Cell Repertoire (cell + repertoire)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Cell Repertoire

  • b cell repertoire

  • Selected Abstracts

    Intra-tumoral Salmonella typhimurium induces a systemic anti-tumor immune response that is directed by low-dose radiation to treat distal disease

    Francesca Avogadri
    Abstract Salmonella typhimurium is a facultative anaerobic bacterium able to multiply preferentially in tumors and inhibit their growth. The mechanisms through which Salmonella exerts its anti-cancer properties are not fully understood. We recently showed that intra-tumoral Salmonella injection results not only in the regression of even bulky tumor masses, but also impacts on the growth of distant untreated lesions. Here we describe how Salmonella exerts its systemic anti-cancer effects and means to potentiate them. The outburst of an early inflammatory reaction in the treated tumor promotes the development of an immunostimulatory cytokine environment both locally and in the draining lymph node. Within the next 10,days, an efficient cross-presentation of endogenous tumor antigens by dendritic cells at the tumor-draining lymph node leads to the priming of effective anti-tumor CD8+ T cell responses. This potentially broadly reactive T cell repertoire can be directed to other pre-established melanomas by low-dose radiotherapy enhancing the Salmonella anti-cancer effect. We demonstrate that Salmonella -based therapy coupled to low-dose radiotherapy dampens tumor immune escape mechanisms at different levels and allows controlling systemic disease in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. [source]

    Long-term maternal imprinting of the specific B cell repertoire by maternal antibodies

    Katja Fink
    Abstract Maternal antibodies protect newborns whilst they are immunologically immature. This study shows that maternal antibodies can also shape the B cell repertoire of the offspring long after the maternal antibodies themselves become undetectable. VHDJH gene-targeted (VI10) mice expressing a heavy chain specific for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) produce a 20-fold increased spontaneous titer of VSV-neutralizing antibodies. When transferred from mother to offspring, these antibodies prevented accumulation of Ag-specific transitional type,2 and marginal zone B cells with an activated phenotype and favored selection to the B cell follicles. This effect was B cell-intrinsic and lasted up to adulthood. The pups nursed by mothers producing specific antibodies developed higher endogenous antibody titers of this specificity which perpetuated the effects of specific B cell selection into the mature follicular compartment, presumably by blocking auto-Ag-dependent development of transitional type,2 B cells in the spleen. This repertoire change was functional, as following infection of adult mice with VSV, those pups that had received specific maternal antibodies as neonates had increased pre-immune titers and mounted strong early IgG neutralizing antibodies. [source]

    Redefining epithelial progenitor potential in the developing thymus

    Abstract Cortical and medullary epithelium represent specialised cell types that play key roles in thymocyte development, including positive and negative selection of the T cell repertoire. While recent evidence shows that these epithelial lineages share a common embryonic origin, the phenotype and possible persistence of such progenitor cells in the thymus at later stages of development remain controversial. Through use of a panel of reagents including the putative progenitor marker Mts24, we set out to redefine the stages in the development of thymic epithelium. In the early embryonic day (E)12 thymus anlagen we find that almost all epithelial cells are uniformly positive for Mts24 expression. In addition, while the thymus at later stages of development was found to contain distinct Mts24+ and Mts24, epithelial subsets, thymus grafting experiments show that both Mts24+ and Mts24, epithelial subsets share the ability to form organised cortical and medullary thymic microenvironments that support T cell development, a function shown previously to be lost in the Mts24, cells by E15 when lower cell doses were used. Our data help to clarify stages in thymic epithelial development and provide important information in relation to currently used markers of epithelial progenitors. See accompanying commentary: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200737709 [source]

    Differential capacity of T cell priming in naive donors of promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes of HCV NS3 and Core proteins

    Abstract To understand the inter-individual and virus-independent variability of CD4+ T cell responses to HCV components, we evaluated the effect on these responses of HLA II molecules in uninfected healthy donors. Using HLA II-specific binding assays, we identified, in the Core and NS3 proteins, 21 long fragments and 24 15-mer peptides that bound to four to eight of the most preponderant HLA II molecules. We then evaluated the priming capacity of eight long promiscuous peptides in 12 HLA-unrelated healthy donors. The NS3 1250,1264 peptide primed T cells in all the naive donors, while five others were stimulating in at least half of the individuals. We also report sequences that bind to multiple HLA II molecules but are weakly immunogenic. We therefore conclude that (i) broad HLA II specificity is only a prerequisite for a peptide to be stimulating in multiple individuals, and (ii) promiscuous peptides widely differ in their capacity to prime CD4+ T cells from uninfected healthy donors. We suggest that these priming differences result from inter-individual variations in the peptide-specific T cell repertoire. Interestingly, five of the most immunogenic peptides we identified correspond to frequently targeted T cell epitopes in infected patients. [source]

    Structural and functional differences between the promoters of independently expressed killer cell Ig-like receptors

    Bergen, Jeroen van
    Abstract Killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) are important for the recognition and elimination of diseased cells by human NK cells. Myeloid leukemia patients given a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, for example, benefit from KIR-mediated NK alloreactivity directed against the leukemia cells. To establish an effective NK cell repertoire, most KIR genes are expressed stochastically, independently of the others. However, the sequences upstream of the coding regions of these KIR genes are highly homologous to the recently identified KIR3DL1 promoter (91.1,99.6% sequence identity), suggesting that they are regulated by similar if not identical mechanisms of transcriptional activation. We investigated the effects of small sequence differences between the KIR3DL1 promoter and other KIR promoters on transcription factor binding and promoter activity. Surprisingly, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and promoter-reporter assays revealed significant structural and functional differences in the cis-acting elements of these highly homologous KIR promoters, suggesting a key role for transcription factors in independent control of expression of specific KIR loci. Thus, the KIR repertoire may be shaped by a combination of both gene-specific and stochastic mechanisms. [source]

    Comparative analysis of NK cell subset distribution in normal and lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocyte conditions

    Véronique Pascal
    Abstract We have characterized the heterogeneity of human blood NK cell subsets defined by expression of KIR, lectin like receptors and NK cell differentiation markers within a cohort of 51 healthy Caucasian individuals. High inter-individual variability in cell surface expression of most NK cell markers is observed. Range values defining NK cell subsets in healthy donors were further used as references to characterize 14 patients with NK-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes (NK-LDGL). Alterations of the KIR repertoire were noted in all NK-LDGL patients. NK cell expansions were classified as oligoclonal KIR+ or as non-detectable KIR (ndKIR) using anti-KIR2DL1/2DS1, anti-KIR2DL2/2DL3/2DS2, anti-KIR3DL1 and anti-KIR2DS4 monoclonal antibodies. A major reduction in the size of the CD56bright NK cell subset was a constant feature of NK-LDGL. Altered distribution of CD94+, CD161+, and CD162R+ NK cell subsets was also observed in NK-LDGL patients. Considering the potential role of NK cells in eliminating tumors or virus-infected cells, the reference values defined in this study should be valuable to characterize both quantitative and qualitative alterations of the NK cell repertoire in pathological conditions and to monitor NK cell reconstitution following hematopoietic transplantation. [source]

    Identification of naturally processed CD8 T,cell epitopes from prostein, a prostate tissue-specific vaccine candidate

    Abstract Prostein is a prostate tissue-specific protein that is uniquely and abundantly expressed in normal and cancerous prostate tissues. Due to this expression profile, we examined the immunogenicity of prostein as a potential vaccine candidate for prostate cancer. To determine the presence of CD8 T,cells specific for naturally processed prostein-derived epitopes in healthy individuals, we developed and applied an in vitro stimulation protocol. Using this protocol, we identified CD8 T,cells specific for prostein in the peripheral blood of a male and a female donor. Prostein-specific CD8 T,cell clones specifically recognized prostein-expressing targets, including prostate tumor cell lines expressing the relevant HLA alleles. CD8 T,cell clones isolated from the male donor were significantly less effective in recognizing target cells compared to cells isolated from the female donor and appeared to recognize subdominant epitopes. The identification of a prostein-specificCD8 T,cell repertoire supports the development of prostein in vaccination strategies against prostate cancer. Furthermore, the naturally processed peptide epitopes identified provide tools for the development of peptide-based vaccination strategies against prostate cancer and for monitoring of prostein-specific responses in vaccinated patients. [source]

    Peripheral tolerance limits CNS accumulation of CD8 T cells specific for an antigen shared by tumor cells and normal astrocytes

    GLIA, Issue 15 2008
    Thomas Calzascia
    Abstract T cell mediated immunotherapies are proposed for many cancers including malignant astrocytoma. As such therapies become more potent, but not necessarily more tumor-specific, the risk of collateral autoimmune damage to normal tissue increases. Tumors of the brain present significant challenges in this respect, as autoimmune destruction of brain tissue could have severe consequences. To investigate local immune reactivity toward a tumor-associated antigen in the brain, transgenic mice were generated that express a defined antigen (CW3170,179) in astroglial cells. The resulting six transgenic mouse lines expressed the transgenic self-antigen in cells of the gastrointestinal tract and CNS compartments, or in the CNS alone. By challenging transgenic mice with tumor cells that express CW3, self/tumor-specific immune responses were visualized within a normal polyclonal T cell repertoire. A large expansion of the endogenous CW3170,179 -specific CD8 T cell population was observed in nontransgenic mice after both subcutaneous and intracerebral implantation of tumor cells. In contrast, CW3170,179 -specific immune responses were not observed in transgenic mice that exhibited extracerebral transgene expression. Importantly, in certain groups of mice in which transgene expression was restricted to the CNS, antigen-specific immune responses occurred when tumor was implanted subcutaneously, but not intracerebrally. This local immune tolerance in the brain was induced via peripheral (extrathymic) rather than central (thymic) tolerance mechanisms. Thus, this study highlights the role of regional immune regulation in the prevention of autoimmunity in the brain, and the potential impact of these mechanisms for brain tumor immunotherapy. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The riddle of the dual expression of IgM and IgD

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Roland Geisberger
    Summary Signalling through the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is required for peripheral B lymphocyte maturation, maintenance, activation and silencing. In mature B cells, the antigen receptor normally consists of two isotypes, membrane IgM and IgD (mIgM, mIgD). Although the signals initiated from both isotypes differ in kinetics and intensity, in vivo, the BCR of either isotype seems to be able to compensate for the loss of the other, reflected by the mild phenotypes of mice deficient for mIgM or mIgD. Thus, it is still unclear why mature B cells need expression of mIgD in addition to mIgM. In the current review we suggest that the view that IgD has a simpIy definable function centred around the basic signalling function should be replaced by the assumption that IgD fine tunes humoral responses, modulates B cell selection and homeostasis and thus shapes the B cell repertoire, defining IgD to be a key modulator of the humoral immune response. [source]

    Antibody convergence along a common idiotypic axis in immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections

    Michael D. GrantArticle first published online: 29 NOV 200
    Abstract The anti-idiotypic antibody 1F7 selectively binds antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag, pol, and env proteins. We tested anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies to investigate selection of the 1F7 idiotype on antibodies against other chronic pathogens. Twelve of 15 HCV-seropositive individuals co-infected with HIV had detectable antibodies against recombinant HCV core, 4 against HCV NS4 protein, and 3 against HCV NS3 protein. All four HCV-seropositive, non-HIV-infected individuals had antibodies against HCV core and NS4, while 3 had antibodies against NS3. The 1F7 idiotype was frequently present on antibodies against each of the HCV antigens in the HIV co-infected and non-HIV-infected groups. Antibodies against HCV, including antibodies recognizing the putative principal neutralizing determinant of HCV E2 protein, displayed skewed ,/, light chain usage consistent with clonal dominance. These observations extend the association between expression of the 1F7 idiotype and abnormal B cell clonal dominance in HIV and SIV infection to HCV infection and suggest that early establishment of an oligoclonal antibody response against HCV may freeze the B cell repertoire, impair adaptation to emergent HCV variants, and favor escape from neutralizing antibodies. We also demonstrated that expression of the 1F7 idiotype extends beyond antibodies against multiple antigens of AIDS-causing retroviruses to include antibodies against multiple antigens of an unrelated chronic hepatitis virus. Thus, distinct pathogens establishing chronic infection in the face of strong humoral immune responses select antibodies along a common idiotypic axis of the immune network. J. Med. Virol. 66:13,21, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    T-cell-receptor gene usage of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans- reactive periodontal CD4+ T cells from localized juvenile periodontitis patients and human peripheral blood leukocyte-reconstituted NOD/SCID mice

    Xuijuan Gao
    We investigated the variable V, and V, gene usage of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans -reactive periodontal CD4+ T cell receptors (TCR) from: (i) four A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) patients, (ii) four groups of A. actinomycetemcomitans -inoculated NOD/SCID mice engrafted with individual LJP-derived HuPBL and (iii) HuPBL samples of four LJP patients and two healthy control subjects, by quantitative PCR analyses. The results show that: (i) the majority of the TCR genes (82.5% of V, and 91.1% of V,) used by periodontal CD4+ T cells in A. actinomycetemcomitans -inoculated HuPBL-engrafted NOD/SCID mice overlap with those used by local periodontal T cells in LJP patients, (ii) although A. actinomycetemcomitans -reactive periodontal CD4+ TCR repertoire is relatively widespread, there are a few dominant genes shared by the LJP patients, suggesting a limited number of antigens or epitopes commonly recognized and (iii) A. actinomycetemcomitans likely lacks superantigenic characteristics. These results suggest A. actinomycetemcomitans -associated human CD4+ T cell repertoire established in HuPBL-NOD/SCID mice provides a useful approach to study specific aspects of immune,parasite interactions in the periodontium. [source]

    Molecular mechanism of monocyte predominant infiltration in chronic inflammation: Mediation by a novel monocyte chemotactic factor, S19 ribosomal protein dimer

    Tetsuro Yamamoto
    A novel monocyte chemotactic factor, a cross-linked homodimer of S19 ribosomal protein (RP S19) was initially isolated from a rheumatoid arthritis synovial lesion. The RP S19 dimer causes the monocyte specific chemotaxis in vitro and the monocyte predominant infiltration in vivo, via its agonistic and antagonistic effects on the C5a receptors of monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, respectively. The agonistic effect is attributed to the similarity of regional structures between RP S19 and C5a, the complement C5-derived leukocyte chemotactic factor, although overall homology of the amino acid sequence between these molecules is only 4%. The antagonistic effect depends upon the C-terminal portion of RP S19. The RP S19 dimer is produced and released by apoptotic cells, and this dimer recruits monocytes from the circulation to the apoptotic lesion. The infiltrated monocytes/macrophages engulf the apoptotic cells, translocate to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics and present the antigenic information of the apoptotic cells to the T cell repertoire. In this manner, the apoptotic cell clearance system connects to the acquired immune system. The innate and acquired immune mechanisms, mediated by the RP S19 dimer, participate in the pathology of inveterate chronic inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis. [source]

    Allografts Stimulate Cross-Reactive Virus-Specific Memory CD8 T Cells with Private Specificity

    M. A. Brehm
    Viral infections have been associated with the rejection of transplanted allografts in humans and mice, and the induction of tolerance to allogeneic tissues in mice is abrogated by an ongoing viral infection and inhibited in virus-immune mice. One proposed mechanism for this ,heterologous immunity' is the induction of alloreactive T cell responses that cross-react with virus-derived antigens. These cross-reactive CD8 T cells are generated during acute viral infection and survive into memory, but their ability to partake in the immune response to allografts in vivo is not known. We show here that cross-reactive, virus-specific memory CD8 T cells from mice infected with LCMV proliferated in response to allografts. CD8 T cells specific to several LCMV epitopes proliferated in response to alloantigens, with the magnitude and hierarchy of epitope-specific responses varying with the private specificities of the host memory T cell repertoire, as shown by adoptive transfer studies. Last, we show that purified LCMV-specific CD8 T cells rejected skin allografts in SCID mice. These findings therefore implicate a potential role for heterologous immunity in virus-induced allograft rejection. [source]

    Intrathecal pathogenic anti,aquaporin-4 antibodies in early neuromyelitis optica,

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Jeffrey L. Bennett MD
    Objective The serum of most neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients contains autoantibodies (NMO-IgGs) directed against the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel located on astrocyte foot processes in the perivessel and subpial areas of the brain. Our objectives were to determine the source of central nervous system (CNS) NMO-IgGs and their role in disease pathogenesis. Methods Fluorescence-activated cell sorting and single-cell reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to identify overrepresented plasma cell immunoglobulin (Ig) sequences in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of an NMO patient after a first clinical attack. Monoclonal recombinant antibodies (rAbs) were generated from the paired heavy and light chain sequences and tested for target specificity and Fc effector function. The effect of CSF rAbs on CNS immunopathology was investigated by delivering single rAbs to rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Results Repertoire analysis revealed a dynamic, clonally expanded plasma cell population with features of an antigen-targeted response. Using multiple independent assays, 6 of 11 rAbs generated from CSF plasma cell clones specifically bound to AQP4. AQP4-specific rAbs recognized conformational epitopes and mediated both AQP4-directed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-mediated lysis. When administered to rats with EAE, an AQP4-specific NMO CSF rAb induced NMO immunopathology: perivascular astrocyte depletion, myelinolysis, and complement and Ig deposition. Interpretation Molecular characterization of the CSF plasma cell repertoire in an early NMO patient demonstrates that AQP4-specfic Ig is synthesized intrathecally at disease onset and directly contributes to CNS pathology. AQP4 is now the first confirmed antigenic target in human demyelinating disease. Ann Neurol 2009;66:617,629 [source]

    Thymic stromal cells and positive selection

    APMIS, Issue 7-8 2001
    Ann R. Chidgey
    The intrathymic differentiation events leading to the development and export of mature T cells tolerant to self yet capable of responding to foreign peptide antigen in the context of self-MHC are clearly both dynamic and complex. The changing phenotype of the developing thymocyte as it migrates through and interacts with the heterogeneous thymic microenvironment and the intracellular signalling events associated with such interactions are being extensively studied, yet many aspects remain poorly defined, such as the precise relationship between stromal cells and thymic selection. Positive and negative selection are crucial events in the development of T cells, leading to a diverse yet non-autoreactive immune system. A breakdown in either of these processes could lead to either a reduced T cell repertoire or the escape into the periphery of autoreactive T cells , both clearly having deleterious consequences for the health of the individual. This review aims to summarise the current status of research in thymic positive selection with emphasis on the role of different cell types and peptides. [source]

    Alterations of the synovial T cell repertoire in anti,citrullinated protein antibody,positive rheumatoid arthritis,

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2009
    Tineke Cantaert
    Objective The association of HLA,DRB1 alleles with anti,citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests the potential involvement of T lymphocytes in ACPA-seropositive disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate this hypothesis by systematic histologic and molecular analyses of synovial T cells in ACPA+ versus ACPA, RA patients. Methods Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 158 RA patients. Inflammation was determined histologically and immunohistochemically. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and synovial tissues obtained from 11 ACPA+ RA patients, 7 ACPA, RA patients, and 10 spondylarthritis (SpA) patients (arthritis controls). T lymphocyte clonality was studied by combined quantitative and qualitative T cell receptor CDR3 length distribution (LD) analysis and direct sequencing analysis. Results ACPA+ and ACPA, RA patients were similar at both the clinical and histologic levels. At the molecular level, however, patients with ACPA+ synovitis displayed a marked elevation of qualitative CDR3 LD alterations as compared with those with ACPA, synovitis and with the SpA controls. These differences in CDR3 LD were not observed in the peripheral blood, indicating a selective recruitment and/or local expansion of T cells in the synovial compartment. The CDR3 LD alterations reflected true monoclonal or oligoclonal expansions, as confirmed by direct sequencing of the T cell receptor. The CDR3 LD alterations in RA synovium did not correlate with B cell clonal expansions but were inversely associated with synovial lymphoid neogenesis. Conclusion The T cell repertoire is specifically restricted in RA patients with ACPA+ synovitis. Whereas the origin and role of these clonal alterations remain to be determined, our data suggest the preferential involvement of T lymphocytes in ACPA-seropositive RA. [source]

    Complexity of Anti-immunosenescence Strategies in Humans

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 10 2006
    Miriam Capri
    Abstract:, Immunosenescence is characterized by three main aspects: (i) the shrinkage of the T cell repertoire and the accumulation of oligoclonal expansions (megaclones) of memory/effector cells directed toward ubiquitary infectious agents; (ii) the involution of the thymus and the exhaustion of naïve T cells; and (iii) a chronic inflammatory status called inflamm-aging. We present here possible strategies to counteract these main aspects of immunosenescence in humans with particular attention to the reduction of antigenic load by pathogens, such as CMV, and the normalization of intestinal microflora, the possible utilization of IL-7 to reverse thymic involution, the purging of megaclones, the forced expression of CD28 on T lymphocytes, the reduction of inflamm-aging and the administration of nutrients such as vitamin D. Possible drawbacks of all these strategies are discussed. Finally, the complexity of a rejuvenation approach is stressed, with particular attention to the inhibitory role played by the "old microenvironment" on the performance of progenitor cells, the best candidate to counteract the decline in regenerative potential characteristic of organs and tissues from old organisms. [source]