Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Chemokines

  • cxc chemokine
  • inflammatory chemokine
  • key chemokine
  • other chemokine
  • pro-inflammatory chemokine
  • several chemokine
  • various chemokine

  • Terms modified by Chemokines

  • chemokine expression
  • chemokine family
  • chemokine gene
  • chemokine gene expression
  • chemokine il-8
  • chemokine induction
  • chemokine interleukin
  • chemokine level
  • chemokine ligand
  • chemokine monocyte chemoattractant
  • chemokine pathway
  • chemokine production
  • chemokine profile
  • chemokine receptor
  • chemokine receptor antagonist
  • chemokine receptor ccr5
  • chemokine receptor cxcr4
  • chemokine receptor expression
  • chemokine release
  • chemokine secretion

  • Selected Abstracts

    In Vivo and In Vitro Evidence of the Involvement of CXCL1, a Keratinocyte-Derived Chemokine, in Equine Laminitis

    R.R. Faleiros
    Background: C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) is an important chemokine of epithelial origin in rodents and humans. Objectives: To assess in vivo and in vitro the regulation of CXCL1 in equine laminitis. Animals: Twenty adult horses. Methods: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess expression of CXCL1 in samples of laminae, liver, skin, and lung from the black walnut extract (BWE) model of laminitis, and in cultured equine epithelial cells (EpCs). Tissue was obtained from control animals (CON, n = 5), and at 1.5 hours (early time point [ETP] group, n = 5), at the onset of leukopenia (developmental time point [DTP] group, n = 5), and at the onset of lameness (LAM group, n = 5) after BWE administration. EpCs were exposed to Toll-like/Nod receptor ligands, oxidative stress agents, and reduced atmospheric oxygen (3%). In situ PCR was used to localize the laminar cell types undergoing CXCL1 mRNA expression. Results: Increases in laminar CXCL1 mRNA concentrations occurred in the ETP (163-fold [P= .0001]) and DTP groups (21-fold [P= .005]). Smaller increases in CXCL1 expression occurred in other tissues and organs. In cultured EpCs, increases (P < .05) in CXCL1 mRNA concentration occurred after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS [28-fold]), xanthine/xanthine oxidase (3.5-fold), and H2O2 (2-fold). Hypoxia enhanced the LPS-induced increase in CXCL1 mRNA (P= .007). CXCL1 gene expression was localized to laminar EpCs, endothelial cells, and emigrating leukocytes. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: These findings indicate that CXCL1 plays an early and possibly initiating role in neutrophil accumulation in the BWE laminitis model, and that laminar keratinocytes are an important source of this chemokine. New therapies using chemokine receptor antagonists may be indicated. [source]

    Chemokine and cytokine expression in murine intestinal epithelium following Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection

    Anne Rosbottom
    Summary Infection of mice with the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis results in a well characterized intestinal mastocytosis with intraepithelial migration of mucosal mast cells (MMC). The molecules mediating this response are unknown. We examined expression of several putative mast cell chemoattractants in intestinal epithelium following N. brasiliensis infection. Expression of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1,(MIP-1,), RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted), fractalkine, and thymocyte expressed chemokine (TECK); and the cytokines stem cell factor (SCF) and transforming growth factor ,1 (TGF,1), was constitutive and no alteration was detected following infection. MCP-1 expression was also constitutive but at much lower levels and increased expression was detected on days 7 and 14 postinfection. Expression of MCP-1 in whole jejunum was at much higher levels than in epithelium. Constitutive expression of MCP-1, MIP-1, and TGF,1 was also detected in cultured bone marrow-derived homologues of MMC. In an intestinal epithelial cell line (CMT-93), there was constitutive expression of SCF, TGF,1, fractalkine and MCP-1. The results show that, in vivo, epithelium is a potentially important source of mast cell chemoattractants. [source]

    A Th2 Chemokine, TARC, Produced by Trophoblasts and Endometrial Gland Cells, Regulates the Infiltration of CCR4+ T Lymphocytes into Human Decidua at Early Pregnancy

    PROBLEM:,A chemokine receptor, CCR4 preferentially expressed on type 2 helper T (Th2-type) cells, and its ligand, thymus and activation regulated chemokine -(TARC/CCL)- play important roles in the recruitment of Th2-type cells. We examined the distribution of CCR4 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ -T cells in human decidua at early pregnancy, and localized TARC in the decidual tissue and chorionic tissue. METHOD OF STUDY:,Decidual tissue was obtained by legal abortion. The percentages of CCR4 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ -T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Localization of TARC protein was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. The expression of TARC mRNA in the choriocarcinoma cell line and endometrial cell line was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT,PCR). RESULT:,The percentages of CCR4+ cells in CD4+ -T cells and CD8+ -T cells were significantly increased in human early pregnancy decidua compared with those in peripheral blood. An another marker of human Th2 and Tc2 cells, CRTH2 molecules was also expressed on CCR4+CD4+ -T cells and CCR4+CD8+ -T cells. In addition, we found that trophoblasts, uterine epithelial cells and endometrial gland cells produce TARC by immunohistochemical staining and the RT-PCR method. CONCLUSION:,Our findings imply that TARC secreted in decidua mediates the infiltration of CCR4+ T-cell migration into the fetomaternal interface, decidua, resulting in the maintenance of pregnancy. [source]

    Differential Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Gene Induction by Ischemia, Alloantigen, and Gene Transfer in Cardiac Grafts

    Dongmei Chen
    Transplantation of allogeneic grafts presents several challenges to the innate and adaptive immune systems including chemokine leukocyte recruitment, activation, and effector function. We defined the chemokines and receptors induced by the transplant procedure/ischemia injury, alloantigen and gene transfer vector administration in murine cardiac grafts. E1, E3 deleted AdRSV,gal was transferred into grafts at the time of transplantation, grafts were harvested after 1,14 days, and a pathway-specific cDNA array was used to evaluate the levels of 67 chemokine and chemokine receptor genes. Transplantation resulted in ischemic injury and induction of a number of similar genes in both the syngeneic and allogeneic grafts, such as CXCL1 and CXCL5, which increased dramatically on day 1 and returned rapidly to baseline in the syngeneic grafts. Alloantigen stimulated the adaptive immune response and induced the presence of more inflammatory genes within the grafts, particularly at later time points. The adenovirus vector induced a broader panel of genes, among them potent inflammatory chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, that are induced earlier or more strongly compared with alloantigen stimulation alone. As alloantigen and adenovirus vectors both induce similar sets of genes, targeting these molecules may not only inhibit alloimmunity, but also enhance the utility of the gene transfer vector. [source]

    Common promoter deletion is associated with 3.9-fold differential transcription of ovine CCR5 and reduced proviral level of ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2009
    S. N. White
    Summary Chemokine (C-C motif) Receptor 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that regulates immune cell recruitment in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A human CCR5 coding deletion (termed delta-32) results in strong resistance to HIV infection, and sequence variants in CCR5 regulatory regions have been implicated in delayed progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Both ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), also known as maedi-visna, and HIV are macrophage-tropic lentiviruses, have similar genomic structures, and cause lifelong persistent host infection, suggesting CCR5 may have a role in regulating OPPV provirus levels. Therefore, the ovine CCR5 genomic sequence was determined, and sequence variants were obtained from the open reading frame and surrounding regulatory sites. One CCR5 variant contained a 4-base deletion within a binding site for octamer transcription factors in the promoter region. A test for differential transcription from each allele in heterozygous animals showed a 3.9-fold transcription difference (P < 0.0001). OPPV proviral levels were also measured in 351 naturally exposed Rambouillet, Polypay and Columbia sheep. Deletion homozygotes showed reduced OPPV proviral levels among these animals (P < 0.01). The association of this CCR5 promoter deletion with OPPV levels will need to be validated in additional populations before the deletion can be recommended for widespread use in marker-assisted selection. However, because of the large impact on transcription and because CCR5 has roles in inflammation, recruitment of effector cells, and cell-mediated immunity, this deletion may play a role in the control of infections of many diverse pathogens of sheep. [source]

    Comparative expression pattern analysis of the highly conserved chemokines SDF1 and CXCL14 during amniote embryonic development

    Clara García-Andrés
    Abstract Chemokines are secreted proteins with essential roles in leukocyte trafficking and cell migration during embryogenesis. CXCL14 displays a degree of evolutionary conservation unmatched by any other chemokine except for SDF1(CXCL12). However, its role during embryogenesis has not been studied. Here we describe the expression pattern of mouse and chicken CXCL14 during embryogenesis and compare it with that of SDF1. CXCL14 is widely expressed in embryonic ectoderm and shows a restricted and dynamic expression pattern in paraxial mesoderm, mesonephros, neural tube, and limbs. During limb development, CXCL14 marks a unique connective tissue subset that surrounds developing tendons. Comparison of CXCL14 and SDF1 reveals mostly non-overlapping or complementary expression patterns, suggesting an interactive regulation of developmental processes by these two chemokines. Our study identifies CXCL14 as a novel marker of tendon connective tissue and provides a conceptual framework for the coordinated action of two highly conserved chemokines in embryonic development. Developmental Dynamics 239:2769,2777, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The interferon-inducible gene IFI16 secretome of endothelial cells drives the early steps of the inflammatory response

    Rossella Baggetta
    Abstract The IFN-inducible human IFI16 gene is highly expressed in endothelial cells as well as epithelial and hematopoietic tissues. Previous gene array analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells overexpressing IFI16 has revealed an increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, protein array analysis of the IFI16 secretome showed an increased production of chemokines, cytokines and adhesion molecules responsible for leukocyte chemotaxis. Functional analysis of the promoter for CCL20, the chemokine responsible for leukocyte recruitment in the early steps of inflammation, by site-specific mutation demonstrated that NF-,B is the main mediator of CCL20 induction at the transcriptional level. Finally, both Langerhans DC and B-lymphocyte migration triggered by supernatants from IFI16-overexpressing endothelial cells was partially inhibited by Ab inactivating CCL4, CCL5 and CCL20 chemokines. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the IFI16 gene, through its secretome, regulates proinflammatory activity of endothelial cells, thus corroborating its role in the early steps of inflammation. [source]

    The antimicrobial activity of CCL28 is dependent on C-terminal positively-charged amino acids

    Bin Liu
    Abstract Several chemokines have been shown to act as antimicrobial proteins, suggesting a direct contribution to innate immune protection. Based on the study of defensins and other antimicrobial peptides, it has been proposed that cationic amino acids in these proteins play a key role in their antimicrobial activity. The primary structure requirements necessary for the antimicrobial activity of chemokines, however, have not yet been elucidated. Using mouse CCL28, we have identified a C-terminal region of highly-charged amino acids (RKDRK) that is essential to the antimicrobial activity of the murine chemokine. Additionally, other positively-charged amino acids in the C-terminus of the protein contribute to the observed antimicrobial effect. Charge reversal and deletion mutations support our hypothesis that C-terminal positively-charged amino acids are essential for the antimicrobial activity of CCL28. Results also demonstrate that although the C-terminal region of the chemokine is essential, it is not sufficient for full antimicrobial activity of CCL28. [source]

    Nod1 and Nod2 induce CCL5/RANTES through the NF-,B pathway

    Catherine Werts
    Abstract The Nod-like receptor proteins Nod1 and Nod2 participate in innate immune responses against bacteria through intracellular detection of peptidoglycan, a component of bacterial cell wall. Recent evidence has demonstrated that Nod1 stimulates the release of chemokines that attract neutrophils at the site of infection, such as CXCL8/IL-8 in humans, and CXCL1/keratinocyte-derived chemokine and CXCL2/MIP-2 in mice. We aimed to determine whether Nod proteins could trigger the release of CCL5/RANTES, a chemokine known to attract a number of immune cells, but not neutrophils. Our results demonstrate that activation of both Nod1 and Nod2 results in substantial secretion of CCL5 by murine macrophages. Moreover, in vivo, the intraperitoneal injection of murine Nod1 or Nod2 agonists resulted in a rapid secretion of CCL5 into the bloodstream. We also observed that Nod-dependent secretion of CCL5 did not correlate with the induction of the interferon-, pathway, a major signaling cascade for the activation of CCL5 by viruses. In contrast, we identified a key role of the NF-,B pathway in Nod-dependent stimulation of the CCL5 promoter. Together, these results identify a novel target downstream of Nod1 and Nod2, which is likely to play a key role in orchestrating the global Nod-dependent immune defense during bacterial infections. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: BRIEF REPORT: Epigenetic modulation at the CCR2 gene correlates with the maintenance of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Daigo Ikegami
    ABSTRACT The intermittent administration of methamphetamine produces behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine. In the limbic forebrain, mainly including the nucleus accumbens, of mice that had been intermittently treated with methamphetamine, we found a significant increase in mRNA of a chemokine, CCR2. This increase was accompanied by a significant increase in histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation at its promoter. Interestingly, the maintenance of sensitization to methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion was significantly decreased in CCR2 knockout mice. These findings suggest that increased CCR2 associated with epigenetic modification after the intermittent administration of methamphetamine may be associated with the maintenance of sensitization to methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. [source]

    Maintenance of CCL5 mRNA stores by post-effector and memory CD8 T cells is dependent on transcription and is coupled to increased mRNA stability

    Antoine Marçais
    Abstract Immunological memory is associated with the display of improved effector functions by cells of the adaptive immune system. The storage of untranslated mRNA coding for the CCL5 chemokine by CD8 memory cells is a new process supporting the immediate display of an effector function. Here, we show that, after induction during the primary response, high CCL5 mRNA levels are specifically preserved in CD8 T cells. We have investigated the mechanisms involved in the long-term maintenance of CCL5 mRNA levels by memory CD8 T cells. We demonstrate that the CCL5 mRNA half-life is increased in memory CD8 T cells and that these cells constitutively transcribe ccl5 gene. By inhibiting ccl5 transcription using IL-4, we demonstrate the essential role of transcription in the maintenance of CCL5 mRNA stores. Finally, we show that these stores are spontaneously reconstituted when the inhibitory signal is removed, indicating that the transcription of ccl5 is a default feature of memory CD8 T cells imprinted in their genetic program. [source]

    Activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant response pathway increases IL-8 expression

    Xiaolan Zhang
    Abstract Oxidant stress can initiate or enhance inflammatory responses during tissue injury, possibly through activation of redox-sensitive chemokines. Because the transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor,2) is responsive to oxidative stress, and induces expression of cytoprotective and antioxidant genes that attenuate tissue injury, we postulated that Nrf2 may also regulate chemokine expression. To test this hypothesis, Nrf2 expression was directly increased in primary human kidney mesangial cells and aortic endothelial cells, or cell lines with an adenoviral construct, and the effects on the pro-inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) were assessed. Nrf2 expression significantly increased IL-8 mRNA levels and protein secretion. Nrf2 caused only a weak induction of IL-8 transcription, but significantly increased the half-life of IL-8 mRNA. These data demonstrate that activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant response pathway induces expression of IL-8. The dominant mechanism of Nrf2-mediated IL-8 induction is through mRNA stabilization. Considering the evidence that Nrf2 activation is mainly cytoprotective, these observations raise the possibility that under certain circumstances IL-8 may serve an anti-inflammatory role and thereby contribute to the resolution of tissue injury. See accompanying commentary [source]

    CCL22-induced responses are powerfully enhanced by synergy inducing chemokines via CCR4: evidence for the involvement of first ,-strand of chemokine

    Silvia Sebastiani
    Abstract In an attempt to clarify how cells integrate the signals provided by multiple chemokines expressed during inflammation, we have uncovered a novel mechanism regulating leukocyte trafficking. Our data indicate that the concomitant exposure to CCR4 agonists and CXCL10/IP-10 strongly enhances the chemotactic response of human T lymphocytes. This enhancement is synergistic rather than additive and occurs via CCR4 since it persists after CXCR3 blockade. Besides chemotaxis, other cellular responses are enhanced upon stimulation of CCR4-transfected cells with CCL22/MDC plus CXCL10. Several other chemokines in addition to CXCL10 were able to increase CCL22-mediated chemotaxis. The first ,-strand of the chemokine structure is highly and specifically implicated in this phenomenon, as established using synergy-inducing and non-synergy-inducing chimeric chemokines. As shown in situ for skin from atopic and allergic contact dermatitis patients, this organ becomes the ideal environment in which skin-homing CCR4+ T lymphocytes can accumulate under the stimulus offered by CCR4 agonists, together with the synergistic chemokines that are concomitantly expressed. Overall, our results indicate that chemokine-induced synergism strengthens leukocyte recruitment towards tissues co-expressing several chemokines. [source]

    CCR6 has a non-redundant role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease

    Rosa Varona
    Abstract Antigen-loaded tissues such as the intestinal mucosa must simultaneously elicit appropriate immune response to innocuous bacteria and food proteins, and to potentially harmful antigens. Impairment of the mechanisms controlling this response may mediate the excessive immune reaction that can lead to tissue destruction and inflammatory intestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. The intestinal epithelium influences local immune responses through the expression of adhesion molecules, costimulatory factors, cytokines and chemokines. CCL20, a ,-chemokine expressed in epithelia from colon and other intestinal tissue, plays a role in immune responses of intestinal mucosa, as deduced from the defects in intestinal leukocyte homeostasis shown by mice lacking CCR6, the CCL20 receptor. We studied the response of CCR6-deficient mice in two models of inflammatory bowel disease. The data show that absence of CCR6 resulted in less severe intestinal pathology in animals treated with dextran sodium sulfate. Conversely, CCR6 deficiency alters leukocyte homeostasis and the cytokine environment in the intestinal mucosa; these changes are sufficient to confer susceptibility to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced intestinal inflammation in the otherwise resistant C57BL/6J mouse strain. These results suggest that the CCR6/CCL20 axis has a critical, non-redundant role in the in vivo control of immune responses in the intestine. [source]

    Increased levels of inflammatory chemokines in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    J. Kuhle
    Background and purpose:, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is classically assumed to be a neurodegenerative disorder. Inflammation has been observed in CNS tissue in ALS patients. We investigated the expression and prognostic relevance of proinflammatory chemokines in ALS. Methods:, We analyzed nine chemokines, eotaxin, eotaxin-3, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, macrophage derived chemokine (MDC), macrophage inflammatory protein-1, (MIP-1,), and serum thymus and activation- regulated chemokine (TARC) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 20 ALS- and 20 non-inflammatory neurological disease (NIND)-patients. Results:, MCP-1 and IL-8 levels in CSF in ALS were significantly higher than in NIND (1304 pg/ml vs. 1055 pg/ml, P = 0.013 and 22.7 pg/ml vs. 18.6 pg/ml, P = 0.035). The expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 were higher in CSF than in serum (P < 0.001). There was a trend towards higher MCP-1 CSF levels in ALS patients with shorter time between first symptoms and diagnosis (r = ,0.407; P = 0.075). Conclusions:, We confirmed previous findings of increased MCP-1 levels in CSF of ALS patients. Furthermore, increased levels of IL-8 in CSF suggest a stimulation of a proinflammatory cytokine cascade after microglia activation. We found a tendency for higher MCP-1 values in patients with a shorter diagnostic delay, who are known to have also a shorter survival. This may suggest an association of higher MCP-1 levels with rapidly progressing disease. [source]

    Atopic eczema or atopiform dermatitis

    Jan D. Bos
    Please cite this paper as: Atopic eczema or atopiform dermatitis. Experimental Dermatology 2010. Abstract:, Age period prevalence of atopic eczema (AE), a very common skin disease, has increased during the past decennia. This expansion seems to be ending in wealthy countries, while an increase is observed in developing nations, for which there is no firm explanation. Recent steps in understanding AE are the detection of skin barrier related filaggrin null mutations in approximately 25% of patients and the recognition of IL-31 as a molecule possibly involved in the itch (pruritus). Also interesting are the recognition of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and proliferating-inducing ligand (APRIL), as being associated with AE severity and activity. Immunocentric and corneocentric views on pathogenesis (the inside-outside paradigm) and the diagnostic entity atopiform dermatitis (AFD) are discussed here. We emphasize that diagnosing AE is not simple but challenging. We accentuate that a diagnosis of AE is only possible when there is allergen-specific IgE. Advice as to the need for elimination of allergens and adjustment of lifestyle are only proficient in patients having atopy and true AE, not in those having AFD. [source]

    Roles of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and its receptors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic diseases

    Noriaki Kume
    In elderly populations, atherosclerotic diseases, including ischemic heart disease and stroke, frequently impair quality of life and affect mortality. Hypercholesterolemia, especially increased plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is one of the strongest risk factors for atheroscletorotic diseases. Oxidative modification of LDL appears to convert LDL particles to more atherogenic forms. Scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) and CD36 have been identified and well-characerized as receptors for Ox-LDL in macrophages. In addition to these molecules, lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX)-1 and scavenger receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized lipoprotein (SR-PSOX) are type II and I membrane glycoproteins, respectively, both of which can act as cell-surface endocytosis receptors for atherogenic oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL). LOX-1 expression can dynamically be induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli, and is detectable in cultured macrophages and activated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), in addition to endothelial cells. LOX-1-dependent uptake of Ox-LDL induces apoptosis of cultured VSMC. In vivo, endothelial cells that cover early atherosclerotic lesions, and intimal macrophages and VSMC in advanced atherosclerotic plaques dominantly express LOX-1. LOX-1 expressed on the cell-surface can be cleaved in part and released as soluble molecules, suggesting the diagnostic value of soluble LOX-1. SR-PSOX is a newly identified receptor for Ox-LDL, which appears to be identical to CXCL16, a novel membrane-anchored chemokine directed to CXCR6-positive lymphocytes. In contrast to LOX-1, which is expressed by a variety of cell types, SR-PSOX expression appeared relatively confined to macrophages in atherogenesis. Taken together, oxidized LDL receptors, including LOX-1 and SR-PSOX, may play important roles in atherogenesis and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. [source]

    RANTES stimulates inflammatory cascades and receptor modulation in murine astrocytes

    GLIA, Issue 1 2002
    Yi Luo
    Abstract Cultured mouse astrocytes respond to the CC chemokine RANTES by production of chemokine and cytokine transcripts. Stimulation of astrocytes with 1 nM RANTES or 3,10 nM of the structurally related chemokines (eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and -, [MIP-1,, MIP-1,]) induced transcripts for KC, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), MIP-1,, MIP-2, and RANTES in a chemokine and cell-specific fashion. Synthesis of chemokine (KC and MCP-1) and cytokine (TNF-,) proteins was also demonstrated. RANTES-mediated chemokine synthesis was specifically inhibited by pertussis toxin, indicating that G-protein-coupled chemokine receptors participated in astrocyte signaling. Astrocytes expressed CCR1 and CCR5 (the redundant RANTES receptors). Astrocytes derived from mice with targeted mutations of either CCR1 or CCR5 respond after RANTES stimulation, suggesting multiple chemokine receptors may separately mediate RANTES responsiveness in astrocytes. Preliminary data suggest activation of the MAP kinase pathway is also critical for RANTES-mediated signaling in astrocytes. Treatment with RANTES specifically modulated astrocyte receptors upregulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and downregulating CX3CR1 expression. Thus, after chemokine treatment, astrocytes release proinflammatory mediators and reprogram their surface molecules. The combined effects of RANTES may serve to amplify inflammatory responses within the central nervous system. GLIA 39:19,30, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    CXC chemokine ligand 4 (Cxcl4) is a platelet-derived mediator of experimental liver fibrosis,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Mirko Moreno Zaldivar
    Liver fibrosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Platelets are involved in liver damage, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigate the platelet-derived chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4) as a molecular mediator of fibrotic liver damage. Serum concentrations and intrahepatic messenger RNA of CXCL4 were measured in patients with chronic liver diseases and mice after toxic liver injury. Platelet aggregation in early fibrosis was determined by electron microscopy in patients and by immunohistochemistry in mice. Cxcl4,/, and wild-type mice were subjected to two models of chronic liver injury (CCl4 and thioacetamide). The fibrotic phenotype was analyzed by histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. Intrahepatic infiltration of immune cells was investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and stellate cells were stimulated with recombinant Cxcl4 in vitro. The results showed that patients with advanced hepatitis C virus,induced fibrosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis had increased serum levels and intrahepatic CXCL4 messenger RNA concentrations. Platelets were found directly adjacent to collagen fibrils. The CCl4 and thioacetamide treatment led to an increase of hepatic Cxcl4 levels, platelet activation, and aggregation in early fibrosis in mice. Accordingly, genetic deletion of Cxcl4 in mice significantly reduced histological and biochemical liver damage in vivo, which was accompanied by changes in the expression of fibrosis-related genes (Timp-1 [tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1], Mmp9 [matrix metalloproteinase 9], Tgf -, [transforming growth factor beta], IL10 [interleukin 10]). Functionally, Cxcl4,/, mice showed a strongly decreased infiltration of neutrophils (Ly6G) and CD8+ T cells into the liver. In vitro, recombinant murine Cxcl4 stimulated the proliferation, chemotaxis, and chemokine expression of hepatic stellate cells. Conclusion: The results underscore an important role of platelets in chronic liver damage and imply a new target for antifibrotic therapies. (HEPATOLOGY 2010.) [source]

    Enhanced T cell transmigration across the murine liver sinusoidal endothelium is mediated by transcytosis and surface presentation of chemokines,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Arnhild Schrage
    Transmigration through the liver endothelium is a prerequisite for the homeostatic balance of intrahepatic T cells and a key regulator of inflammatory processes within the liver. Extravasation into the liver parenchyma is regulated by the distinct expression patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokines and their receptors on the lymphocyte and endothelial cell surface. In the present study, we investigated whether liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) inhibit or support the chemokine-driven transmigration and differentially influence the transmigration of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory CD4+ T cells, indicating a mechanism of hepatic immunoregulation. Finally, the results shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which LSEC modulate chemokine-dependent transmigration. LSEC significantly enhanced the chemotactic effect of CXC-motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and CXCL9, but not of CXCL16 or CCL20, on naive and memory CD4+ T cells of a T helper 1, T helper 2, or interleukin-10,producing phenotype. In contrast, brain and lymphatic endothelioma cells and ex vivo isolated lung endothelia inhibited chemokine-driven transmigration. As for the molecular mechanisms, chemokine-induced activation of LSEC was excluded by blockage of Gi -protein,coupled signaling and the use of knockout mice. After preincubation of CXCL12 to the basal side, LSEC took up CXCL12 and enhanced transmigration as efficiently as in the presence of the soluble chemokine. Blockage of transcytosis in LSEC significantly inhibited this effect, and this suggested that chemokines taken up from the basolateral side and presented on the luminal side of endothelial cells trigger T cell transmigration. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate a unique capacity of LSEC to present chemokines to circulating lymphocytes and highlight the importance of endothelial cells for the in vivo effects of chemokines. Chemokine presentation by LSEC could provide a future therapeutic target for inhibiting lymphocyte immigration and suppressing hepatic inflammation. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]

    Inflammation and drug hepatotoxicity: Aggravation of injury or clean-up mission?,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    Hartmut Jaeschke
    BACKGROUND & AIMS Inflammatory mediators released by nonparenchymal inflammatory cells in the liver have been implicated in the progression of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Among hepatic nonparenchymal inflammatory cells, we examined the role of the abundant natural killer (NK) cells and NK cells with T-cell receptors (NKT cells) in APAP-induced liver injury. METHODS C57BL/6 mice were administered a toxic dose of APAP intraperitoneally to cause liver injury with or without depletion of NK and NKT cells by anti-NK1.1 monoclonal antibody (MAb). Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, liver histology, hepatic leukocyte accumulation, and cytokine/chemokine expression were assessed. RESULTS Compared with APAP-treated control mice, depletion of both NK and NKT cells by anti-NK1.1 significantly protected mice from APAP-induced liver injury, as evidenced by decreased serum ALT level, improved survival of mice, decreased hepatic necrosis, inhibition of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Fas ligand (FasL), and chemokines including KC (Keratinocyte-derived chemokine); MIP-1 alpha (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha); MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1); IP-10 (interferon-inducible protein); Mig (monokine induced by IFN-gamma) and decreased neutrophil accumulation in the liver. Hepatic NK and NKT cells were identified as the major source of IFN-gamma by intracellular cytokine staining. APAP induced much less liver injury in Fas-deficient (lpr) and FasL-deficient (gld) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS NK and NKT cells play a critical role in the progression of APAP-induced liver injury by secreting IFN-gamma, modulating chemokine production and accumulation of neutrophils, and up-regulating FasL expression in the liver, all of which may promote the inflammatory response of liver innate immune system, thus contributing to the severity and progression of liver injury downstream of the metabolism of APAP and depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) in hepatocytes. [source]

    Susceptibility to experimental biliary atresia linked to different hepatic gene expression profiles in two mouse strains

    Johannes Leonhardt
    Aim:, To compare hepatic gene expression during the development of experimental biliary atresia (BA) in two different mouse strains. Methods:, Balb/c mice and C57Black/6 (Black/6) mice were infected with rhesus rotavirus (RRV) postpartum, clinical signs of BA and survival were noted. Liver sections were assessed for cluster of differentiation antigen (CD) 3, CD4 and CD8 expression, and the hepatic virus load was determined. Second, mice of both strains were sacrificed three days after infection. Isolated hepatic RNA was subjected to gene expression analysis using Affymetrix Gene Chip MOE 430 2.0. Results:, The incidence of BA was significantly lower in Black/6 mice compared to Balb/c mice (13.5% vs. 67%, P < 0.05). The mean virus titers were higher in mice with BA compared to mice without BA. Different gene profiles three days after virus infection were noted, with differential expression of 201 genes, including those regulating apoptosis, nucleic acid binding, transport function and particularly the immune response (chemokine C-C motif ligand 2, toll-like receptor 3, CD antigen 14, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands 10 and 11). This correlated with a significant increase of CD4 positive cells only in Balb/c mice with BA compared to healthy mice (13.5 vs. 5.0; P < 0.05). Black/6 mice did not exhibit any significant increase of CD3 or CD4 leukocytes despite cholestasis. Conclusion:, The different susceptibility to experimental BA was associated with an increase of CD4 T-cells in the liver of Balb/c mice, which is linked to different gene profiles at the onset of bile duct obstruction. [source]

    Chemokine receptor-dependent alloresponses

    Wayne W. Hancock
    Summary:, Immunologists have typically viewed alloreactivity schematically as a function of antigen presentation, expansion of alloreactive T and B cells within regional lymphoid tissues, and cellular infiltration and destruction of an allograft. Actual details of the steps between immune activation and accumulation of effector cells within a graft typically have not received much attention. However, just how cells ,know' to move to and migrate within a graft or not is proving to be of increasing interest, as the chemokine-dependent mechanisms underlying leukocyte recruitment to a transplant are dissected. Experimentally, chemokine receptor targeting can prolong or induce permanent allograft survival, despite preservation of alloresponses within secondary lymphoid tissues, whereas current immunosuppressive protocols have only modest effects on chemokine production and leukocyte homing. Recent knowledge of the chemokine-dependent nature of allograft rejection, acceptance, and tolerance induction are presented as a basis for understanding the rationale for preclinical trials of chemokine receptor-targeted therapies currently underway in primate recipients of solid organ allografts. [source]

    Human B cells express the orphan chemokine receptor CRAM-A/B in a maturation-stage-dependent and CCL5-modulated manner

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Tanja N. Hartmann
    Summary Chemokines orchestrate the organization of leucocyte recruitment during inflammation and homeostasis. Despite growing knowledge of chemokine receptors, some orphan chemokine receptors are still not characterized. The gene CCRL2 encodes such a receptor that exists in two splice variants, CRAM-A and CRAM-B. Here, we report that CRAM is expressed by human peripheral blood and bone marrow B cells, and by different B-cell lines dependent on the B-cell maturation stage. Intriguingly, CRAM surface expression on the pre-B-cell lines Nalm6 and G2 is specifically upregulated in response to the inflammatory chemokine CCL5 (RANTES), a chemokine that is well known to play an important role in modulating immune responses. Although Nalm6 cells do not express any of the known CCL5 binding receptors, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are phosphorylated upon CCL5 stimulation, suggesting a direct effect of CCL5 through the CRAM receptor. However, no calcium mobilization or migratory responses upon CCL5 stimulation are induced in B-cell lines or in transfected cells. Also, ERK1/2 phosphorylation cannot be inhibited by pertussis toxin, suggesting that CRAM does not couple to Gi proteins. Our results describe the expression of a novel, non-classical chemokine receptor on B cells that is potentially involved in immunomodulatory functions together with CCL5. [source]

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells pulsed with enterobacterial extract suppress development of colitis in the severe combined immunodeficiency transfer model

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    A. E. Pedersen
    Summary Immunomodulatory dendritic cells (DCs) that induce antigen-specific T-cell tolerance upon in vivo adoptive transfer are promising candidates for immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases. The feasibility of such a strategy has recently proved its efficacy in animal models of allotransplantation and experimental allergic encephalitis, but the effect in inflammatory bowel disease has not yet been demonstrated. In severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, adoptively transferred CD4+ CD25, T cells repopulate the lymphoid tissues and lead to development of chronic colitis characterized by CD4+ T-cell proliferation against enterobacterial extract in vitro. In this model, we adoptively transferred in-vitro -generated bone-marrow-derived DCs exposed to interleukin-10 (IL-10) and an enterobacterial extract. We show that these cells are CD11c positive with intermediate expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86 and have a diminished secretion of IL-6, IL-12 p40/70, tumour necrosis factor-, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) compared to DCs treated with enterobacterial extract alone. In vivo, these cells prevented weight loss in SCID mice adoptively transferred with CD4+ CD25, T cells, resulted in a lower histopathology colitis score and tended to result in higher serum levels of IL-1,, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, KC and monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG). These data underscore the potential of using immunomodulatory DCs to control inflammatory bowel disease and demonstrate its potential use in future human therapeutic settings. [source]

    Interleukin-8 fails to induce human immunodeficiency virus-1 expression in chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells but differentially modulates induction by proinflammatory cytokines

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    C. T. Tiemessen
    Summary This study addresses the role of interleukin (IL)-8, a CXC-chemokine, the level of which is reported to be raised in the peripheral circulation of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, during the induction of HIV-1 expression from latency and during cytokine-mediated HIV-1 up-regulation. IL-8 at the higher concentrations tested (, 100 ng/ml) was unable to induce HIV-1 expression in the chronically infected promonocytic U1 cell line, as measured by p24 antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas at lower concentrations of 1 and 10 ng/ml, constitutive HIV-1 expression was only marginally reduced. HIV-1 replication in acutely infected U937 cells was also significantly reduced by IL-8. The potent up-regulation of HIV-1 expression in U1 cells by tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) remained unaffected by the addition of IL-8. HIV-1 induction by IL-1,, IL-6 and TNF-,, cytokines grouped here as intermediate HIV-1 inducers, was suppressed by IL-8 at concentrations of 1 and 10 ng/ml. However, IL-8 at 100 ng/ml did not significantly alter the effect of IL-1,, synergized with IL-6 in enhancing, and marginally suppressed TNF-,-induced HIV-1 expression. IL-8 suppressed granulocyte,macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and enhanced interferon-, (IFN-,)-induced HIV-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of U1 cells with IL-8 did not alter the IL-8-mediated effects on cytokine-induced HIV-1 expression, suggesting that this chemokine exerts its effect at the time of HIV-1 induction or at a postinduction stage. Furthermore, IL-8 was itself induced by cytokines that up-regulate HIV-1 expression in U1 cells and the levels produced correlated directly with the levels of p24 antigen produced, suggesting common pathways for cytokine induction of both HIV-1 and IL-8. These results show that IL-8, typically a non-inducer, can differentially modulate HIV-1 expression in U1 cells and that this is dependent on the inducing cytokine and on the concentration of IL-8. [source]

    CXCL12 Is a constitutive and inflammatory chemokine in the intestinal immune system

    Iris Dotan MD
    Abstract Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by increased lymphocytic infiltrate to the lamina propria (LP) and upregulation of inflammatory chemokines and receptors. CXCL12 is a constitutive chemokine involved in lung, brain, and joint inflammation. We hypothesized that CXCL12 and its receptor, CXCR4, would have a constitutive and inflammatory role in the gut. Methods: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and T lymphocytes were isolated from intestinal mucosa of IBD and control patients undergoing bowel resection. Autologous T cells were isolated from peripheral blood (PB). CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression by IECs was assessed by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, lymphocyte phenotype by flow cytometry, and migration by Transwells. Results: IECs expressed CXCL12 and expression was increased and more diffuse in IBD compared to normal crypts (ulcerative colitis [UC] > Crohn's disease [CD], inflamed > noninflamed). CXCR4 was expressed by IECs, LP T cells (LPTs), and PB T cells (PBTs), and CXCR4+ cells were increased in IBD LP in situ. PBTs and LPTs from all patients had a high and comparable migration toward CXCL12 (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05 vs. medium, respectively). Migration toward IBD-IEC-derived supernatant was significantly higher compared to normal. Antibodies against CXCR4 and CXCL12 blocked migration. Conclusions: CXCL12 is expressed by normal IECs and upregulated and differentially distributed in IBD IECs. CXCR4 is expressed by IECs and LPTs, and CXCR4+ cells are significantly increased in IBD LP. CXCL12 is chemotactic for both PBTs and LPTs. Thus, CXCL12 and CXCR4 have a constitutive and inflammatory role in the intestinal mucosa and their selective therapeutic manipulation may be considered in IBD management. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009;) [source]

    Tumor-stromal crosstalk in invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma: a pivotal role of CCL7

    Da-Woon Jung
    Abstract Recent studies have shown that stromal fibroblasts have a more profound influence on the initiation and progression of carcinoma than was previously appreciated. This study aimed at investigating the reciprocal relationship between cancer cells and their associated fibroblasts at both the molecular and cellular level in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To identify key molecular regulators expressed by carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) that promote cancer cell invasion, microarrays were performed by comparing cocultured OSCC cells and CAF with monoculture controls. Microarray and real-time PCR analysis identified marked upregulation of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) in cocultured CAF. ELISA showed an elevated level of CCL7 secretion from CAF stimulated by coculture with OSCC cells. CCL7 promoted the invasion and migration of OSCC cells, and the invasiveness was inhibited by treatment with CCL7 neutralizing antibody. OSCC cells were shown to express CCR1, CCR2 and CCR3, receptors for CCL7, by RT-PCR. In addition, treatment with anti-CCR1 or anti-CCR3 antibody inhibited CCL7-induced OSCC cell migration, implicating that CCL7 promotes cancer cell migration through CCR1 and CCR3 on OSCC cells. Cytokine antibody array analysis of the supernatant from OSCC cell culture revealed that interleukin-1, was an inducer of CCL7 secretion by CAF. This study confirms the reciprocal relationship of the molecular crosstalk regulating the invasion of OSCC and describes new potential targets for future therapy. [source]

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 secreted by hepatic myofibroblasts promotes migration and invasion of human hepatoma cells

    Maylis Dagouassat
    Abstract The aim of our study was to investigate whether myofibroblasts and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 may play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma progression. We observed that hepatic myofibroblast LI90 cells express MCP-1/CCL2 mRNA and secrete this chemokine. Moreover, myofibroblast LI90 cell-conditioned medium (LI90-CM) induces human hepatoma Huh7 cell migration and invasion. These effects are strongly reduced when a MCP-1/CCL2-depleted LI90-CM was used. We showed that MCP-1/CCL2 induces Huh7 cell migration and invasion through its G-protein,coupled receptor CCR2 and, to a lesser extent, through CCR1 only at high MCP-1/CCL2 concentrations. MCP-1/CCL2's chemotactic activities rely on tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion components and depend on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, we observed that Huh7 cell migration and invasion induced by the chemokine are strongly inhibited by heparin, by ,-D-xyloside treatment of cells and by anti-syndecan-1 and -4 antibodies. Finally, we developed a 3-dimensional coculture model of myofibroblast LI90 and Huh7 cells and demonstrated that MCP-1/CCL2 and its membrane partners, CCR1 and CCR2, may be involved in the formation of mixed hepatoma-myofibroblast spheroids. In conclusion, our data show that human liver myofibroblasts act on hepatoma cells in a paracrine manner to increase their invasiveness and suggest that myofibroblast-derived MCP-1/CCL2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. [source]

    Rapid response to infliximab in severe pustular psoriasis, von Zumbusch type

    Meggan R. Newland MD
    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,) is a chemokine secreted by T cells which is thought to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. The monoclonal antibody, infliximab, complexes with TNF-,, rendering it inactive. A recent clinical trial has reported the clinical benefit and safety of infliximab in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. We report a case of rapid response and clinical benefit using infliximab in severe pustular psoriasis of von Zumbusch. [source]