Chemical Industry (chemical + industry)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Selected Abstracts

Phenological stages of willow (Salix)

Margaret M. Saska
The practice of uniform recording of biological plant growth stages or events has long been practiced in agricultural production. In this study the BBCH (Biologishe Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and CHemical Industry) code has been applied to four precocious species of willows to define growth stages important to this group. The studied taxa represent varieties of potential importance in the Floral Industry. A new BBCH code is proposed where the annual cycle of willows is divided into clearly recognisable and easily distinguishable developmental phases which include eight principal stages, 30 secondary stages and six mesostages. Photographs illustrate the physical appearance of select stages. This proposed BBCH code shows a unified approach which may be applied to a large number of Salix species. [source]

Recent Applications of Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions in the Pharmaceutical, Agrochemical, and Fine Chemical Industries

Christian Torborg
Abstract Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions have become a central tool for the synthesis of biologically active compounds both in academia and industry. Most of these transformations make use of easily available substrates and allow for a shorter and more selective preparation of substituted arenes and heteroarenes compared to non-catalytic pathways. Notably, molecular-defined palladium catalysts offer high chemoselectivity and broad functional group tolerance. Considering these advantages, it is not surprising that several palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions have been implemented in the last decade into the industrial manufacture of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In this review different examples from 2001,2008 are highlighted, which have been performed at least on a kilogram scale in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. [source]

Application of liquid chromatography,Tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of new nonselective ,-adrenergic blocker 1-(1- H -indol-4-yloxy)-3-{[2-(2-methoxy phenoxy)ethylo]amino}propan-2-ol (2F109) in rat plasma

CHIRALITY, Issue 7 2007
Maria Walczak
Abstract A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography electrospray ionization,tandem mass spectrometry method for the enantioselective determination of the novel ,-adrenolytic compound, 1-(1- H -indol-4-yloxy)-3-{[2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethylo]amino} propan-2-ol, in rat plasma has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed on a reversed-phase Chiralcel OD-RH analytical column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 ,m, Daicel Chemical Industries, Tokyo, Japan) with isocratic elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water with 0.01% formic acid. Detection was achieved by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex (Concord, Ontario, Canada) API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used for ion production. The limit of detection in the MRM mode was found to be 1.25 ng/ml. The limit of quantification of both enantiomers was 2.5 ng/ml. The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of 2F109 enantiomers ranged from 2.6 to 12% and from 89.1 to 107.1%. This analytical method allowed us to carry out pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Our findings demonstrate that 2F109 shows stereoselective disposition in rat plasma after i.v. administration. The terminal half-lives of (+)-(R)-2F109 and (,)-(S)-2F109 were 33.5 and 42.6 min, respectively. The AUC0,inf of (+)-(R)-2F109 exceeded that of (,)-(S)-2F109. Chirality, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Syzygium cumini leaf and seed extract mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization

Vineet Kumar
Abstract BACKGROUND: Plant mediated synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been studied and reported, however, to date, the biomolecules involved in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles have not been characterized. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the biomolecules of Syzygium cumini involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. RESULTS: Synthesis kinetics and morphological characterization of silver nanoparticles (SNP) synthesized using leaf extract (LE) and seed extract (SE) as well as their polar (water) fractions from Syzygium cumini were compared. The polyphenols content and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile of different fractions revealed good correlation between size and synthesis rate of SNP. SE contains more polyphenols and biochemical constituents than LE and therefore, showed higher synthesis rate and bigger sized SNP. To analyse the nature of biomolecules involved in the synthesis of SNP, LE and SE were fractionated on a polarity basis by solvent,solvent partitioning. Only the water fractions of LE and SE showed potential for SNP synthesis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of SNP indicated that all fractions catalyze the synthesis of spherical nanoparticles. The average size of SNP synthesized by LE, leaf water fraction, SE and seed water fraction were 30, 29, 92, and 73 nm respectively. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that only highly polar soluble constituents are responsible for SNP synthesis. The size of SNP was found to be directly correlated with the amount of polyphenols as well as surfactants present in the reaction solution. Thus, the amount of polyphenols could be one of the crucial parameters determining the size and distribution of SNP. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Study of the production of hydrogen bubbles at low current densities for electroflotation processes

Carlos Jiménez
Abstract BACKGROUND: Flotation processes are widely used in waste-water treatment and it is quite important to have a tool to determine and optimize the size distribution of the bubbles produced. In this work, the electrochemical production of bubbles to enhance the performance of electrocoagulation processes by flotation is studied. To do this, a current density range characteristic of electrocoagulation processes is used to produce microbubbles (<5 mA cm,2), instead of the higher values used in other studies to characterize electroflotation in non-combined processes. RESULTS: Current density and pH were found to influence the process significantly. In the range used, higher current densities allow a larger number of small size bubbles to be obtained, appropriate for use in electroflotation processes. However, at the boundaries of the range, the size of the bubbles was increased advising against use. Neutral pH values also favour the formation of small bubbles, and the presence of possible competing reactions have to be considered because they diminish the gas flow and affect the number of bubbles and their size. The roughness of the surface of the electrode material also has an important influence. CONCLUSIONS: The image acquisition and analysis system developed allows measurement of the size distribution of hydrogen bubbles in the range of current densities studied. Current density and pH seem to be the main parameters affecting the mean diameter of bubbles and the amount of gas produced, and the electrode material may also influence hydrogen production significantly. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effect of the biomass in the modelling and simulation of the biofiltration of hydrogen sulphide: simulation and experimental validation

Javier Silva
Abstract BACKGROUND: Several models have been developed to simulate the decay of pollutants concentration along the biofilter and to predict its performance. Despite the evidence, it is common that most models ignore the effect of variable biomass along the biofilter. An equation that represents the variable amount of active biomass along the column was included in the modelling of a biotrickling filter; it was obtained by measuring the active biomass at different heights. Validation of the model was carried out using experimental data obtained at different H2S loads. RESULTS: The simulation considering the expression for variable active biomass along the column shows better correlation with experimental results. With the diffusion coefficient that shows the best fit with the experimental results; 1.35 × 10,9 m2 s,1, the value of the Thiele module is 2 × 10,3, indicating that biooxidation of H2S is controlled by mass transfer. CONCLUSIONS: A better correlation between experimental results and model prediction is obtained when the expression for variable active biomass along the column is considered in the modelling. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Catalytic selective oxidation faces the sustainability challenge: turning points, objectives reached, old approaches revisited and solutions still requiring further investigation

Fabrizio Cavani
Abstract This review documents some examples of recently developed technologies and new approaches currently being investigated in the field of catalytic selective oxidation, that may contribute to improving the sustainability of the chemical industry. Tools to reach this ambitious target include process integration, the development of new reactions for the valorization of renewables and new catalysts able to perform complex transformations in a single step. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Bioprocess scale-up: quest for the parameters to be used as criterion to move from microreactors to lab-scale

Marco P. C. Marques
Abstract Advances in high-throughput process development and optimization involve the rational use of miniaturized stirred bioreactors, instrumented shaken flasks and microtiter plates. As expected, each one provides different levels of control and monitoring, requiring a compromise between data quantity and quality. Despite recent advances, traditional shaken flasks with nominal volumes below 250 mL and microtiter plates are still widely used to assemble wide arrays of biotransformation/bioconversion data, because of their simplicity and low cost. These tools are key assets for faster process development and optimization, provided data are representative. Nonetheless, the design, development and implementation of bioprocesses can present variations depending on intrinsic characteristics of the overall process. For each particular process, an adequate and comprehensive approach has to be established, which includes pinpointing key issues required to ensure proper scale-up. Recently, focus has been given to engineering characterization of systems in terms of mass transfer and hydrodynamics (through gaining insight into parameters such as kLa and P/V at shaken and microreactor scale), due to the widespread use of small-scale reactors in the early developmental stages of bioconversion/biotransfomation processes. Within this review, engineering parameters used as criteria for scaling-up fermentation/bioconversion processes are discussed. Particular focus is on the feasibility of the application of such parameters to small-scale devices and concomitant use for scale-up. Illustrative case studies are presented. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by traditional and microwave acid extraction

Jun Xue
Abstract BACKGROUND: Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash is regarded as hazardous waste because it contains various toxic metals. A previous study has shown that fly ash can be detoxified by removal of heavy metals. In this work, the extractability of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash by traditional and microwave acid extraction were compared. RESULTS: A 24 , 1 fractional factorial experimental design was adopted using acid concentration, extraction time, temperature, and liquid/solid (L/S) ratio as the experimental factors for traditional extraction, and acid concentration, extraction time, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio and microwave power as the experimental factors for microwave extraction. The traditional extraction results show that L/S played an important role in Zn, Cd extraction while L/S ratio and extractant concentration were important for Pb extraction. However, no controlling parameter was determined for Cu and Cr extraction. For the microwave extraction, it was shown that L/S was important for Pb and Zn and extractant concentration was important for Pb, Zn and Cd. The time and the power were not significant for the extractability of heavy metals. CONCLUSION: Hydrochloric acid was an effective extractant. Microwave heating promoted extraction and shortened extraction time. Microwave acid extraction treatment is a potentially feasible method for the removal of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

The effect of gas-liquid counter-current operation on gas hold-up in bubble columns using electrical resistance tomography,

Haibo Jin
Abstract BACKGROUND: In order to improve the performance of a counter-current bubble column, radial variations of the gas hold-ups and mean hold-ups were investigated in a 0.160 m i.d. bubble column using electrical resistance tomography with two axial locations (Plane 1 and Plane 2). In all experiments the liquid phase was tap water and the gas phase air. The superficial gas velocity was varied from 0.02 to 0.25 m s,1, and the liquid velocity varied from 0 to 0.01 m s,1. The effect of liquid velocity on the distribution of mean hold-ups and radial gas hold-ups is discussed. RESULTS: The gas hold-up profile in a gas,liquid counter-current bubble column was determined by electrical resistance tomography. The liquid velocity slightly influences the mean hold-up and radial hold-up distribution under the selected operating conditions and the liquid flow improves the transition gas velocity from a homogeneous regime to a heterogeneous regime. Meanwhile, the radial gas hold-up profiles are steeper at the central region of the column with increasing gas velocity. Moreover, the gas hold-up in the centre of the column becomes steeper with increasing liquid velocity. CONCLUSIONS: The value of mean gas hold-ups slightly increases with increasing downward liquid velocity, and more than mean gas hold-ups in batch and co-current operation. According to the experimental results, an empirical correlation for the centreline gas hold-up is obtained based on the effects of gas velocity, liquid velocity, and ratio of axial height to column diameter. The values calculated in this way are in close agreement with experimental data, and compare with literature data on gas hold-ups at the centre of the column. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Investigating the microbial inactivation efficiency of a 25 L batch solar disinfection (SODIS) reactor enhanced with a compound parabolic collector (CPC) for household use,

Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa
Abstract BACKGROUND: A simple point-of-use solar disinfection (SODIS) reactor was designed to treat 25 L of water and was constructed from a methacrylate tube placed along the linear focus of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and mounted at 37° inclination. Experiments were carried out over a 7 month period by seeding a 106 CFU mL,1 concentration of Escherichia coli K-12 in 25 L of well water or turbid water to mimic field conditions and determine the microbial effectiveness of the reactor. RESULTS: During periods of strong sunlight, complete inactivation of bacteria occurred in under 6 h, even with water temperatures < 40 °C. Under cloudy and low solar intensity conditions, prolonged exposure was needed. Turbid water (100 NTU) was disinfected in 7 h with water temperatures > 50 °C. No regrowth of bacteria occurred within 24 h and 48 h following solar disinfection. The construction cost of this prototype reactor was approximately US$ 200 but with an expected lifetime of 10 years, the running cost of the reactor is expected to be US$ 0.002 L,1. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that significant water disinfection can be achieved using a low cost CPC-enhanced 25 L batch SODIS reactor. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Optimization of the reaction parameters of epoxidation of rapeseed oil with peracetic acid

Eugeniusz Milchert
Abstract BACKGROUND: The epoxidation of vegetable oils has been a subject of interest for many years; epoxidized oils are frequently used as plasticizers and as renewable materials for the manufacture of alcohols, glycols and many other complex compounds with excellent antioxidant and antifriction properties. In this work the epoxidation process of rapeseed oil (RO) with peracetic acid generated in situ by the reaction of 30 wt% hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid has been studied. Optimization studies were performed by application of a statistical experimental design method utilizing a rotatable-uniform design. RESULTS: The significant parameters for the RO epoxidation process were established as temperature, molar ratio of hydrogen peroxide to rapeseed oil, molar ratio of acetic acid to rapeseed oil and reaction time. The process description was based on five response functions: iodine number, epoxy number, conversion, yield and selectivity. The highest values of all functions with the exception of selectivity were achieved for the same values of parameters: temperature 65 °C, molar ratio of hydrogen peroxide to RO 11.1:1 mol mol,1, molar ratio of acetic acid to RO 1.89:1 mol mol,1 and reaction time 6 h. CONCLUSION: In summary, these optimum parameters allow one to obtain epoxidized rapeseed oil with a yield of 66.2 mol% at an oil conversion of 91.0 mol% in mild and relatively safe conditions. The epoxy number of the product was 0.207 mol per 100 g, whereas the iodine number was 0.027 mol per 100 g. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Degradation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in soil and the effects of PAEs on soil microcosm activity

Hui-Jun Xie
Abstract BACKGROUND: Phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of refractory and toxic organic compounds, are becoming one of the most widespread contaminants in the environment. Degradation of PAEs in soil has been investigated, but limited to one or a few kinds of PAEs. Microorganisms could be regarded as a sensitive bio-indicator for soil contaminants. Therefore, four commonly used PAEs were chosen to investigate their degradation patterns and potential impacts on soil microbial activity with a series of bioassays. RESULT: PAEs in sterile soils changed slightly, while degradation of PAEs in non-sterile soil followed a single first-order kinetic. Higher concentrations of PAEs led to lower ,-glucosidase activity and higher protease activity, with smooth changes of phosphatase and urease activities. PAEs decreased average well color development (AWCD), while Shannon index (H) showed a tendency to increase after a decrease. Carbon utilization profile was affected significantly by PAEs, especially at 10 mg kg,1 soil. CONCLUSION: Degradation of PAEs was driven mainly by microbial mediated processes. PAEs affected carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles variously, and had temporal effects on metabolic diversity, owing to the adaptation of microbes. Carbon substrates utilization changed from easily degradable sugars and carboxylic acids to recalcitrant compounds during the simulation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Oxidative processes of desulfurization of liquid fuels

J.M. Campos-Martin
Abstract Environmental concerns have introduced a need to remove sulfur-containing compounds from light oil. As oxidative desulfurization is conducted under very mild reaction conditions, much attention has recently been devoted to this process. In this contribution, the developments in selective removal of organosulfur compounds present in liquid fuels via oxidative desulfurization, including both chemical oxidation and biodesulfurization, are reviewed. At the end of each section, a brief account of the research directions needed in this field is also included. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Methods for stabilizing and activating enzymes in ionic liquids,a review

Hua Zhao
Abstract Ionic liquids (ILs) have evolved as a new type of non-aqueous solvents for biocatalysis, mainly due to their unique and tunable physical properties. A number of recent review papers have described a variety of enzymatic reactions conducted in IL solutions; on the other hand, it is important to systematically analyze methods that have been developed for stabilizing and activating enzymes in ILs. This review discusses the biocatalysis in ILs from two unique aspects (1) factors that impact the enzyme's activity and stability, (2) methods that have been adopted or developed to activate and/or stabilize enzymes in ionic media. Factors that may influence the catalytic performance of enzymes include IL polarity, hydrogen-bond basicity/anion nucleophilicity, IL network, ion kosmotropicity, viscosity, hydrophobicity, the enzyme dissolution, and surfactant effect. To improve the enzyme's activity and stability in ILs, major methods being explored include the enzyme immobilization (on solid support, sol,gel, or CLEA), physical or covalent attachment to PEG, rinsing with n -propanol methods (PREP and EPRP), water-in-IL microemulsions, IL coating, and the design of enzyme-compatible ionic solvents. It is exciting to notice that new ILs are being synthesized to be more compatible with enzymes. To utilize the full potential of ILs, it is necessary to further improve these methods for better enzyme compatibility. This is what has been accomplished in the field of biocatalysis in conventional organic solvents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Anaerobic digestion of Aegean olive mill effluents with and without pretreatment

Gülseren Pekin
Abstract BACKGROUND: Olive oil production is an important economical activity in the Aegean region of Turkey. However, the effluents of the olive oil producing mills with their high organic loads and toxic compounds are causing serious environmental problems. The anaerobic biological treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMWW) using the treatment plants of the regional industries could be a method of choice and within the scope of this study floccular and granular sludges were investigated in batch mode for their success in the treatment of OMWW while producing biogas. The major limitation of this treatment is the inhibition of methanogenic bacteria by the phenolic compounds in OMWW. Thus an integrated solution was suggested in which a pre-treatment step (dephenolization) was also introduced before biological step. RESULTS: The effluents of 27 olive mills out of 47 were found to have total phenolics (TP) less than 3 g L,1 and could be treated anaerobically after simple dilution. The biogas production for the untreated OMWW was higher for floccular sludge than for the granular sludge (68.5 mL and 45.7 mL respectively). Combined pre-treatment experiments, first coagulation with polyaluminum chloride, followed by flocculation with cationic polyelectrolyte and finally Fenton's oxidation, could remove 80% of TP and 95% of the total suspended solids. CONCLUSION: OMWW having TP values less than 3 g L,1 can be treated anaerobically using floccular sludge after simple dilution and biogas can be produced. For OMWW samples having higher TP values pre-treatment is necessary and the pre-treatment given in this study may be used effectively. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production: determining optimal enzyme loading using neural networks

Elmer Ccopa Rivera
Abstract BACKGROUND: The efficient production of a fermentable hydrolyzate is an immensely important requirement in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock in bioethanol production processes. The identification of the optimal enzyme loading is of particular importance to maximize the amount of glucose produced from lignocellulosic materials while maintaining low costs. This requirement can only be achieved by incorporating reliable methodologies to properly address the optimization problem. RESULTS: In this work, a data-driven technique based on artificial neural networks and design of experiments have been integrated in order to identify the optimal enzyme combination. The enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was used as a case study. This technique was used to build up a model of the combined effects of cellulase (FPU/L) and ,-glucosidase (CBU/L) loads on glucose yield (%) after enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimal glucose yield, above 99%, was achieved with cellulase and ,-glucosidase concentrations in the ranges of 460.0 to 580.0 FPU L,1 (15.3,19.3 FPU g,1 bagasse) and 750.0 to 1140.0 CBU L,1 (2,38 CBU g,1 bagasse), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic model developed can be used not only to the prediction of glucose concentration profiles for different enzymatic loadings, but also to obtain the optimum enzymes loading that leads to high glucose yield. It can promote both a successful hydrolysis process control and a more effective employment of enzymes. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates: the future green materials of choice

Everest Akaraonye
Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have recently been the focus of attention as a biodegradable and biocompatible substitute for conventional non degradable plastics. The cost of large-scale production of these polymers has inhibited its widespread use. Thus, economical, large-scale production of PHAs is currently being studied intensively. Various bacterial strains, either wild-type or recombinant have been utilized with a wide spectrum of utilizable carbon sources. New fermentation strategies have been developed for the efficient production of PHAs at high concentration and productivity. With the current advances, PHAs can now be produced to a concentration of 80 g L,1 with productivities greater than 4 g PHA L,1 h,1. These advances will further lower the production cost of PHAs and allow this family of polymers to become a leading biodegradable polymer in the near future. This review describes the properties of PHAs, their uses, the various attempts towards the production of PHAs, focusing on the utilization of cheap substrates and the development of different fermentation strategies for the production of these polymers, an essential step forward towards their widespread use. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Solvent extraction studies of Sm(III) from nitrate medium and separation factors of rare earth elements with mixtures of sec -octylphenoxyacetic acid and 1,10-phenthroline

Shujuan Fan
Abstract BACKGROUND: Liquid,liquid extraction is widely used for the separation of rare earths, among which synergistic extraction has attracted more and more attention. Numerous types of synergistic extraction systems have been applied to rare earths with high extraction efficiency and selectivities. In the present study, mixtures of sec -octylphenoxyacetic acid (CA12, H2A2) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, B) have been used for the extraction of rare earths from nitrate medium. The stoichiometry of samarium(III) extraction has been studied using the methods of slope analysis and constant molar ratio. The possibility of using synergistic extraction effects to separate rare earths has also been studied. RESULTS: Mixtures of CA12 and phen display synergistic effects in the extraction of rare earth elements giving maximum enhancement coefficients of 5.5 (La); 13.7 (Nd); 15.9 (Sm); 24.5 (Tb); 45.4 (Yb) and 12.3 (Y). Samarium(III) is extracted as SmHA4B3 with mixtures of CA12 and phen instead of SmHA4 when extracted with CA12 alone. The calculated logarithm of the equilibrium constant is 6.0 and the thermodynamic functions, ,H, ,G, and ,S, have been calculated as 4.3 kJ mol,1, , 33.7 kJ mol,1 and 129.7 J mol,1 K,1, respectively. CONCLUSION: Mixtures of CA12 and phen exhibit synergistic effects on rare earth elements. Graphical and numerical methods have been successfully used to determine their stoichiometries. The different synergistic effects may provide the possibility of separating yttrium from heavy lanthanoids at an appropriate ratio of CA12 and phen. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Diclofenac removal from water by ozone and photolytic TiO2 catalysed processes

Juan F. García-Araya
Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to establish the efficiency of single ozonation at different pH levels (5, 7 and 9) and with different TiO2 photolytic oxidizing systems (O2/UV-A/TiO2, O3/UV-A/TiO2 or UV-A/TiO2) for diclofenac removal from water, with especial emphasis on mineralization of the organic matter. RESULTS: In the case of single ozonation processes, results show fast and practically complete elimination of diclofenac, with little differences in removal rates that depend on pH and buffering conditions. In contrast, total organic carbon (TOC) removal rates are slow and mineralization degree reaches 50% at best. As far as photocatalytic processes are concerned, diclofenac is completely removed from the aqueous solutions at high rates. However, unlike single ozonation processes, TOC removal can reach 80%. CONCLUSION: In single ozonation processes, direct ozone reaction is mainly responsible for diclofenac elimination. Once diclofenac has disappeared, its by-products are removed by reaction with hydroxyl radicals formed in the ozone decomposition and also from the reaction of diclofenac with ozone. In the photocatalytic processes hydroxyl radicals are responsible oxidant species of diclofenac removal as well as by-products. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effects of butyric acid stress on anaerobic sludge for hydrogen production from kitchen wastes

Mingxing Zhao
Abstract BACKGROUND: Anaerobic digestion is an alternative technology to achieve the dual benefits of hydrogen production and waste stabilization from kitchen wastes. In this work, the butyric acid stress on anaerobic sludge was investigated in order to improve the tolerance of sludge against organic acids, and to enhance hydrogen accumulation. RESULTS: The tolerance of butyric acid in anaerobic sludge increased with the stress concentration, however, it decreased at concentrations greater than of 4.0 g L,1. The maximum hydrogen yield reached 63.72 mL g,1 VS at 4.0 g L,1 stress, representing an increase of 114% compared with the control group. The concentration of volatile solids (VS) of the sludge and SCOD increased steadily with time up to 20 h. At 4.0 g L,1 butyric acid stress, the maximum activity of ,-glucosidase, BAA-hydrolysing protease and dehydrogenase enzyme were 14912.1 µmol PNP g,1 TS h,1, 134.14 µmol NH4 -N g,1 TS h,1 and 7316.42 µg TF g,1 TS h,1, which were 2.78, 1.90 and 2.01 times that of the control, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The feasibility of butyric acid stress on anaerobic sludge to increase hydrogen production from kitchen wastes was demonstrated. Remarkably, 4.0 g L,1 butyric acid stress was found to be favorable for improving the tolerance of butyric acid in sludge as well as hydrogen yield in the experiment. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Use of sweet sorghum juice for lactic acid fermentation: preliminary steps in a process optimization

Kata Hetényi
Abstract BACKGROUND: Lactic acid has many applications in the chemical industries and it can be produced economically by microorganisms using biomass raw materials of different origins. Sweet sorghum juice is a high sugar content raw material with potential for lactic acid production because after hydrolysis of its sucrose content the remaining glucose and fructose can supply the carbon demand of most lactic acid bacteria. However, satisfying the nitrogen and B-vitamin needs of the bacteria by supplementation with yeast extract and/or other alternative nitrogen-containing supplements can make the process too expensive. RESULTS: Using a statistical optimization process much of the yeast extract can be replaced by a cheaper alternative nitrogen source, namely wheat gluten. This resulted in a fermentation with 99% lactic acid yield and 3.04 g L,1 h,1 volumetric productivity. CONCLUSION: Using response surface methodology (RSM) media optimization was performed for lactic acid fermentation with an industrially acceptable result, reducing the costs of raw materials by half, replacing yeast extract by an alternative nitrogen source and applying yeast extract only as a source of micro-elements (vitamins, salts, etc.) Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Supercritical water for environmental technologies

Dr Anne Loppinet-Serani
Abstract OVERVIEW: Supercritical water is a great medium in which to perform chemical reactions and to develop processes. Due to its unique thermo-physico-chemical properties, supercritical water is able to play the role of solvent of organic compounds and/or to react with them. These specific properties have been used since the 1990s to develop new technologies dedicated to the environment and energy. IMPACT: Supercritical water based technologies are innovative and efficient processes having a strong impact on society, the environment and the economy, and is termed a sustainable technology. APPLICATIONS: Three main applications for supercritical water technology are under development: (i) supercritical water oxidation (SCWO); (ii) supercritical water biomass gasification (SCBG); and (iii) hydrolysis of polymers in supercritical water (HPSCW) for composites/plastics recycling. In this paper some fundamentals of supercritical water are first presented to introduce the above three major developments. Then these technologies are reviewed in terms of their present and future industrial development and their impact on the environment and on energy production. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Removal of heavy metals and cyanide from gold mine wastewater

Mike A. Acheampong
Abstract This paper reviews the technology and biotechnology to remove heavy metals (such as copper, arsenic, lead and zinc) and cyanide from contaminated wastewater. The paper places special emphasis on gold mine wastewater and the use of low cost materials as sorbent. Various biological as well as physicochemical treatment processes are discussed and compared on the basis of costs, energy requirement, removal efficiency, limitations and advantages. Sorption using natural plant materials, industrial and agricultural waste has been demonstrated to have the potential to replace conventional methods for the removal of heavy metals because of its cost effectiveness, efficiency and the local availability of these materials as biosorbent. The parameters affecting sorption, such as initial ion concentration, pH, sorbent dosage, particle size and temperature, are discussed. The overall treatment cost of metal and cyanide contaminated wastewater depends on the process employed and the local conditions. In general, technical applicability, cost-effectiveness and plant simplicity are the key factors in selecting the most suitable treatment method. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

R.H. Venderbosch
Abstract BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited scale of the conversion process and the competition with the food industry. To overcome such problems, an integral processing route for the conversion of (non-feed) biomass (residues) to transportation fuels is proposed. It includes a pretreatment process by fast pyrolysis, followed by upgrading to produce a crude-oil-like product, and finally co-refining in traditional refineries. RESULTS: This paper contributes to the understanding of pyrolysis oil upgrading. The processes include a thermal treatment step and/or direct hydroprocessing. At temperatures up to 250 °C (in the presence of H2 and catalyst) parallel reactions take place including re-polymerization (water production), decarboxylation (limited CO2 production) and hydrotreating. Water is produced in small quantities (approx. 10% extra), likely caused by repolymerization. This repolymerization takes place faster (order of minutes) than the hydrotreating reactions (order of tens of minutes, hours). CONCLUSIONS: In hydroprocessing of bio-oils, a pathway is followed by which pyrolysis oils are further polymerized if H2 and/or catalyst is absent, eventually to char components, or, with H2/catalyst, to stabilized components that can be further upgraded. Results of the experiments suggest that specifically the cellulose-derived fraction of the oil needs to be transformed first, preferably into alcohols in a ,mild hydrogenation' step. This subsequently allows further dehydration and hydrogenation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Kinetics and thermodynamics of glucoamylase inhibition by lactate during fermentable sugar production from food waste

Xiao Qiang Wang
Abstract BACKGROUND: Glucoamylase hydrolysis is a key step in the bioconversion of food waste with complicated composition. This work investigated the effect of lactate on glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger UV-60, and inhibition mechanisms of glucoamylase by lactate during food waste hydrolysis. RESULTS: For 125 min hydrolysis of food waste (10%, dry basis), reducing sugars produced in the absence of lactate were 15%, 26% and 56% more than those produced in the presence of 24 g L,1 lactate at 60, 50 and 40 °C, respectively. Kinetic study showed that the type of glucoamylase inhibition by lactate was competitive, and Km (Michaelis-Menten constent), Vmax (maximum initial velocity), KI (inhibition constant) were 103.2 g L,1, 5.0 g L,1 min,1, 100.6 g L,1, respectively, for food waste hydrolysis at 60 °C and pH 4.6. Lactate also accelerated glucoamylase denaturation significantly. Activation energy of denaturation without inhibitor was 61% greater than that of denaturation with inhibitor (24 g L,1 lactate). Half-lives (t1/2) without inhibitor were 7.6, 2.7, 2.6, 1.7 and 1.2 times longer than those with inhibitor at temperature 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 °C, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results are helpful to process optimization of saccharification and bioconversion of food waste. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Cell growth and Trametes versicolor laccase production in transformed Pichia pastoris cultured by solid-state or submerged fermentations

Marcos López
Abstract BACKGROUND: Growth kinetics of Pichia pastoris and heterologous expression of Trametes versicolor laccase were compared. This is the first study of its kind between solid-state yeast cultures done on polyurethane foam (PUF) and submerged liquid fermentations (SmF). RESULTS: The maximum values of biomass were similar for SSF (solid-state fermentation) and SmF experiments when the BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) was lower than 100 g L,1. For higher BOD levels, the maximum values of biomass were 55 g L,1 (SSF) and 35 g L,1 (SmF). Micrographs of PUF preparations showed yeast growing within liquid lamellae, thinner than 100 µm, forming large horizontal aggregates. Yeast aggregates were much smaller in SmF than in SSF experiments; however, laccase expression was lower in PUF than in SmF, unless the methanol concentration was increased to 63 g L,1, which was inhibitory only to the SmF system. CONCLUSION: The results show that oxygen mass transfer is more efficient in SSF, which is related to the higher area/volume ratio compared with SmF. Induction differences may also be due to hindered diffusion of methanol within large yeast aggregates. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Fermentation of glucose and starch particles using an inexpensive medium

Nancy Bawa
Abstract BACKGROUND: In North America, compared with sugar, starch is a more economical raw material to produce ethanol. Recently low temperature processing of starch granules directly to ethanol has been commercialized. With a view to minimizing process costs while maintaining a satisfactory ethanol yield, an inexpensive medium that does not require the addition of commercial ,-amylase has been developed for low temperature, direct fermentation of starch particles. RESULTS: Compared with an expensive medium that contained both yeast extract and ,-amylase, the inexpensive medium resulted in identical and 10% higher ethanol yields using glucose and starch granules as the raw substrates, respectively, but required longer processing times. Based on the different ingredient prices for expensive and inexpensive media, the operating cost to produce 10 million litres per year of ethanol utilizing simultaneous raw starch hydrolysis and fermentation is reduced over $ 2 million (Cdn) per year when using inexpensive medium. CONCLUSION: The new inexpensive medium and simultaneous raw starch hydrolysis and fermentation is considered the best strategy to produce ethanol directly from starch particles in North America. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Hybrid modeling of inulinase bio-production process

Marcio A. Mazutti
Abstract BACKGROUND: A potential application of inulinase in the food industry is the production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) through transfructosilation of sucrose. Besides their ability to increase the shelf-life and flavor of many products, FOS have many interesting functional properties. The use of an industrial medium may represent a good, cost-effective alternative to produce inulinase, since the activity of the enzyme produced may be improved or at least remain the same compared with that obtained using a synthetic medium. Thus, inulinase production for use in FOS synthesis is of considerable scientific and technological appeal, as is the development of a reliable mathematical model of the process. This paper describes a hybrid neural network approach to model inulinase production in a batch bioreactor using agroindustrial residues as substrate. The hybrid modeling makes use of a series artificial neural network to estimate the kinetic parameters of the process and the mass balance as constitutive equations. RESULTS: The proposed model was shown to be capable of describing the complex behavior of inulinase production employing agroindustrial residues as substrate, so that the mathematical framework developed is a useful tool for simulation of this process. CONCLUSION: The hybrid neural network model developed was shown to be an interesting alternative to estimate model parameters since complete elucidation of the phenomena and mechanisms involved in the fermentation is not required owing to the black-box nature of the ANN used as parameter estimator. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Inhibitory effects of Cu, Zn, Ni and Co on nitrification and relevance of speciation

Ferhan Çeçen
Abstract BACKGROUND: The speciation of metals is often overlooked in understanding their observed inhibitory effect in biological systems, in particular in nitrification systems. This study examines the effects of Cu, Zn, Ni and Co on a nitrifying sludge, where the aim is to relate inhibition to speciation. RESULTS: Nitrification inhibition was monitored by O2 and CO2 measurements, an approach rarely followed to date. The IC50 value of each metal was expressed in terms of total, free and labile metal. Zn and Cu formed similar species, but had different free and labile fractions. Although free and labile fractions of Cu were much lower than the others, it was the most inhibitory metal. Ni and Co exhibited quite different inhibitory effects on nitrification despite the formation of similar metal species. Co was the least inhibitory metal and exhibited its effect very slowly. CONCLUSION: The study is among the few which examine inhibition and speciation of several metals in a comparative way. In the same nitrification medium each metal formed different species, which is a factor to be considered in interpretation of inhibition. The results may be projected to nitrifying systems to clarify the underlying factors in inhibition. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]