Radiotherapy when required was made available at a nearby hospital. Results Thirty-five patients between 1.2 and 18 years (median age 7 years) were diagnosed as HL during the study period. Advanced disease (Stage IIb or more) was present in 83% cases. Mixed cellularity was the commonest histological subtype (50.5%). Primary therapy used was COPP in 29 (83%) cases. Of the 34 patients who received treatment 30 showed initial good response to therapy. One patient responded to ABVD after having progression on COPP. Of 31 responders, 4 relapsed. Twenty-seven patients (80%) are surviving free of disease for a median follow up of 4.5 years (range 1.5,18 years). Chemotherapy was well tolerated. Febrile neutropenia occurred in four cases. Conclusions Pediatric HL in India was characterized by advanced disease at presentation. Mixed-cellularity was the predominant histological subtype. An effective program was developed with initial attention to patients with HL. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:485,488. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Successful management of bleeding with recombinant factor VIIa (NovoSeven®) in a patient with Burkitt lymphoma and thrombosis of the left femoral and left common iliac veins

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 3 2007

    Abstract We present the case of an 18-year-old female with Burkitt lymphoma involving the intra-abdominal and inguinal lymph nodes. The tumor had invaded the left femoral and common iliac veins causing secondary thrombosis and vessel occlusion. Chemotherapy and anticoagulant treatment resulted in mild thrombocytopenia and a prolonged prothrombin time, respectively, which exacerbated postoperative bleeding following surgical removal of a deep inguinal necrosis. After 6 days, bleeding combined with epistaxis was considered to be life threatening and anticoagulant reversal with recombinant factor VIIa was successfully performed. The patient has since achieved complete remission and subsequent antithrombotic therapy has resolved the vascular occlusion. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007;49:332,335. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Survival after recurrence of osteosarcoma: A 20-year experience at a single institution

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 3 2006
    Brian D. Crompton MD
    Abstract Background Approximately one-third of patients with osteosarcoma who have a complete response to their initial treatment can be expected to relapse. It is important to define what host, tumor, or treatment characteristics determine outcome after relapse. We present findings in 59 patients treated at our institution from 1974 to 1996 who have relapsed one or more times after their initial response. Methods Host and tumor characteristics at diagnosis and relapse, therapeutic interventions and survival outcomes were determined from examination of medical records and a follow-up questionnaire. Results Of the 59 patients, 37 initially presented with localized disease of the extremity, 11 with localized non-extremity disease, and 11 with metastatic disease. This report focuses on those with localized disease of the extremity. For these patients, median time from original diagnosis to first recurrence was 14 months. Median survival after first recurrence was 31 months. The median post initial relapse survival was the same for patients whose first relapse occurred before or after 14 months from original diagnosis. Seventeen of 29 patients with systemic metastasis at first recurrence had complete removal of their disease and had a median post-op survival of 2.5 years, while the remaining 12 patients with no surgery, had a median survival of 2 years. Of the 37 patients who presented with primary disease only in the extremities and relapsed: 31 died (2 more than 6 years from first recurrence) and 6 are alive from 6 to 24 years from first recurrence (5 without disease and 1 with disease). Three of the five disease-free survivors had three or more relapses. Conclusion With a long follow-up time, we found 15% of patients with relapsed osteosarcoma who originally presented with localized disease in the extremity are alive with no evidence of disease at 10 years from first recurrence (Kaplan,Meier estimate). Even patients with multiple relapses may have long-term disease-free survival after salvage therapy. Chemotherapy and time to first recurrence were unrelated to survival after relapse in this study. Complete surgical removal of metastatic disease may be important for long-term survival. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006;47:255,259. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]