Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Cattle

  • beef cattle
  • black beef cattle
  • black cattle
  • dairy cattle
  • domestic cattle
  • fed cattle
  • feedlot cattle
  • holstein cattle
  • infected cattle
  • japanese black beef cattle
  • japanese black cattle
  • korean native cattle
  • native cattle
  • zebu cattle

  • Terms modified by Cattle

  • cattle breed
  • cattle breeding
  • cattle dog
  • cattle dung
  • cattle faeces
  • cattle feeding
  • cattle grazing
  • cattle herd
  • cattle industry
  • cattle manure
  • cattle pasture
  • cattle population
  • cattle production
  • cattle tick

  • Selected Abstracts


    S.J. HUR
    ABSTRACT Three kinds of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) muscles (Loin, strip loin and inside round) were obtained from a local farm and then divided into two storage temperatures (0 and 5C), respectively. In meat color, redness (a*) was significantly higher in 5C storage samples compared with 0C storage samples in all muscle samples after 7 days of storage. Loin had significantly lower purge loss than other muscle samples, whereas inside round was significantly higher in purge loss. Strip loin showed lower shear force values compared with those of other muscle samples. 5C storage samples had significantly higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value than 0C storage samples in all muscle samples. In sensory evaluation, overall acceptability was significantly higher at 14 or 21 days of storage in all muscle samples, and 5C storage samples showed higher overall acceptability compared with 0C storage samples. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This result will obtain information to help understand the meat quality in Hanwoo for the foreign scientists. The results of the present study showed that meat qualities of Hanwoo were much higher in 5C storage sample compared with 0C samples in all muscle samples until 35 days of storage, and loin sample showed higher sensory score than strip loin and inside round samples. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2003
    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate fecal shedding and transmission of E. coli O157 in cohorts of cattle within a feedlot, to assess subsequent contamination of carcasses with this pathogen and to identify risk factors associated with fecal shedding of E. coli O157. A cohort of 133 heifers housed infour adjacent pens was examined over a five month period, from entering the feedlot to slaughter. Individual rectal fecal samples and pen environmental samples were taken at monthly intervals. The entire outer and inner surfaces of a carcass side of each animal were swabbed immediately following slaughter. E. coli O157 was isolated from 136 (23%) of the 600 rectal fecal samples; 96% of which contained virulent markers. One hundred and sixty environmental samples were examined and E. coli O157 was isolated from 46 (29%), all of which contained virulent markers. E. coli O157 was not isolated from any of the dressed carcasses. The prevalence of E. coli O157 fecal shedding may be related to the pen and E. coli O157 contamination of the pen floor feces, water trough and feed. E. coli O157 should be considered as a pathogen shed in the feces of a substantial proportion of feedlot cattle. However, with good hygienic practice at harvest, a very low level of this pathogen can be achieved on dressed carcasses. [source]

    The First Appearance of Cattle in Denmark Occurred 6000 Years Ago: An Effect of Cultural or Climate and Environmental Changes

    Nanna Noe-Nygaard
    Abstract Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bones of contemporaneous Late Atlantic aurochs and early cattle in eastern Denmark are significantly different and provide information on the origin and feeding strategies of the earliest domestic cattle. The data show that the early cattle were feeding on grass right from the beginning 4000 cal. yr BC. In contrast, the youngest aurochs population primarily browsed and grazed from the dense forest floor resulting in rather negative ,13C values measured on bone collagen. The oldest aurochs have similar isotope values to the earlier cattle, whereas the youngest aurochs have similar values to Late Atlantic red deer from the same locality. As eastern Denmark was largely covered by forest, speculations on the origin of the grazing areas are many. The grass may have grown in openings in the forest, at the forest fringe, or more likely on the newly reclaimed coastal land areas exposed by the decreasing rate of eustatic sea-level rise contemporaneously with isostatic uplift, during the Littorina transgressions. The stable isotope values do not indicate that leaf foddering of the early cattle was of importance. [source]

    Argentine rangeland quality influences reproduction of yearling pregnant heifers?

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
    Liliana G. Hidalgo
    Abstract The Flooding Pampa natural grasslands are gradually being transformed into croplands to increase the economic returns of ranches. It is therefore becoming necessary for stockmen to increase beef cattle efficiency to compete with crops and to maintain the native grassland and its associated fauna. However, natural grasslands during winter have the lowest content of nutrients of the year. We intend to demonstrate that, with breeding weights of over 65% of cow mature weight, low forage quality of rangelands during winter does not have a negative effect on reproduction. These higher breeding weights were obtained by selecting early born female calves and by grazing annual and cultivated pastures. Pregnant Aberdeen Angus yearling heifers (n = 90) were evaluated using a pregnancy test (May 2005) until the second calving (July 2006). At the beginning of the experiment, yearling heifers with live weight ranging 360,514 kg (mean, 425 kg ± 3.5 SE) were used. Cattle grazed native grasslands (humid mesophytic meadows and humid prairie grasslands) and old mixed pastures. The second pregnancy was high (100%), with the same mean calving date as in the first pregnancy (227 Julian days). Heifers which calved later in the first calving year were early calvers in the second year, resulting in the relatively constant average calving dates across the animals. [source]

    Quantifying the grazing impacts associated with different herbivores on rangelands

    S. D. ALBON
    Summary 1Rangelands, produced by grazing herbivores, are important for a variety of agricultural, hunting, recreation and conservation objectives world-wide. Typically, there is little quantitative evidence regarding the magnitude of the grazing impact of different herbivores on rangeland habitats to inform their management. 2We quantified the grazing and trampling impact of sheep, cattle, red deer Cervus elaphus, rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, mountain hares Lepus timidus and red grouse Lagopus lagopus on open-hill habitats in 11 areas of upland Scotland. The degradation of heather in upland Scotland Calluna vulgaris -dominated habitats, of conservation significance at a European scale, has been attributed, anecdotally, to increasing sheep and red deer populations. 3Field indicators of habitat condition were used to generate a five-point scale of impact in vegetation polygons of seven habitats. The presence of each herbivore species was attributed on the basis of ,signs' of occupancy. A Bayesian regression model was used to analyse the association of herbivore species with grazing impact on plant communities, controlling for environmental attributes. 4Overall the presence of sheep was associated with the largest increase (7/11 areas) in grazing and trampling impact of all herbivores. Cattle had the second largest impact but generally this was restricted to fewer areas and habitats than sheep. In contrast, impacts associated with wild herbivores tended to be small and only significant locally. 5Although red deer presence was associated with a significantly lower impact than sheep, this impact increased with increasing deer density at both land-ownership and regional scales. For sheep there was little or no evidence of density dependence. 6Synthesis and applications. The higher impact associated with sheep presence probably reflects their greater aggregation because of their limited ranging behaviour, exacerbated by sheep being herded in places convenient for land managers. Consequently, future reductions in sheep numbers as a result of reform of European Union farming policies may limit the extent of their impact, but not necessarily the local magnitude. However, reductions in sheep stocks may lead to increases in deer densities, with greater impact, particularly in heather-dominated habitats. Where habitat conservation is a priority this may well require a reduction in deer numbers. [source]

    Contrasting effects of cattle and wildlife on the vegetation development of a savanna landscape mosaic

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Kari E. Veblen
    Summary 1.,Through their effects on plant communities, herbivores can exert strong direct and indirect effects on savanna ecosystems and have the potential to create and maintain savanna landscape heterogeneity. Throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa, periodic creation and abandonment of livestock corrals leads to landscape mosaics of long-term ecosystem hotspots that attract both cattle and large ungulate wildlife. 2.,The development and maintenance of vegetation in these types of hotspots may be controlled in part by herbivory. Cattle and wildlife may have different, potentially contrasting effects on plant succession and plant,plant interactions. We ask how cattle and wild herbivores affect the maintenance and vegetation development of corral-derived landscape heterogeneity (0.25,1.0 ha treeless ,glades') in Laikipia, Kenya, through their effects on long-term successional and short-term plant,plant dynamics. 3.,We used the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment to exclude from glades different combinations of cattle, large ungulate wildlife (i.e. zebras, gazelles and other antelopes), and mega-herbivore wildlife (i.e. giraffes and elephants). We first assessed long-term changes in cover of the dominant grass species, Cynodon plectostachyus and Pennisetum stramineum (the early- and late-dominant species, respectively). We then used a neighbour removal experiment to test the effects of different herbivores on competition and facilitation between the two glade grass species. 4.,In the long-term experiment, we found that large ungulate wildlife reinforced landscape heterogeneity over time by helping maintain glades in their early C. plectostachyus -dominated form. Cattle and mega-herbivore wildlife, on the other hand, appeared to reduce the positive effects through forage preference for C. plectostachyus. 5.,In the neighbour removal experiment, we found that each grass species benefited from facilitation when it was the preferred forage for the dominant grazer. Facilitation of C. plectostachyus by P. stramineum was strongest when cattle co-occurred with wildlife, whereas facilitation of P. stramineum by C. plectostachyus was strongest when cattle were absent. 6.,Synthesis. Our results demonstrate that different combinations of cattle and wildlife have different effects, largely via contrasting forage preferences, on the persistence of landscape heterogeneity in this savanna landscape. More generally, we provide evidence for contrasting effects of cattle and wildlife on short-term plant interactions (facilitation) and successional processes within the herbaceous plant community. [source]

    The Paradox of Toughening During the Aging of Tender Steaks

    Jan Novakofski
    ABSTRACT:, Aging is the practice of holding meat at low temperatures to improve tenderness that is the most important sensory attribute affecting consumer acceptability of beef. Because of the inconsistencies in measured tenderness changes during aging, we attempted to look at the relationship between aging and initial tenderness irrespective of animal age, genetics, or nutritional status. Cattle were selected to represent a full range of quality grades from Utility to Prime. Steaks from these cattle were aged in vacuum bags for 0, 7, or 14 d and tenderness characteristics were assessed. Steaks were cut from the frozen loin sections, thawed, and cooked on open hearth grills to 70 °C. Sensory evaluation was completed by a 6-member trained sensory evaluation panel and Warner-Bratzler shear was determined. The average shear values decreased with aging time across most grade categories; however, improvement was not uniform. Steaks from Utility grade cattle improved the most while steaks of other grades improved less. Shear values overlapped a great deal across all grades and to gain a better understanding of changes with aging, steaks were grouped based on initial shear value differences of 1 kg. Shear value of the toughest steaks decreased the most during aging (,36%), while those with the lowest shear values increased (16%). The same pattern emerged when steaks were grouped by initial tenderness. These results suggest that initially tough steaks will benefit from aging while very tender steaks may be adversely affected. [source]

    Buyers' perceptions of importance and willingness-to-pay for certain attributes of source and production verified bred heifers

    Joe L. Parcell
    Cattle; Distribution-free estimation; Willingness-to-pay Abstract This research reports buyers' perceptions of and willingness-to-pay for replacement heifers produced through a rigorous, third-party verified production protocol. Survey respondents attended and registered to purchase heifers at sanctioned Missouri Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program® sales between 1997 and 2002. Responses indicate that pen uniformity, artificially inseminated to calving ease bull, synchronized calving, and heifer size are perceived as important, and their willingness-to-pay for these characteristics is economically significant. Though prior research suggests willingness-to-pay estimates particularly for inexperienced consumers may be biased, we find little difference between inexperienced and experienced buyers and also little difference from hedonic estimates of heifer characteristics' value. [source]

    Physiology and Treatment of Retained Fetal Membranes in Cattle

    J.C. Beagley
    Retained fetal membranes (RFM) in cattle have adverse effects on fertility and production. Understanding the pathophysiology and causes of RFM is important for managing this disease. The hormonal processes that lead to normal placental separation are multifactorial and begin before parturition. A variety of risk factors, including early or induced parturition, dystocia, hormonal imbalances, and immunosuppression, can interrupt these normal processes and result in retention of the placenta. Current research does not support the efficacy of many commonly practiced treatments for RFM. Systemic administration of antibiotics can be beneficial for treating metritis after RFM, but antibiotic administration has not been shown to significantly improve future reproduction in cows with RFM. Collagenase injected into the umbilical arteries of retained placentas specifically targets the lack of placentome proteolysis and might enhance placental release. However, such therapy is costly and its benefits in terms of improving subsequent reproductive function have not been evaluated. [source]

    Clinicopathologic Evaluation of Hepatic Lipidosis in Periparturient Dairy Cattle

    Emmanouil Kalaitzakis
    Background: Fatty change of the liver (FCL) is very common in dairy cattle periparturiently. Many laboratory methods have been implicated in order to assist the diagnosis. Hypothesis: To investigate whether FCL in dairy cattle could be evaluated by assessment of ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) by means of an assay modified for bovine serum, other enzyme activity, serum bile acids (SBA) concentration, or other biochemical constituents. Animals: A total of 187 dairy cattle were included: 106 were suspected to have liver dysfunction and were examined after referral by veterinarians; 70 were clinically healthy with mild FCL; and 11 were clinically healthy without FCL. Methods: Blood and liver biopsy samples were obtained after clinical examination. Histologic examination by light microscopy and classification of samples according to the severity of FCL was done, and total lipid and triglyceride concentration was measured. In serum, OCT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ,-glutamyltransferase (,-GT) activity as well as SBA, glucose, ketones, total bilirubin (tBIL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration were measured. Results: OCT and AST activity and tBIL concentration correlate well with the degree of FCL. SBA concentration does not contribute well to FCL diagnosis. The majority of FCL cases appeared within the first 21 days-in-milk (DIM). The majority of moderate-to-severe and severe FCL cases arose in the first 7 DIM. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Except for OCT, AST, and tBIL, none of the biochemical tests used, including SBA, had sufficient discriminatory power to differentiate reliably between mild and severe FCL because of poor sensitivity. A weak correlation between clinical signs and the extent of FCL was evident. [source]

    Efficacy of metaphylactic florfenicol therapy during natural outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease

    B. CATRY
    The efficacy of an injectable formulation of florfenicol (300 mg/mL) as metaphylactic control of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was evaluated in two double-blind randomly controlled field studies on two Dutch veal calf herds (A and B). Cattle aged not older than 3 months and in the direct presence of calves with clinical respiratory disease were randomly allocated to treatment with 40 mg/kg florfenicol subcutaneously (s.c.) a positive control treatment (12.5 mg/kg tilmicosin p.o. twice daily for five consecutive days in herd A, and 12.5 mg/kg doxycycline p.o. twice daily for five consecutive days in herd B), or a negative control (one placebo saline s.c. administration on D0). The predominant respiratory pathogens present in pretreatment respiratory samples from affected animals were Mycoplasma bovis and Pasteurella multocida in outbreaks A and B, respectively. Metaphylactic administration of florfenicol resulted in a statistically significant weight gain, decreased rectal temperature for five consecutive days after treatment and decreased metaphylactic failure percentages compared with both positive and negative control groups. In summary, these studies demonstrated that a single s.c. injection of florfenicol is effective and practical for control of the bacterial component of BRD in veal calves. [source]

    Protecting babies: vaccine strategies to prevent foetopathy in Neospora caninum -infected cattle

    Review Article
    SUMMARY Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that is a significant infectious abortifacient agent in cattle. Despite the fact that it is a member of a well described taxonomic group, it is a relatively newly discovered parasite and its biology is not yet fully understood. Cattle become infected either congenitally via transplacental transmission or post-natally by ingesting oocysts derived from the definitive host; dogs and coyotes are the only definitive hosts that have been described to date. It is not known which of these two forms of transmission occurs most frequently and which is the most likely to result in abortion; there are no drugs available to treat infected cattle, so current control strategies rely on prevention of infection by management methods and strict hygiene; an effective vaccine would be a great advantage in its control. Neospora caninum is an economically important veterinary pathogen, but we can also draw analogies between its foetopathic effects and those of human pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamydophila abortus and Plasmodium falciparum. Understanding the immune response and the materno,foetal relationship in N. caninum -infected cattle may help us to design vaccination strategies, not only for neosporosis but also for other foetopathic agents. [source]

    Mechanisms of Infertility Associated with Clinical and Subclinical Endometritis in High Producing Dairy Cattle

    IM Sheldon
    Contents Clinical and subclinical endometritis are common causes of infertility and subfertility in high producing dairy cattle, delaying the onset of ovarian cyclic activity after parturition, extending luteal phases and reducing conception rates. Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes cause endometrial damage and inflammation. Components of microbes, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are detected by Toll-like receptors on endometrial cells, leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides. Long luteal phases associated with endometritis are probably caused by a switch in endometrial prostaglandin production from prostaglandin F2a (PGF) to prostaglandin E2. In addition, LPS impairs the function of the hypothalamus and pituitary, and directly perturbs ovarian granulosa cells steroidogenesis, providing mechanisms to explain the association between uterine disease and anovulatory anoestrus. Cows with uterine disease that ovulate have lower peripheral plasma progesterone concentrations that may further reduce the chance of conception associated with endometritis. [source]

    Forms of Reproductive Disorders in Cattle and Buffaloes in Middle Egypt

    A Ali
    Contents The objective of this study was to investigate the common forms of reproductive disorders and trends of fertility in cattle and buffaloes in Middle Egypt, and investigate nutritional deficiencies or imbalances as a cause of infertility. During the period from 2003 to 2006 a total of 4276 animals (2755 cattle and 1521 buffaloes) were examined, during winter and summer at three districts of Middle Egypt. Based on the owner complains, animals were categorized as anestrum, repeat breeder and those for pregnancy diagnosis. Feedstuffs of these districts were assessed for nutrient and mineral contents. Animals were examined by rectal palpation and by transrectal ultrasonography. The results showed that, ovarian inactivity was the most common cause of anestrum, whereas endometritis was the main frequent finding of repeat breeding. District, season and year affected the incidences of infertility. The pregnancy rate remained constant (cattle) or increased (buffaloes) from 2003 to 2006. The incidence of ovarian inactivity in both species decreased over the same period. In winter, the commonly used feedstuffs would be adequate to supply the animals with needs, but in summer, rations seem to be deficient in many essential nutrients. In conclusion, ovarian inactivity is the main cause of infertility in cattle and buffaloes in Middle Egypt. There is a link between poor nutrition in summer and the high incidence of ovarian inactivity. Fertility trends during the past few years are encouraging. [source]

    Follicle Wave Growth in Cattle

    M Mihm
    Contents Ovarian follicle growth in cattle culminates in the selection of a single dominant follicle which attains the ability for final maturation and ovulation once or twice during the luteal phase and at the end of the oestrous cycle, as well as during other reproductive states. This review will describe in detail the first follicle wave of the cycle leading to selection of the first wave dominant follicle, indicating the specific gonadotrophin dependencies of cohort and dominant follicles, and relating follicle fate to steroidogenesis. As a differential gonadotrophin response of growing antral follicles during the follies-stimulating hormone (FSH) decline may determine which follicle becomes selected, first wave follicles are also characterized in relation to intrafollicular growth factors, which may modify the gonadotrophin response, such as inhibins and members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. Subsequently, the follicular control of the transient FSH rise and decline so crucial to dominant follicle selection will be discussed. It is concluded that successful hormonal manipulation of follicle wave growth and dominant follicle selection will depend on our detailed understanding of the gonadotrophin requirements of differentiating wave follicles. [source]

    Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Isolates from Cattle in Portugal: Animal and Human Implications


    Actions of Tumor Necrosis Factor-, on Oocyte Maturation and Embryonic Development in Cattle,

    P. Soto
    Problem:, Infertility can accompany mastitis in cattle. Involvement of tumor necrosis factor- , (TNF- ,) in this phenomenon is suggested by observations that circulating concentrations of TNF- , are elevated after intramammary infection or infusion of endotoxin. It was hypothesized that (1) TNF- , acts on the oocyte during maturation to decrease the percent of oocytes that cleave and develop following fertilization; (2) exposure of embryos to TNF- , after fertilization reduces development to the blastocyst stage; and (3) TNF- , increases the proportion of blastomeres that undergo apoptosis in a stage-of-development dependent manner. Method of study:, In one experiment, oocytes were matured with various concentrations of TNF- , and then fertilized and cultured without TNF- ,. In another study, embryos were cultured with TNF- , for 8 days beginning after fertilization. Finally, embryos were collected at the two or four-cell stage (at 28,30 hr after insemination) or when ,9-cells (at day 4 after insemination) and cultured ± TNF- , for 24 hr. The proportion of blastomeres undergoing apoptosis was then determined by the TUNEL procedure. Results:, Addition of TNF- , to maturation medium did not affect the proportion of oocytes that cleaved. However, the percent of oocytes that developed to the blastocyst stage at day 8 after insemination was reduced (P = 0.05) at all TNF- , concentrations tested (0.1,100 ng/mL). When added during embryo culture, there was no significant effect of TNF- , on the proportion of oocytes that became blastocysts. In addition, TNF- , did not induce apoptosis in two and four-cell embryos. For embryos ,9-cells, however, 10 and 100 ng/mL TNF- , increased (P < 0.05) the percent of blastomeres labeling as TUNEL-positive. Conclusion:, TNF- , can have deleterious actions on oocyte maturation that compromise development of the resultant embryo. While exposure of fertilized embryos to TNF- , did not inhibit development to the blastocyst stage, TNF- , increased the percentage of blastomeres undergoing apoptosis when exposure occurred for embryos ,9-cells. Increased blastomere apoptosis could conceivably compromise subsequent embryo survival. [source]

    Immunohistochemistry of Pancreatic Development in Cattle and Pig

    G. L. Carlsson
    Summary With 8 figures and 2 tables The aim of this study was to characterize bovine and porcine pancreatic development by immunohistochemistry. In the pig, staining for both glucagon and insulin was noted at day 19. In cattle, glucagon staining was observed at day 25 and insulin staining from day 26. In both species, glucagon-stained cells were abundant initially, but later insulin-stained cells became most abundant. A few cells displayed co-localization of glucagon and insulin staining during initial development in both species. Initially, most of the cells of the pancreatic primordia and the duodenal epithelium displayed Pdx-1-staining. All insulin-stained cells displayed Pdx-1-stained nuclei, whereas no glucagon-stained cells did so. Many Pdx-1-stained cells lacked insulin staining, but with development, the relative number of these cells diminished. Nkx6.1-staining was initially seen in a pattern similar to that for Pdx-1, but was lacking duodenal staining. Subsequently, the number of Nkx6.1-stained cells diminished, but increased again to a level where practically all insulin-stained cells also presented Nkx6.1-staining. Glucagon-stained cells, on the other hand, never had Nkx6.1 staining. In conclusion, the localization of the two transcription factors, Pdx-1 and Nkx6.1, demonstrated that pancreas development appears to be controlled by mechanisms comparable with those operating in humans. [source]

    Effect of guard dogs on the behavior and reproduction of gazelles in cattle enclosures on the Golan Heights

    G. Gingold
    Abstract Cattle on the Golan Heights are kept in enclosures and some of these enclosures have guard dogs. We studied the effect of such dogs on the behavior and breeding success of mountain gazelles Gazella gazella living within enclosures. We found that guard dogs have both direct and indirect effects on gazelles. Gazelles living in enclosures with dogs spent more time in vigilance behavior and running, and less time resting and walking, in comparison with gazelles in dog-free enclosures. In the absence of dogs, gazelle female herds in enclosures tended to stay closer to the cattle, but shunned away from them in the presence of the dogs, which, in turn, remained near the cattle. The percentage of fawns per female was higher in enclosures without dogs in comparison with those with dogs, but the difference was not significant. However, the largest of the enclosures with dogs, which had the largest number of gazelles, had only an average number of dogs in it. Hence, the gazelles in this enclosure were better able to avoid the dogs in comparison with those in smaller enclosures. Removing this enclosure from the overall calculation revealed that guard dogs have a significant negative effect on gazelle reproductive success. In two of the four enclosures with dogs no fawn still survived 6 months after birth, while in each of the four enclosures without dogs some fawns did survive to that age and beyond, suggesting that the dogs themselves may predate the fawns. [source]

    Associations of polymorphisms in the promoter I of bovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase- , gene with beef fatty acid composition

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2010
    S. Zhang
    Summary The objectives of this study were to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter I (PI) region of the bovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-, (ACACA) gene and to evaluate the extent to which they were associated with lipid-related traits. Eight novel SNPs were identified, which were AJ276223:g.2064T>A (SNP1), g.2155C>T (SNP2), g.2203G>T (SNP3), g.2268T>C (SNP4), g.2274G>A (SNP5), g.2340A>G (SNP6), g.2350T>C (SNP7) and g.2370A>G (SNP8). Complete linkage disequilibrium was observed among SNP1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8. Phenotypic data were collected from 573 cross-bred steers with six sire breeds, including Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara and Romosinuano. The genotypes of SNP1/2/4/5/6/8 were significantly associated with adjusted backfat thickness. The genotypes of SNP3 were significantly associated with triacylglycerol (TAG) content and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) in Brangus-, Romosinuano- and Bonsmara-sired cattle. Cattle with g.2203GG genotype had greater concentrations of TAG, total lipid, total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid than did cattle with g.2203GT genotype. The genotypes of SNP7 were significantly associated with fatty acid composition of LM. Cattle with genotype g.2350TC had greater amounts of several fatty acids in LM than did cattle with genotype g.2350CC. Our results suggested that the SNPs in the PI region of ACACA gene are associated with variations in the fatty acid contents in LM. [source]

    Genetic polymorphisms of the bovine Fatty acid binding protein 4 gene are significantly associated with marbling and carcass weight in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2010
    S. H. Lee
    Summary The objective of this study was to investigate an association between polymorphisms in the FABP4 gene and phenotypic variation for marbling and carcass weight (CWT) in a population of Hanwoo steers. We re-sequenced 4.3 kb of the FABP4 gene region in 24 Hanwoo bulls and identified 16 SNPs and 1 microsatellite polymorphism. Of these 16 SNPs, three SNPs [g.2774G>C (intron I), g.3473A>T (intron II) and g.3631G>A (exon III, creating a p.Met >Val amino acid substitution)] were genotyped in 583 steers to assess their association with carcass traits. The g.3473A allele showed a significant increasing effect on CWT (P = 0.01) and the g.3631G allele was associated with higher marbling score (P = 0.006). One haplotype of these three SNPs (CAG) was significantly associated with CWT (P = 0.02) and marbling score (P = 0.05) and could potentially be of value for marker assisted selection in Hanwoo cattle. The CAG haplotype effect for CWT was larger (11.14 ± 5.03 kg) than the largest single locus effect of g.3473A>T (5.01 ± 2.2 kg). [source]

    Genetic structure of Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) based on microsatellites: clarification for their breed classification,

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 2 2010
    M.-H. Li
    Summary We pool three previously published data sets and present population genetic analyses of microsatellite variation in 48 Bos taurus cattle breeds from a wide range of geographical origins in Eurasia, mostly its northern territory. Bayesian model-based clustering reveals six distinct clusters: besides a single-population cluster of the Yakutian Cattle from Far Eastern Siberia and a cluster of breeds characteristic of an early origin, the other four major clusters largely correspond to previously defined morphological subgroups of Red Lowland, Lowland Black-Pied, Longhorned Dairy and North European Polled cattle breeds. The results highlighted past expansion events of the productive breeds such as Danish Red, Angeln, Holstein-Friesian and Ayrshire in northern and Eastern Europe. Based on genetic assignment of the breeds and the availability of breed information, we provide a preliminary classification of the five breeds that were to date undefined. Furthermore, in the analysis of molecular variance, despite some correspondence between geographical proximity and genetic similarity, the breed classification appears to be a better predictor of genetic structure in the cattle populations (the among-group variance component: breed classification, 2.47%, P < 0.001; geographical division, 0.77%, P < 0.001). [source]

    Development of a 25-plex SNP assay for traceability in cattle

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 3 2009
    B. Karniol
    Summary Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are amenable to automation and therefore have become the marker of choice for DNA profiling. SNaPshot, a primer extension-based method, was used to multiplex 25 SNPs that have been previously validated as useful for identity control. Detection of extended products was based on four different fluorochromes and extension primers with oligonucleotide tails of differing lengths, thus controlling the concise length of the entire chromatogram to 81 bases. Allele frequencies for Holstein, Simmental, Limousin, Angus, Charolais and Tux Cattle were estimated and significant positive Pearson-correlation coefficients were obtained among the analysed breeds. The probability that two randomly unrelated individuals would share identical genotypes for all 25 loci varied from 10,8 to 10,10 for these breeds. For parentage control, the exclusion power was found to be 99.9% when the genotypes of both putative parents are known. A traceability test of duplicated samples indicated a high genotyping precision of >0.998. This was further corroborated by analysis of 60 cases of parent,sib pairs and trio families. The 25-plex SNaPshot assay is adapted for low- and high-throughput capacity and thus presents an alternative for DNA-based traceability in the major commercial cattle breeds. [source]

    Inherited Disorders in Danish Cattle

    APMIS, Issue 2007
    Jørgen S. Agerholm
    First page of article [source]

    A new zoogeography of domestication and agricultural planning in Southern Ghana

    AREA, Issue 2 2009
    Michael Campbell
    Animal behaviour is vital for livestock choices, but is less researched in West Africa than economic considerations. An animal geography framework is applied to the socio-economic context of livestock behaviour in coastal Ghana, assessing the shared ,actant' behaviour of people and animals, and the contribution of such a study to animal geography and agricultural knowledge. Data were gathered on cattle, sheep and goat behaviour and the impact of these on human livelihoods, perceptions and the socio-environmental context. Animal behaviour was more important in the choice of livestock species, but economic considerations were more important in the decision to acquire animals. Goats had more incidents with people in village centres than sheep and cattle. Cattle had more incidents in farmland and grassland than goats and sheep. Women and young people were more affected by livestock behaviour. These findings increase the understanding of livestock zoogeography and livelihood decisionmaking, and contribute to animal geography by documenting the relevance of individualised gender- and age-based human behaviour, as well as intra- and inter-species animal behaviour to a shared actancy perspective, and a more dynamic zoogeography. [source]

    Efficacy against Fasciola hepatica and the pharmacokinetics of triclabendazole administered by oral and topical routes

    PJ Martin
    Objective To determine the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) against 28-day-old, early immature liver fluke in cattle and its pharmacokinetics following administration by the oral or topical (pour-on) route. Procedures Cattle (n = 18) were infected with 500 TCBZ-susceptible liver fluke metacercariae and randomly allocated to three groups. At 28 days after infection, the groups were: (1) untreated controls; (2) treated with oral TCBZ at 12 mg/kg in combination with oxfendazole and selenium (TOS); (3) treated with pour-on TCBZ at 30 mg/kg in combination with abamectin (TA). Blood samples were taken immediately prior to treatment and serially after treatment to assess the plasma profile of TCBZ metabolites. Ten weeks after treatment all animals were slaughtered and total liver fluke counts, fluke egg counts and liver pathology were assessed. Results Both the TOS and TA treatments resulted in significant reductions of 28-day-old liver fluke, as assessed by fluke counts and fluke egg counts at slaughter, and the reductions following TOS treatment were significantly greater than those following TA treatment. The blood profile of TCBZ metabolites in TOS-treated animals showed a significantly greater area under the plasma concentration time curve and a higher maximum observed concentration than those treated with TA. There was significantly less liver pathology in TOS-treated animals than in the TA-treated animals. Conclusion TCBZ administered orally at 12 mg/kg resulted in greater efficacy against 28-day-old, early immature liver fluke than was achieved by topical administration at 30 mg/kg. Plasma metabolites of TCBZ were higher and liver pathology was less in TOS-treated animals than in TA-treated animals. [source]

    Echinococcus granulosus in northern Queensland

    1. Prevalence in cattle
    Objective To determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of hydatidosis and investigate factors that might be expected to influence the prevalence of hydatids in cattle in Queensland north of the Tropic of Capricorn. To determine the effect of natural levels of infection on carcase weight and subsequent economic loss. Procedure An abattoir survey conducted in 1981 provided information on the distribution, prevalence and viability of hydatid cysts in cattle from all shires north of the Tropic of Capricorn in Queensland. Livers, lungs and spleens from 10,382 cattle were palpated at abattoirs in Cairns, Townsville and Rockhampton to detect hydatid cysts. Prevalence of infection in cattle in each shire was estimated from results of the abattoir study together with reports of infection in a further 22,185 cattle obtained from abattoir records. Linear modelling was used to define the effect of geographical origin, age, breed and sex on prevalence of infection. Differences in the weights of carcases between infected and non-infected cattle of the same age, sex, breed and property of origin were examined. The economic loss to the beef industry in the region surveyed was estimated. Results Cattle infected with hydatids originated almost entirely from regions to the east of the Great Dividing Range. The mean prevalence inside this zone was 28% compared with 3% in other areas. Viable protoscoleces were found in 0.7% of cysts. Geographical origin and age of the cattle were the most significant factors influencing prevalence. Infection with hydatids had no effect on carcase weight. Economic loss was limited to that associated with condemnations of organs at meat inspection, estimated to be $0.5 million per annum in 1981 and $6 million in 2004. The distribution of hydatids in Queensland north of the Tropic of Capricorn corresponded most closely with the distribution of small wallabies such as Macropus dorsalis (black-striped wallaby), M parryi (whiptail wallaby) and M rufogriseus (red-necked wallaby). Conclusions It was concluded that cattle are not an important part of maintaining the life-cycle of E granulosus in Queensland north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Within the endemic zone, which is almost all to the east of the Great Dividing Range, the local pattern of bovine echinococcosis is most likely to be determined by the presence or absence of small species of wallaby such as M dorsalis, M parryi and M rufogriseus. [source]

    Cattle deaths during sea transport from Australia

    Objective To establish the death rate and the causes of death in cattle exported by sea from Australia. Procedure Cattle deaths on voyages from Australia to all destinations between 1995 and 2000 were analysed retrospectively. On four voyages to the Middle East between December 1998 and April 2001, cattle that died were examined to determine the cause of death. Results The death rate was 0.24% among 4 million cattle exported, and a greater proportion of deaths occurred on voyages to the Middle East (0.52%, P < 0.05) than to south east Asia (0.13%). The risk of death on voyages to the Middle East was three times greater for cattle exported from southern ports in Australia compared to northern ports. The main causes of death were heat stroke, trauma and respiratory disease. Conclusion Cattle have a low risk of death during sea transport from Australia. The risk of death can be reduced on voyages to the Middle East by preferentially exporting cattle from northern ports, and selecting those with a higher Bos indicus content whenever possible. [source]

    Improving Market Selection for Fed Beef Cattle: The Value of Real-Time Ultrasound and Relations Data

    Allan M. Walburger
    The introduction of value-based marketing has provided the industry with the means to price cattle based on their desired attributes and has provided an alternative marketing channel for producers to select. Gains can be made by selecting animals that will be "in the grid" for value-based marketing channels while screening out animals that won't and sending them to dressed-value or live-weight marketing channels. This study estimates the gains from using real-time ultrasound (RTU) as well as information on graded animal relations (i.e., animals that have the same parentage slaughtered and graded in previous years) to predict carcass quality and yield grades prior to slaughter. These predictions are used in an optimization model designed to select the marketing channel for individual animals that will maximize returns. The optimal marketing strategy from this study involves a mix of live-weight, dressed-weight and grid sales methods rather than marketing all of the animals together. The results suggest that increases in returns in the range of $0.61,27.26 per head from using relations data, $9.04-16.75 per head from using RTU measures and $11.27-27.93 per head from using both to selectively market beef animals. These estimates do not account for the gains that could be obtained from using RTU to improve market timing, i.e., to time when the animal will grade best. L'avènement du marketing en fonction de la valeur du produit a permis à l'industrie de fixer le prix des bovins d'après les paramètres recherchés et a créé une nouvelle filière commerciale pour les éleveurs. En effet, ces derniers peuvent accroître leurs revenus en choisissant les animaux qui présentent les caractéristiques souhaitées et en confinant ceux qui ne les possèdent pas aux filières qui se contentent du poids de la carcasse ou du poids vif. L'auteur a estimé les gains réalisables lorsqu'on recourt aux relevés aux ultrasons en temps réel (RUTR) et aux données sur les parents de l'animal classés antérieurement (à savoir, les sujets abattus et classés dans le passé qui présentent un lien avec l'animal auquel on s'intéresse) pour prévoir la qualité de la carcasse et la catégorie de rendement avant l'abattage. Il a ensuite appliqué ces prévisions à un modèle d'optimisation permettant d'établir à quelle filière affecter les animaux en vue d'en tirer le meilleur revenu. Cette stratégie d'optimisation commerciale fait appel à diverses méthodes de vente (poids vif, carcasse, en grille) plutôt qu'à une mise en marché globale des animaux. Les résultats indiquent que l'usage des données sur la filiation pour commercialiser les animaux de manière sélective accroît les revenus de 10,61 $à 27,26 $ par tête, contre 9,04 $à 16,75 $ par tête pour les RUTR et de 11,27 $à 27,93 $ par tête pour les deux méthodes combinées. Ces estimations ne tiennent pas compte des gains réalisables lorsqu'on se sert des RUTR pour déterminer le moment idéal où mettre en marché l'animal, à savoir celui où il obtiendra le meilleur classement. [source]

    Forest Stand Dynamics and Livestock Grazing in Historical Context

    clima; incendio forestal; pastoreo histórico; pino ponderosa; supresión de fuego Abstract:,Livestock grazing has been implicated as a cause of the unhealthy condition of ponderosa pine forest stands in the western United States. An evaluation of livestock grazing impacts on natural resources requires an understanding of the context in which grazing occurred. Context should include timing of grazing, duration of grazing, intensity of grazing, and species of grazing animal. Historical context, when and under what circumstances grazing occurred, is also an important consideration. Many of the dense ponderosa pine forests and less-than-desirable forest health conditions of today originated in the early 1900s. Contributing to that condition was a convergence of fire, climate, and grazing factors that were unique to that time. During that time period, substantially fewer low-intensity ground fires (those that thinned dense stands of younger trees) were the result of reduced fine fuels (grazing), a substantial reduction in fires initiated by Native Americans, and effective fire-suppression programs. Especially favorable climate years for tree reproduction occurred during the early 1900s. Exceptionally heavy, unregulated, unmanaged grazing by very large numbers of horses, cattle, and sheep during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries occurred in most of the U.S. West and beginning earlier in portions of the Southwest. Today, livestock numbers on public lands are substantially lower than they were during this time and grazing is generally managed. Grazing then and grazing now are not the same. Resumen:,El pastoreo de ganado ha sido implicado como una causa de la mala salud de los bosques de pino ponderosa en el occidente de Estados Unidos. La evaluación de los impactos del pastoreo sobre los recursos naturales requiere de conocimiento del contexto en que ocurrió el pastoreo. El contexto debe incluir al período de ocurrencia, la duración y la intensidad del pastoreo, así como la especie de animal que pastoreó. El contexto histórico, cuando y bajo que circunstancias ocurrió el pastoreo, también es una consideración importante. Muchos de los bosques densos de pino ponderosa y de las condiciones, menos que deseables, de salud de los bosques actuales se originaron al principio del siglo pasado. Contribuyó a esa condición una convergencia de factores, fuego, clima y pastoreo, que fueron únicos en ese tiempo. Durante ese período, hubo sustancialmente menos incendios superficiales de baja intensidad (que afectaron a grupos densos de árboles más jóvenes) como resultado de la reducción de combustibles finos (pastoreo), una reducción sustancial en los incendios iniciados por Americanos Nativos y programas efectivos de supresión de incendios. Al inicio del siglo pasado hubo años con clima especialmente favorable para la reproducción de árboles. Al final del siglo diecinueve y comienzo del veinte hubo pastoreo no regulado ni manejado, excepcionalmente intensivo, por una gran cantidad de caballos, reses y ovejas en la mayor parte del oeste de E.U.A. y aun antes en porciones del suroeste. En la actualidad, el número de semovientes en terrenos públicos es sustancialmente menor al de ese tiempo, y el pastoreo generalmente es manejado. El pastoreo entonces y el pastoreo ahora no son lo mismo. [source]