Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Centre

  • academic centre
  • academic medical centre
  • access centre
  • active centre
  • basin centre
  • birth centre
  • brain centre
  • call centre
  • canadian centre
  • cancer centre
  • care centre
  • catalytic centre
  • child health centre
  • chiral centre
  • city centre
  • cochrane centre
  • collaborating centre
  • community centre
  • community health centre
  • community mental health centre
  • copper centre
  • crystallographic inversion centre
  • day care centre
  • day centre
  • day-care centre
  • daycare centre
  • dermatology centre
  • detention centre
  • development centre
  • diabetes centre
  • dialysis centre
  • different centre
  • different metal centre
  • du centre
  • emergency centre
  • european centre
  • experience centre
  • field centre
  • financial centre
  • galactic centre
  • galaxy centre
  • geometric centre
  • germinal centre
  • haemophilia centre
  • haemophilia treatment centre
  • health care centre
  • health centre
  • health-care centre
  • healthcare centre
  • i trauma centre
  • information centre
  • injecting centre
  • international centre
  • intervention centre
  • inversion centre
  • iron centre
  • large rural centre
  • larger centre
  • level i trauma centre
  • maccallum cancer centre
  • main centre
  • major centre
  • many centre
  • medical centre
  • medically supervise injecting centre
  • mental health centre
  • metal centre
  • meteorological centre
  • monash medical centre
  • national centre
  • oncology centre
  • one centre
  • ossification centre
  • other centre
  • perinatal centre
  • peter maccallum cancer centre
  • political centre
  • population centre
  • primary health care centre
  • production centre
  • reaction centre
  • redox centre
  • reference centre
  • referral centre
  • regional cancer centre
  • regional centre
  • rehabilitation centre
  • research centre
  • residential centre
  • resource centre
  • rural centre
  • science centre
  • screening centre
  • service centre
  • single centre
  • specialist centre
  • specialized centre
  • stereogenic centre
  • study centre
  • supervise injecting centre
  • surgical centre
  • sydney medically supervise injecting centre
  • teaching centre
  • tertiary care centre
  • tertiary centre
  • tertiary medical centre
  • tertiary referral centre
  • transplant centre
  • trapping centre
  • trauma centre
  • treatment centre
  • uk centre
  • university centre
  • university medical centre
  • urban centre
  • zinc centre
  • znii centre

  • Terms modified by Centre

  • centre cohort study
  • centre experience
  • centre frequency
  • centre reaction
  • centre stage
  • centre worldwide

  • Selected Abstracts


    Article first published online: 22 MAY 200
    First page of article [source]


    ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA, Issue 1 2003
    Establishment, History of the Agricultural Settlement in the Vihasoo-Palmsee Area (Virumaa, North Estonia)
    First page of article [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 3 2007
    Philip Finny
    Background: Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) remains controversial despite many advances over the past five decades. We attempt to review the presentation, management and prognosis of MTC at our institution over the last two decades. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the records of 40 patients with MTC over a period of 20 years. Results: Ten patients had hereditary MTC and 30 had sporadic MTC. The mean age of presentation was 41 years. Sixty-five per cent of the patients had a definite thyroid swelling and 43% had lymphadenopathy at the time of presentation. Total thyroidectomy with a central neck dissection was carried out in 82.5% of patients. Adjuvant therapy was given in 75% of patients because of extensive/residual disease. Postoperative hypercalcitoninaemia was seen 73% of patients. 131I metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning was carried out in 16 patients with persistent hypercalcitoninaemia; the uptake was positive in 10 and negative in 6, indicating a positivity of 62%. Conclusion: Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 2.5% of thyroid carcinomas. There is a small male preponderance. In our series 131I metaiodobenzylguanidine scan had a better positivity than what has been reported in the published work. Persistent postoperative hypercalcitoninaemia was associated with a poorer prognosis that did not reach statistical significant. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 5 2010
    Right from the time of the Painted Grey Ware (PGW) culture, dating to c. 1200,600 bce, more than 210 archaeological sites in India have provided evidence of glass, but there has been no attempt to date the glass-yielding layers by radiometric techniques. This has hampered the establishment of a chronology for the beginning and evolution of glass-making in India. The site of Kopia was excavated by the first author for three seasons from 2004 to 2006 to understand the history, development and technology of glass production in India. The excavation produced evidence of a long period of occupation, covering the Fine Grey Ware (FGW), Northern Black Polished Ware (NBP), Sunga,Kushana and Gupta periods. Twenty accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radiocarbon dates, all derived from charcoal samples and processed independently by three laboratories, are available from the site. The dates range in their calibrated form on average from the ninth to the second century bce in locality I and from the second century bce to the second century ad in locality II. [source]


    Article first published online: 10 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 5 2010
    J. THORN
    A total of 52 South Italian red-figure vases were subjected to neutron activation analysis. The primary aim of the study was to determine whether all Apulian red-figure pottery datable to the period c. 430,340 bc was produced at the Greek colony of Taras, as has been widely assumed. Three chemically distinct compositional groups were isolated and compared to archaeological reference material from Taranto. The results of this comparison suggest that some Early Apulian red-figure pottery may have been produced outside of Taras from the fifth century bc onwards. [source]


    Hedley G. Peach
    ABSTRACT: Middle-aged people living in non-metropolitan Victoria have higher hospitalisation rates from osteoporotic fractures than those in metropolitan areas. This may reflect a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for osteoporosis. One-fifth of Victoria's non-metropolitan population live in ,large rural centres'. The aim of the present study was to identify the sociodemographic sub-groups in a ,large rural centre' at risk of osteoporosis because of their lifestyle. Adults on Ballarat's electoral rolls were invited to complete a questionnaire and have their height and weight measured. A total of 335 eligible people participated in the present study (67% response). The sub-groups at risk of osteoporosis were identified using logistic regression analyses. Among women, being single/separated/divorced/ widowed was associated with being underweight and having low dietary calcium. A lack of exercise was associated with not completing high school and smoking with being aged 25,44 years. Among men, low dietary calcium was associated with not completing high school and smoking was associated with being employed in a non-professional/ non-managerial occupation. These sub-groups must be considered when planning preventative strategies for people in ,large rural centres'. [source]


    Sally Wellard
    ABSTRACT: The introduction of ,satellite' dialysis centres has increased local access to renal services for patients living in rural and remote areas across Australia and is, therefore, consistent with rural health policies. Rural health strategies also aim to maintain and improve the skills of health professionals through regular review of the scope of their practice and evaluation of the education required. Yet, the results of the present national study of nurses working in satellite dialysis centres indicate that, for many, the context of practice influences their ability to access ongoing professional education to support and extend their nursing practice. The present study showed that there was a range of educational backgrounds among nurses working in rural ,satellite' centres with reportedly limited access to specific dialysis-related professional development. In the present paper we report on factors that influence the ability of nurses working in satellite dialysis centres to access ongoing professional education. [source]

    Adult Learning Experiences from an Aquarium Visit: The role of Social Interactions in Family Groups

    Adriana Briseño-Garzón
    Based on a larger empirical work,1 this paper reports on the nature and character of adult learning within a family group context while visiting the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre (Canada), and the longitudinal effects of such experience in the weeks following the visit. In this study a multiple or collective instrumental case study approach was employed to examine the learning experiences of the adult members of 13 family groups; this approach demonstrates that adults visiting the aquarium as part of a family group are active social learners and not merely facilitators of the experience for younger visitors or caregivers. Our outcomes also indicate that the adult members of the participant family groups learned in a multiplicity of domains including the cognitive, the social, and the affective, as a result of their visit to the Vancouver Aquarium. In addition, we discuss the longitudinal impacts of the aquarium visit and provide valuable insights as to the relevance of these experiences in visitors' everyday lives. [source]

    An evidence-based appraisal of splinting luxated, avulsed and root-fractured teeth

    Bill Kahler
    For this systematic review of splinting of teeth that have been luxated, avulsed or root-fractured, the clinical PICO question is (P) what are splinting intervention decisions for luxated, avulsed and root-fractured teeth (I) considering that the splinting intervention choice may include (i) no splinting, (ii) rigid or functional splinting for the different types of trauma and (iii) different durations of the splinting period (C) when comparing these splinting choices for the different types of trauma and their effect on (O) healing outcomes for the teeth. A keyword search of PubMed was used. Reference lists from identified articles and dental traumatology texts were also appraised. The inclusion criterion for this review was either a multivariate analysis or controlled stratified analyses as many variables have the potential to confound the assessment and evaluation of healing outcomes for teeth that have been luxated, avulsed or root-fractured. A positive statistical test is not proof of a causal conclusion, as a positive statistical relationship can arise by chance, and so this review also appraises animal studies that reportedly explain biological mechanisms that relate to healing outcomes of splinted teeth. The clinical studies were ranked using the ,Centre of Evidence-based Medicine' categorization (levels 1,5). All 12 clinical studies selected were ranked as level 4. The studies generally indicate that the prognosis is determined by the type of injury rather than factors associated with splinting. The results indicate that the types of splint and the fixation period are generally not significant variables when related to healing outcomes. This appraisal identified difficulties in the design of animal experimentation to correctly simulate some dental injuries. Some of the studies employed rigid splinting techniques, which are not representative of current recommendations. Recommended splinting treatment protocols for teeth that have been luxated, avulsed or root-fractured teeth are formulated on the strength of research evidence. Despite the ranking of these studies in this appraisal as low levels of evidence, these recommendations should be considered ,best practice', a core philosophy of evidence-based dentistry. [source]

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms in a white European and South Asian population with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a comparison of two screening tools

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2010
    N. Aujla
    Diabet. Med. 27, 896,905 (2010) Abstract Aims, To compare the identification of prevalent depressive symptoms by the World Health Organization-5 Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for South Asian and white European people, male and female, attending a diabetes screening programme, and to explore the adequacy of the screening tools for this population. An additional aim was to further explore associations of depressive symptoms with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type2 DM). Methods, Eight hundred and sixty-four white European (40,75 years old) and 290 South Asian people (25,75 years old) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), detailed history and anthropometric measurements and completed the WHO-5 and CES-D. Depressive symptoms were defined by a WHO-5 score , 13, and CES-D score , 16. Results, Unadjusted prevalence of depressive symptoms with the WHO-5, for people with Type2 DM was 42.3% (47.4% in white European; 28.6% in South Asian) and for IGR 30.7% (26% in white European; 45.8% in South Asian). With the CES-D, the prevalence in Type2 DM was 27.2% (25.4% in white European; 31.8% in South Asian) and for IGR 30.7% (27.8% in white European; 40.7% in South Asian). Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms for sex or ethnicity were not identified. Odds ratios adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity showed no significant association of depression with Type2 DM or IGR, with either WHO-5 or CES-D. Agreement was moderate (, = 0.48, 95% confidence intervals 0.42,0.54), and reduced when identifying depressive symptoms in people with Type2 DM. For this group, a WHO-5 cut-point of , 10 was optimal. Conclusions, Depressive symptoms, identified by WHO-5 or CES-D, were not significantly more prevalent in people with Type2 DM or IGR. The WHO-5 and CES-D differed in their identification of depressive symptoms in people with Type2 DM, though discrepancies between sex and ethnicity were not identified. [source]

    Assessing prolonged recovery in first-episode psychosis

    L. Wong
    The Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC) is a comprehensive, specialized treatment service for individuals residing in the western metropolitan region of Melbourne who are experiencing their first psychotic episode. A subprogramme of EPPIC, the Treatment Resistance Early Assessment Team (TREAT), has been developing a framework for the management of individuals experiencing ,prolonged recovery' in early psychosis. TREAT is a consultation team that provides technical assistance to clinicians within EPPIC, comprising senior clinicians with expertise in the biopsychosocial treatment of early psychosis and persisting positive and negative symptoms. A system has recently been set up within the TREAT framework to routinely assess clinical and functional outcomes of these clients using standardized instruments. Case managers are trained to conduct assessments at multiple timepoints over the duration of their clients' treatment at EPPIC. A summary will be presented on the current sample (n=15) and examples of clinician and client feedback reports will be illustrated. Discussion is also provided on the development of training, procedures and materials to enhance integration of clinician and client outcome measures into routine clinical practice. [source]

    Relationship of lipoprotein(a) with intimal medial thickness of the carotid artery in Type 2 diabetic patients in south India

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2003
    K. Velmurugan
    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels with intimal medial thickness (IMT) in Type 2 diabetic patients in south India. Study design We studied 587 consecutive Type 2 diabetic patients at the M.V. Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai. The mean age of the study group was 55 ± 10 years and 71.2% were males. IMT of the right common carotid artery was determined using high-resolution B mode ultrasonography. Lp(a) levels were measured using ELISA. Since the frequency distribution of Lp(a) was skewed, Lp(a) values were log transformed and the geometric mean was used for statistical analysis. The tertiles of IMT were determined to analyse the association of Lp(a) and other factors with IMT. Result The mean Lp(a) level in the study patients was 18.9 ± 3.1 mg/dl (geometric mean ± sd) and the mean IMT of the study subjects was 0.93 ± 0.19 mm (mean ± sd). The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (defined as IMT > 1.1 mm) among subjects with elevated Lp(a) levels > 20 mg/dl was significantly higher compared with those with Lp(a) levels , 20 mg/dl (26.9% vs. 16.3%, P = 0.003). Lp(a) levels increased with increase in tertiles of IMT (anova, P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis of carotid IMT with other cardiovascular risk factors revealed strong correlation of IMT with age (P < 0.0001), duration of diabetes (P < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.006), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.023), HbA1c (P = 0.017) and Lp(a) (P < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed age (P = 0.010), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.032) and Lp(a) (P = 0.021) to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Conclusion The results suggest that Lp(a) has a strong association with IMT of carotid arteries in Type 2 diabetic subjects in south India. Diabet. Med. 20, 455,461 (2003) [source]

    Elements of Resilience After the World Trade Center Disaster: Reconstituting New York City's Emergency Operations Centre

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2003
    James M. Kendra
    In this paper we examine the reconstitution of the Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after its destruction in the World Trade Center attack, using that event to highlight several features of resilience. The paper summarises basic EOC functions, and then presents conceptions of resilience as understood from several disciplinary perspectives, noting that work in these fields has sought to understand how a natural or social system that experiences disturbance sustains its functional processes. We observe that, although the physical EOC facility was destroyed, the organisation that had been established to manage crises in New York City continued, enabling a response that drew on the resources of New York City and neighbouring communities, states and the federal government. Availability of resources , which substituted for redundancy of personnel, equipment and space , pre-existing relationships that eased communication challenges as the emergency developed and the continuation of organisational patterns of response integration and role assignments were among the factors that contributed to resilience following the attack. [source]

    Models of policy-making and their relevance for drug research

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. Researchers are often frustrated by their inability to influence policy. We describe models of policy-making to provide new insights and a more realistic assessment of research impacts on policy. Design and Methods. We describe five prominent models of policy-making and illustrate them with examples from the alcohol and drugs field, before drawing lessons for researchers. Results. Policy-making is a complex and messy process, with different models describing different elements. We start with the incrementalist model, which highlights small amendments to policy, as occurs in school-based drug education. A technical/rational approach then outlines the key steps in a policy process from identification of problems and their causes, through to examination and choice of response options, and subsequent implementation and evaluation. There is a clear role for research, as we illustrate with the introduction of new medications, but this model largely ignores the dominant political aspects of policy-making. Such political aspects include the influence of interest groups, and we describe models about power and pressure groups, as well as advocacy coalitions, and the challenges they pose for researchers. These are illustrated with reference to the alcohol industry, and interest group conflicts in establishing a Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Finally, we describe the multiple streams framework, which alerts researchers to ,windows of opportunity', and we show how these were effectively exploited in policy for cannabis law reform in Western Australia. Discussion and Conclusions. Understanding models of policy-making can help researchers maximise the uptake of their work and advance evidence-informed policy.[Ritter A, Bammer G. Models of policy-making and their relevance for drug research. Drug Alcohol Rev 2010] [source]

    Treatment retention in adolescent patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid dependence: a file review

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare retention and re-entry to treatment between adolescent subjects treated with methadone, those treated with buprenorphine, and those treated with symptomatic (non-opioid) medication only. We used a retrospective file review of all patients aged less than 18 at first presentation for treatment for opioid dependence. The study was conducted at the Langton Centre, Sydney, Australia, an agency specialising in the treatment of alcohol and other drug dependency. Sixty-one adolescents (age range 14,17 years at the time of commencing treatment); mean reported age of initiation of heroin use was 14 ± 1.3 years (range 11,16). Sixty-one per cent were female. The first episode of treatment was methadone maintenance in 20 subjects, buprenorphine in 25, symptomatic medication in 15; one patient underwent assessment only. These 61 subjects had a total of 112 episodes of treatment. Subjects treated with methadone had significantly longer retention in first treatment episode than subjects treated with buprenorphine (mean days 354 vs. 58, p<0.01 by Cox regression) and missed fewer days in the first month (mean 3 vs. 8 days, p<0.05 by t-test). Subsequent re-entry for further treatment occurred in 25% of subjects treated with methadone, 60% buprenorphine and 60% symptomatic medications. Time to reentry after first episode of buprenorphine treatment was significantly shorter than after methadone treatment (p < 0.05 by Kaplan-Meier test). Methadone maintenance appears to have been more effective than buprenorphine at preventing premature drop-out from treatment of adolescent heroin users. [source]

    Resistant readers 8 months later: energizing the student's learning milieu by targeted counselling

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2006
    Anne Brit Andreassen
    Abstract Several studies have reported that an alarming large subgroup of poor readers seems to be treatment resistant. This group obviously needs attention beyond standard special education instructions. In Norway, the National Centre for Reading Education and Research has been assigned the task of assisting the school psychological services nationwide in severe cases of reading disabilities. The aim of the present study of a clinical sample of students with severe dyslexia, due to phonological deficits, was to evaluate effects of counselling 8 months after a 2-day assessment at the centre. Sixty-five students, with a mean age of 12.3 years, participated. A thorough assessment of each student's strengths and problems was conducted at the centre. Additional information was obtained from the school psychological services, the teachers, and the parents. Diagnostic reports and proposals for remediation were forwarded to the school psychological services. Students', parents', and teachers' evaluation of the students' reading abilities 8 months after the assessment was retrieved for 75% of cases. Of these, 80% reported clear progress in the students' reading abilities. The progress could not be related to age, cognitive level, place of residence, or previous special education received, but instead to improved motivation. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The First-Episode Psychosis Outcome Study: premorbid and baseline characteristics of an epidemiological cohort of 661 first-episode psychosis patients

    Philippe Conus
    Abstract Aims:, Studies conducted in first-episode psychosis (FEP) samples avoid many biases. However, very few studies are based on epidemiological cohorts treated in specialized FEP services. The aim of this file audit study was to examine premorbid and baseline characteristics of a large epidemiological sample of FEP. Methods:, File audit study of all patients admitted to the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre between 1998 and 2000 using a specialized questionnaire. Results:, There were 661 patient files included in the study. Premorbid evaluation revealed high rates of substance use disorder (74.1%), history of psychiatric disorder (47.5%), past traumatic events (82.7%) suicide attempts (14.3%) and family history of psychiatric illness (55.6%). Baseline characteristics revealed high intensity of illness (mean CGI 5.5), high prevalence of lack of insight (62%) and high rate of comorbidity (70%). Conclusion:, High rates of traumatic events or episodes of mental illness before treatment for FEP must be considered when designing treatment approaches because a too narrow focus on positive psychotic symptoms will inevitably lead to incomplete treatment. Additionally, early intervention programmes need sufficient range of resources to address the multiple challenges presented by FEP patients such as high severity of illness, comorbidities and functional impairment. Finally, observation of an important degree of functional impairment despite short duration of untreated psychosis suggests that while early detection of FEP is a necessary step in early intervention, it may not be sufficient to improve functional recovery in psychosis and that efforts aimed at identifying people during the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders should be pursued. [source]

    Base isolation for retrofitting historic buildings: Evaluation of seismic performance through experimental investigation

    Antonello De Luca
    Abstract An experimental test program on a full-scale model representing a sub-assemblage of the cloister facade of the Sao Vicente de Fora monastery, retrofitted through base isolation, has been recently carried out at the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. In this paper an overview of the laboratory model and the experimental results is provided. In particular, firstly the test model is described, including the geometry and mechanical properties of the masonry specimen and the design of the isolation devices; then the testing method and the sub-structuring of the isolation system are described and the seismic inputs adopted for the pseudo-dynamic tests are defined. Finally, the experimental results are discussed and compared to the analogous results obtained on the ,as is', fixed-base sub-assemblage model. The implications of the test outcomes are emphasized and developments of this research line are presented. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The impact of a supervised injecting facility on ambulance call-outs in Sydney, Australia

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Allison M. Salmon
    ABSTRACT Aims Supervised injecting facilities (SIFs) are effective in reducing the harms associated with injecting drug use among their clientele, but do SIFs ease the burden on ambulance services of attending to overdoses in the community? This study addresses this question, which is yet to be answered, in the growing body of international evidence supporting SIFs efficacy. Design Ecological study of patterns in ambulance attendances at opioid-related overdoses, before and after the opening of a SIF in Sydney, Australia. Setting A SIF opened as a pilot in Sydney's ,red light' district with the aim of accommodating a high throughput of injecting drug users (IDUs) for supervised injecting episodes, recovery and the management of overdoses. Measurements A total of 20 409 ambulance attendances at opioid-related overdoses before and after the opening of the Sydney SIF. Average monthly ambulance attendances at suspected opioid-related overdoses, before (36 months) and after (60 months) the opening of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC), in the vicinity of the centre and in the rest of New South Wales (NSW). Results The burden on ambulance services of attending to opioid-related overdoses declined significantly in the vicinity of the Sydney SIF after it opened, compared to the rest of NSW. This effect was greatest during operating hours and in the immediate MSIC area, suggesting that SIFs may be most effective in reducing the impact of opioid-related overdose in their immediate vicinity. Conclusions By providing environments in which IDUs receive supervised injection and overdose management and education SIF can reduce the demand for ambulance services, thereby freeing them to attend other medical emergencies within the community. [source]

    Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), Stockholm University, Sweden

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    Kerstin Stenius
    ABSTRACT The Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD) was established as a national research centre and department within the Faculty of Social Science at Stockholm University in 1997, following a Government Report and with the aim to strengthen social alcohol and drug research. Initially, core funding came from the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research and from the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs for several long-term projects. Today, SoRAD, with 25 senior and junior researchers, has core funding from the university but most of its funding comes from external national and international grants. Research is organized under three themes: consumption, problems and norms, alcohol and drug policy and societal reactions, treatment and recovery processes. SoRADs scientific approach, multi-disciplinarity, a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods and international comparisons was established by the centre's first leader, Robin Room. Regular internal seminars are held and young researchers are encouraged to attend scientific meetings and take part in collaborative projects. SoRAD researchers produce government-funded monthly statistics on alcohol consumption and purchase, and take part in various national government committees, but SoRADs research has no clear political or bureaucratic constraints. One of the future challenges for SoRAD will be the proposed system for university grants allocation, where applied social science will have difficulties competing with basic biomedical research if decisions are based on publication and citation measures. [source]

    Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, Canada

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
    Tim Stockwell
    ABSTRACT The Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia (CARBC) was established as a multi-campus and multi-disciplinary research centre administered by the University of Victoria (UVic) in late 2003. Its core funding is provided from interest payments on an endowment of CAD$10.55 million. It is supported by a commitment to seven faculty appointments in various departments at UVic. The Centre has two offices, an administration and research office in Victoria and a knowledge exchange unit in Vancouver. The two offices are collaborating on the implementation of CARBC's first 5-year plan which seeks to build capacity in British Columbia for integrated multi-disciplinary research and knowledge exchange in the areas substance use, addictions and harm reduction. Present challenges include losses to the endowment caused by the 2008/2009 economic crisis and difficulties negotiating faculty positions with the university administration. Despite these hurdles, to date each year has seen increased capacity for the Centre in terms of affiliated scientists, funding and staffing as well as output in terms of published reports, electronic resources and impacts on policy and practice. Areas of special research interest include: drug testing in the work-place, epidemiological monitoring, substance use and injury, pricing and taxation policies, privatization of liquor monopolies, polysubstance use, health determinants of indigenous peoples, street-involved youth and other vulnerable populations at risk of substance use problems. Further information about the Centre and its activities can be found on http://www.carbc.ca. [source]


    Recent public debate on Indigenous issues has been provoked, inter alia, by a 2005 Centre for Independent Studies paper by Helen Hughes and Jenness Warin, who focused on the extent to which policies have been effective in improving the living conditions of Indigenous Australians since the era of self-determination commenced. Unfortunately, the quality of historical data is questionable, and hence we need an appreciation of the reliability of estimates. The 2002 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey allows a detailed interrogation of the reliability of estimates. This paper critically analyses socioeconomic changes between 1994 and 2002 for remote and other areas by comparing the recent data with analogous data collected in 1994. Changes in health status and a range of socio-economic indicators are documented to provide a more balanced assessment of the level of economic and social development in the respective areas. [source]

    Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems.

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    future, present
    ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history, the current status and the future of substance use research at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA). Although founded originally by the temperance movement in 1901, its policy has shifted over time towards one which accepts an alcohol-consuming culture made up of self-determined but well-informed consumers, while still supporting those who choose to live an abstinent life. In the beginning, SIPA was involved primarily in collecting alcohol-related information and making it available to professionals and the general public. From the late 1960s SIPA began conducting its own research projects; by the mid-1970s it had set up its own in-house research department. In 2001, SIPA was appointed a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Substance Abuse, Research, Prevention and Documentation. As a private non-governmental organization, most of its funding comes from external research commissions. SIPA participates in a variety of international projects [e.g. Gender Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS), European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD) and Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)] and contributes to numerous national research projects dealing with substance use. It has also forged close links with more than 50 other research institutions in Switzerland and world-wide. Thanks to its work over the last 30 years, SIPA has become a chief port of call for alcohol use research in Switzerland. In the future, SIPA will continue to monitor substance use, while stepping up its prevention research activities and ensuring that it is able to react more promptly to emerging phenomena. [source]

    Quality of poisoning management advice in the Monthly Index of Medical Specialties Annual

    James Mallows
    Abstract Background:, The Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS) contains Therapeutic Goods Administration-approved product information supplied by manufacturers. It is widely used by health-care professionals but is not specifically designed as a toxicology reference. Objectives:, To determine how widespread the use of MIMS is as a toxicology reference. To evaluate the quality of poisoning management advice it contains. Methods:, First, a survey of 500 consecutive calls to the NSW Poison Information Centre (PIC) was undertaken asking health-care workers which toxicology references were consulted prior to calling and which references they would use if the PIC were not available. Second, a consensus opinion for poisoning management was obtained, for 25 medications which are either commonly involved in poisoning or potentially life-threatening in overdose, by review of 5 current toxicology references for contraindicated treatments, ineffective treatments and specific recommended treatments and antidotes. MIMS poisoning management advice was then compared with this toxicology consensus opinion. Results:, In total, 276 doctors and 222 nurses were surveyed. Prior to calling the PIC 22.8% of doctors and 6.8% of nurses consulted MIMS. In total, 25.7% of doctors and 39.6% nurses stated they would use the MIMS for poisoning management advice if the PIC were not available. For the 25 drugs assessed, 14 contained inaccurate poisoning management: 1 recommended ineffective treatments and 14 omitted specific treatments or antidotes. Conclusion:, The MIMS is often used as a toxicology reference by physicians prior to calling the PIC. It contains a number of significant inaccuracies pertaining to management of poisonings and should not be used as a primary reference for poisoning advice. [source]

    Lag screw fixation of dorsal cortical stress fractures of the third metacarpal bone in 116 racehorses

    S. L. JALIM
    Summary Reasons for performing study: The effectiveness and best method to manage dorsal cortical stress fractures is not clear. This study was performed to evaluate the success of lag screw fixation of such fractures in a population of Thoroughbred racehorses. Hypothesis: Lag screw fixation of dorsal cortical stress fractures is an effective surgical procedure allowing racehorses to return to their preoperative level of performance. Methods: The records of 116 racehorses (103 Thoroughbreds) admitted to Equine Medical Centre, California between 1986 and 2008 were assessed. Information obtained from medical records included subject details, limb(s) affected, fracture configuration, length of screw used in repair and presence of concurrent surgical procedures performed. Racing performance was evaluated relative to these factors using Fisher's exact test and nonparametric methods with a level of significance of P<0.05. Results: Of 92 Thoroughbred horses, 83% raced preoperatively and 83% raced post operatively, with 63% having ,5 starts. There was no statistically significant association between age, gender, limb affected, fracture configuration or presence of concurrent surgery and likelihood of racing post operatively or of having 5 or more starts. The mean earnings per start and the performance index for the 3 races following surgery were lower compared to the 3 races prior to surgery; however, 29 and 45% of horses either improved or did not change their earnings per start and performance index, respectively. Conclusions and potential relevance: Data show that lag screw fixation is successful at restoring ability to race in horses suffering from dorsal cortical stress fractures. [source]

    Lateral transmission of equine arteritis virus among Lipizzaner stallions in South Africa

    Summary Reasons for performing study:A serological study conducted in 1995 revealed that 7 stallions at the Lipizzaner Centre, Gauteng, South Africa, were seropositive for antibody to equine arteritis virus (EAV). A Lipizzaner stallion imported into South Africa from Yugoslavia in 1981 had previously (1988) been confirmed to be an EAV carrier. Despite being placed under life-long breeding quarantine, EAV had been transmitted between stallions at the Lipizzaner Centre. Objectives: To investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the strain of EAV shed in the semen of the original carrier stallion and strains recovered from the semen of 5 other stallions; and to investigate the means whereby lateral transmission of EAV occurred among 7 in-contact, nonbreeding stallions at the Centre. Methods: EAV was isolated from semen collected from the seropositive stallions using RK-13 cells. Viral RNA was reverse transcribed and amplified by polymerase chain reaction using ORF5-specific primers, subjected to sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Results: Phylogenetic analysis of strains of EAV recovered from the semen of 6 persistently infected stal lions confirmed that all viruses were closely related and probably derived from a common ancestor, i.e. the stallion imported from Yugoslavia. Lateral transmission subsequently occurred among 7 in-contact, nonbreeding stallions at the Centre. It is speculated that these stallions may have been exposed to virus from be dding or fo mites contaminated with semen. Conclusions: These data confirm that lateral transmission of EAV can occur from shedding stallions to susceptible, in-contact horses, including other stallions, which may become persistently infected with the virus. Potential relevance: The findings are consistent with lateral spread of a single, unique strain of EAV among a group; and suggest that transmission of EAV may be initiated by infection of one or more stallions with virus on bedding or other fomites contaminated with EAV-infected semen. [source]

    How many cisplatin administration protocols does your department use?

    A.P. GREYSTOKE bsc, mbchb, registrar medical oncology
    GREYSTOKE A.P., JODRELL D.I., CHEUNG M., RIVANS I. & MACKEAN M.J. (2009) European Journal of Cancer Care19, 80,90 How many cisplatin administration protocols does your department use? The introduction, 30 years ago, of the co-administration of appropriate hydration and ensuring a diuresis occurs during the administration of cisplatin was important in its development, allowing clinically significant doses to be given with acceptable rates of toxicity. The clinical usage of cisplatin has increased and hydration protocols have been amended to increase patient comfort and reduce resource utilization. We suspected that this had led to unnecessary variations in practice both in clinical trials and subsequently in the clinic. Therefore, we reviewed practice in the Edinburgh Cancer Centre and discovered that 25 different hydration protocols were in use, with wide variation in dilution of cisplatin, total fluid administered, use of electrolyte (potassium and magnesium) supplementation and diuretics. These differences are a reflection of adoption of variations in hydration regimes published in pivotal clinical trials. A review of the available evidence relating to cisplatin associated hydration regimens was performed and recommendations will be made for the future design of evidence-based protocols. [source]

    Blood morphine levels in naltrexone-exposed compared to non-naltrexone-exposed fatal heroin overdoses

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between prior exposure to naltrexone and increased risk of fatal heroin overdose using a review of toxicology reports for heroin-related fatalities between July 1997 to August 1999 for two groups: those treated with oral naltrexone and those who were not treated. Additional information for the oral naltrexone group was obtained from clinic files. Naltrexone-treated deaths were identified from the patient database at the Australian Medical Procedures Research Foundation (AMPRF), Perth, Western Australia (WA) through the Western Australian Department of Health, Data Linkage Project. Non-treated cases were identified from the database at the Forensic Science Laboratory, State Chemistry Centre (WA). We identified and investigated blood morphine concentrations following 21 fatal heroin overdoses with prior exposure to naltrexone and in 71 non-naltrexone-exposed cases over the same time period. The proportion of deaths where heroin use was a major contributing factor was little different in the non-naltrexone compared to the naltrexone-exposed group. Furthermore, in ,acute opiate toxicity' deaths, blood morphine levels were lower in non-naltrexone-exposed compared with naltrexone-exposed cases. Although there was a higher number of deaths designated as rapid (i.e. occurring within 20 minutes) in the naltrexone-exposed (89%) compared with the non-exposed group (72%) this was not statistically significant. Other drug use in relation to heroin-related fatalities is discussed. Findings do not support the hypothesis that prior exposure to naltrexone increases sensitivity to heroin toxicity. [source]

    Book and Media Reviews

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    David Ball
    Books reviewed in this article: Book reviews in this column will primarily be of titles focusing completely, or in part, on biological aspects of addiction. However, significant titles of general relevance to the addictions field will also be included, even if they are not "biological", as will titles of general methodological and clinical relevance, even if they are not on "addictions". Similar considerations will apply to other media (software, audio tapes and CDs, videos, etc). However, specific "addictions" software applications seem to be relatively uncommon and, as these items are rarely reviewed elsewhere, we will endeavour to include reviews of some of the older programmes that are still useful, as well as new titles that appear. I would appreciate suggesti ons of any items suitable for reviews, but especially software and other media of specifi c relevance to the addictions. Please contact: Dr David Ball, National Addiction Centre, 4 Windsor Walk, London SE5 8AF, UK. Dual Diagnosis and Treatment: substance abuse and co-morbid medical and psychiatric disorders HENRY R. KRANZLER & BRUCE J. ROUNSAVILLE (Eds) Improving the Care of People in Substance Misuse Ser vices: clinical audit project examples KIRSTY MACLEAN STEEL & CLAIRE PALMER Software European Legal Texts on Drugs (CD-Rom) [source]