Catheter Ablation (catheter + ablation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Catheter Ablation

  • atrial catheter ablation
  • leave atrial catheter ablation
  • radiofrequency catheter ablation
  • rf catheter ablation
  • successful catheter ablation
  • successful radiofrequency catheter ablation

  • Terms modified by Catheter Ablation

  • catheter ablation procedure

  • Selected Abstracts

    Migraine Following Trans-Septal Access for Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2009
    Palaniappan Saravanan MD
    There is increasing recognition that migraine with aura may be associated with intra-cardiac shunting because of a patent foramen ovale. Radio-frequency ablation to treat cardiac arrhythmias is an increasingly popular means of treating cardiac arrhythmias. Trans-septal puncture is routinely performed to gain access to the left atrium in order to ablate arrhythmias originating in the left heart. We report several cases of migraine triggered acutely by trans-septal puncture at our center. [source]

    The Impact of Age on the Electroanatomical Characteristics and Outcome of Catheter Ablation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Age and Atrial Fibrillation.,,Background: Previous studies have indicated that atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients over the age of 60 at diagnosis is a risk factor for a substantial increase in cardiovascular events. However, information about the impact of age on the atrial substrate and clinical outcome after catheter ablation of AF is limited. Methods: This study included 350 patients (53 12 years, 254 males) who underwent circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) of AF, guided by a NavX mapping system. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their age, as follows: Group I: age ,50 (n = 141), Group II: age = 51,64 (n = 149) and Group III: age ,65 years old (n = 60). The mean voltage and total activation time of the individual atria were obtained by using a NavX mapping system before ablation. Several parameters, including the gender, AF duration, and left atrial (LA) diameter were analyzed. Results: The younger age group had a significantly smaller LA diameter (Group I vs Group II vs Group III, 36.89 7.11 vs 39.16 5.65 vs 40.77 4.95 mm, P = 0.002) and higher LA bipolar voltage (2.09 0.83 vs 1.73 0.73 vs 1.86 0.67 mV, respectively, P = 0.024), compared with the older AF patients. The LA bipolar voltage exhibited a significant reduction when the patients became older, however, that did not occur in the right atrium. The incidence of an AF recurrence was higher in the older age group than in the younger age groups. A subgroup of patients with lone AF was analyzed and age was found to be an independent predictor of the AF recurrence after receiving the first CPVI in the multivariable model (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Age has a significant impact on the LA substrate properties and outcome of the catheter ablation of AF. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 966-972, September 2010) [source]

    Successful Catheter Ablation and Documentation of the Activation and Propagation Pattern During a Left Atrial Focal Tachycardia in a Patient with Cor Triatriatum Sinister

    Atrial Tachycardia in Cor Triatriatum. We report a case of an atrial tachycardia (AT) originating from the left atrium (LA) associated with cor triatriatum sinister. Electroanatomical mapping of the 2 subdivided chambers of the LA during the AT revealed a centrifugal activation pattern from the posterior wall of the accessory chamber near the left superior pulmonary vein. The propagation map on the CARTO system revealed that the AT wave front spread centrifugally over the "accessory chamber," turned around the edge of the membrane subdividing the LA, and then spread over the "main chamber." A single radiofrequency application successfully abolished the AT. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 1050-1054, September 2010) [source]

    Capsule Endoscopy in Examination of Esophagus for Lesions After Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation: A Potential Tool to Select Patients With Increased Risk of Complications

    Capsule Endoscopy in Examination of Esophagus.,Background: Esophageal injury can result from left atrial radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy, with added concern because of its possible relationship to the development of atrial-esophageal (A-E) fistulas. Objective: Evaluate utility of esophageal capsule endoscopy to detect esophageal lesions as a complication of RFA therapy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Consecutive patients with AF who underwent left atrial RFA therapy and received capsule endoscopy within 48 hours postablation. Video was reviewed by a single gastroenterologist. The medical records were also reviewed for symptoms immediately postablation and at the 3-month follow-up. Results: A total of 93 consecutive patients were included and 88 completed the study and were analyzed. The prevalence of esophageal lesions was 17% (15/88 patients). Nine percent (8/88) of these patients had lesions anatomically consistent with the location of the ablation catheter. Six patients with positive capsule findings had symptoms of chest pain (3/6, 50%), throat pain (2/6, 33%), nausea (1/6, 17%), and abdominal pain (1/6, 17%). An additional 24 patients were symptomatic postablation, but with normal capsule findings. All patients with identified lesions by capsule endoscopy received oral proton pump inhibitor therapy, and were instructed to contact the Cleveland Clinic in the event of worsening symptoms. No delayed complications were reported at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusion: This study supports the use of capsule endoscopy as a tool for the detection of esophageal injury post-RFA therapy. PillCam ESO is well tolerated and provides satisfactory images of the areas of interest in the esophagus without potential risk related to insufflation with regular esophagogastroduodenoscopy. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 839-844, August 2010) [source]

    Hybrid Therapy of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation and Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Mitral Stenosis

    AF Ablation and PTMC.,Background: The rhythm control of atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with mitral stenosis (MS) is often difficult using antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs), even after a percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC). Few studies have examined the efficacy and safety of simultaneously performing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) and a PTMC in patients with MS and AF. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with drug-resistant AF and rheumatic MS underwent RFCA combined with a PTMC (n = 10; persistent AF-8, long-lasting [>1 year] persistent AF-2; RFCA group) or transthoracic direct cardioversion (DC) following a PTMC (n = 10; persistent AF-7, long-lasting persistent AF-3; DC group). In all patients, the mitral valve morphology was amenable to a PTMC, and more than 2 AADs had been ineffective in maintaining sinus rhythm (SR). In the RFCA group, a segmental pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was performed in the initial 5 patients, and an extensive PVI was performed in the remaining 5. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 4.0 2.7 years, 8 patients (80%) in the RFCA group were maintained in SR, as compared to 1 (10%) in the DC group (hazard ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.75; P = 0.008 by the log-rank test). The prevalence of the concomitant use of class I and/or class III AADs was comparable between the 2 groups (P = 0.70). No complications occurred during the procedure or follow-up period in either group. Conclusions: The hybrid therapy using RFCA and a PTMC was safe and feasible, and significantly improved the AF free survival rate compared to DC following a PTMC. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 284,289, March 2010) [source]

    Catheter Ablation of Recurrent Scar-Related Ventricular Tachycardia Using Electroanatomical Mapping and Irrigated Ablation Technology: Results of the Prospective Multicenter Euro-VT-Study

    Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia.,Introduction: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) late after myocardial infarction is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality. This prospective multicenter study assessed the efficacy and safety of electroanatomical mapping in combination with open-saline irrigated ablation technology for ablation of chronic recurrent mappable and unmappable VT in remote myocardial infarction. Methods and Results: In 8 European institutions, 63 patients (89% males) were enrolled in the study. All patients had remote myocardial infarction and presented with a median number of 17 (range 1,380) VTs in the preceding 6 months. Incessant VT was present in 14 patients (22%). Left ventricular ejection fraction measured 30 13%. A mean of 3 VTs were targeted per patient and 22% of all patients had only unmappable VT. The mean follow-up period was 12 3 months. A total of 164 VTs were targeted during catheter ablation. Ablation was acutely successful in 51 patients (81%). One patient (1.5%) experienced a major complication with degeneration of VT into ventricular fibrillation necessitating cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers. However, no death occurred acutely or within the first 30 days after catheter ablation. During the follow-up, 19 of the initially successful ablated patients (37%) and 31 of all ablated patients (49%) developed some type of VT recurrence. Conclusions: The results of this multicenter study demonstrate the high acute success rate and a low complication rate of irrigated tip catheter ablation of all clinical relevant VTs in remote myocardial infarction. However, during the follow-up a relevant number of recurrences occurred. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 47,53, January 2010) [source]

    Incidence and Predictors of Periprocedural Cerebrovascular Accident in Patients Undergoing Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Background: Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a serious complication of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). The incidence and clinical predictors of periprocedural CVA in patients undergoing AF ablation are not fully understood. Methods: This study included 721 cases (age 57 11 years; 23% female; 345 persistent AF) in 579 consecutive patients referred for AF ablation. Periprocedural CVA was defined as onset of a new neurologic deficit that occurred anytime between the start of the procedure and 30 days after the AF ablation, and was confirmed by a neurologist. Cranial imaging with CT and/or MRI was performed in each case. Patients were anticoagulated with warfarin for at least 4 weeks pre- and immediately postprocedure and were bridged with enoxaparin. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed within 24 hours prior to ablation in all cases. Results: Periprocedural CVA occurred in 10 of 721 cases (1.4%). The risk of periprocedural CVA did not vary significantly during the course of the study. Among these 10 patients (age 62 11 years; 1 female; 5 persistent AF), 6 manifested neurological deficits within 24 hours, 3 after 24,48 hours, and 1 patient had a CVA 6 days following AF ablation despite a therapeutic INR level. All CVAs were ischemic. Five patients had residual deficits after 30 days. Four of 43 patients (9.3%) with a prior history of CVA had periprocedural CVA. Periprocedural CVA occurred in 0.3%, 1.0%, and 4.7% of patients with CHADS2 scores of 0, 1, and , 2 (P < 0.001). In 2 separate multivariate analyses, a CHADS2 score , 2 (OR 7.1, P = 0.02) and history of CVA (OR 9.5, P < 0.01) remained independent predictors of periprocedural CVA. Conclusions: Despite periprocedural anticoagulation and transesophageal echocardiography, we found a 1.4% incidence of periprocedural CVA in AF ablation patients. A CHADS2 score , 2 and a history of CVA are independent predictors of CVA after AF ablation. The CVA risk is low in patients with CHADS2 score of 0. [source]

    Does Left Atrial Volume and Pulmonary Venous Anatomy Predict the Outcome of Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation?

    Introduction: Preprocedural factors may be helpful in selecting patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) for treatment with catheter ablation and in making an assumption regarding their prognosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether left atrial (LA) volume and pulmonary venous (PV) anatomy, evaluated by computed tomography (CT) prior to ablation, will predict AF recurrence following catheter ablation. Methods and Results: We included 146 patients (mean age 57 11 years, 83% male) with symptomatic AF (55% paroxysmal, 18% persistent, 27% long-standing persistent). All patients underwent CT scanning prior to catheter ablation to evaluate LA volume and PV anatomy. Circumferential PV isolation was performed guided by Cartomerge electroanatomical mapping. The outcome was defined as complete success, improvement, or failure. After a mean follow-up of 19 7 months, complete success was achieved in 59 patients (40%), and 38 patients (26%) demonstrated improvement. LA volume was found to be an independent predictor of AF recurrence with an adjusted OR of 1.14 for every 10-mL increase in volume (95% CI 1.00,1.29, P = 0.047). PV variations were equally distributed among the different outcomes of the ablation procedure, and therefore univariate analysis did not identify PV anatomy as a predictor of outcome. Conclusion: LA volume is an independent predictor of AF recurrence after catheter ablation. Additionally, PV anatomy did not have any effect on the outcome. These findings suggest that an assessment of LA volume may be incorporated into the preprocedural evaluation of patients being considered for AF ablation. [source]

    Acute Pulmonary Vein Stenosis after Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Esophageal Hematoma Complicating Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    Significant injury to the esophagus during ablation for atrial fibrillation is rare but may be devastating. Esophageal fistulas and injury to branches of the vagus nerve resulting in gastric stasis have previously been described. In this case report, we describe another type of esophageal injury associated with catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. The patient experienced chest pain and vomiting on recovery from anesthesia. Echocardiography and computerized tomography were used to identify a large esophageal hematoma. The hematoma was treated conservatively and the patient recovered fully after several weeks. [source]

    Substrate and Procedural Predictors of Outcomes After Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF) due to diastolic dysfunction, elevated left atrial pressure, and enlargement. Although catheter ablation for drug-refractory AF is an effective treatment, the efficacy in HCM remains to be established. Methods: Thirty-three consecutive patients (25 male, age 51 11 years) with HCM underwent pulmonary vein (PV) isolation (n = 8) or wide area circumferential ablation with additional linear ablation (n = 25) for drug-refractory AF. Twelve-lead and 24-hour ambulating ECGs, echocardiograms, event monitor strips, and SF 36 quality of life (QOL) surveys were obtained before ablation and for routine follow-up. Results: Twenty-one (64%) patients had paroxysmal AF and 12 (36%) had persistent/permanent AF for 6.2 5.2 years. The average ejection fraction was 0.63 0.12. The average left atrial volume index was 70 24 mL/m2. Over a follow-up of 1.5 1.2 years, 1-year survival with AF elimination was 62%(Confidence Interval [CI]: 66-84) and with AF control was 75%(CI: 66-84). AF control was less likely in patients with a persistent/chronic AF, larger left atrial volumes, and more advanced diastolic disease. Additional linear ablation may improve outcomes in patient with severe left atrial enlargement and more advanced diastolic dysfunction. Two patients had a periprocedureal TIA, one PV stenosis, and one died after mitral valve replacement from prosthetic valve thrombosis. QOL scores improved from baseline at 3 and 12 months. Conclusion: Outcomes after AF ablation in patients with HCM are favorable. Diastolic dysfunction, left atrial enlargement, and AF subtype influence outcomes. Future studies of rhythm management approaches in HCM patients are required to clarify the optimal clinical approach. [source]

    Validation of Computed Tomography Image Integration into the EnSite NavX Mapping System to Perform Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Introduction: The complex anatomy of the left atrium (LA) makes location of ablation catheters difficult using fluoroscopy alone, and therefore 3D mapping systems are now routinely used. We describe the integration of a CT image into the EnSite NavX System with Fusion and its validation in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF) or left atrial tachycardia (AT) catheter ablation. Methods and Results: Twenty-three patients (61 9.2 years, 16 male) with paroxysmal (14) and persistent (8) AF and persistent (1) AT underwent ablation using CT image integration into the EnSite NavX mapping system with the EnSite Fusion Dynamic Registration software module. In all cases, segmentation of the CT data was accomplished using the EnSite Verismo segmentation tool, although repeat segmentation attempts were required in seven cases. The CT was registered with the NavX-created geometry using an average of 24 user-defined fiducial pairs (range 9 to 48). The average distance from NavX-measured lesion positions to the CT surface was 3.2 0.9 mm (median 2.4 mm). A large, automated, retrospective test using registrations with random subsets of each patient's fiducial pairs showed this average distance decreasing as the number of fiducial pairs increased, although the improvement ceased to be significant beyond 15 pairs. In confirmation, those studies which had used 16 or more pairs had a smaller average lesion-to-surface distance (2.9 0.7 mm) than those using 15 or fewer (4.3 0.8 mm, P < 0.02). Finally, for the 13 patients who underwent left atrial circumferential ablation (LACA), there was no significant difference between the circumference computed using NavX-measured positions and CT surface positions for either the left pulmonary veins (178 64 vs. 177 60 mm; P = 0.81) or the right pulmonary veins (218 86 vs. 207 81 mm; P = 0.08). Conclusion: CT image integration into the EnSite NavX Fusion system was successful in all patients undergoing catheter ablation. A learning curve exists for the Verismo segmentation tool; but once the 3D model was created, the registration process was easily accomplished, with a registration error that is comparable with registration errors using other mapping systems with CT image integration. All patients went on to have subsequent successful ablation procedures. Where LACA was performed (13 patients), only four patients required segmental ostial lesions to achieve electrical isolation. [source]

    Changes in the Isolated Delayed Component as an Endpoint of Catheter Ablation in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Predictor for Long-Term Success

    Introduction: Although successful ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is feasible in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), long-term recurrence is common. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of a change in the isolated delayed component (IDC) as an endpoint of the catheter ablation in ARVC. Methods and Results: Eighteen patients (48 11 years) with ARVC were studied. Detailed endocardial mapping of the right ventricle (RV) was performed during sinus rhythm. IDCs were recorded in 16 patients and the latest IDCs were related to the VT circuit. Catheter ablation was carried out in the areas with the IDCs. At the end of the session, the IDC was electrically dissociated in one, disappeared in five, exhibited second-degree block in one, was significantly delayed (,50 ms) in three, and remained unchanged in six. The change in the IDC was correlated with the change in the type II/III late potentials in the signal-averaged electrocardiography (ECG) and the inducibility of the clinical VT after the ablation. During a follow-up of 61 38 months, VT recurred in six. The patients with a changed IDC had a significantly lower VT recurrence than those with no IDC or an unchanged IDC (P < 0.02). Conclusion: In patients with ARVC, (1) the IDCs during sinus rhythm are related to the clinical VT and can be a target for the ablation, (2) a change in the IDC can be used as an endpoint, and (3) qualitative analyses of the serial signal-averaged ECGs may be useful for the long-term follow-up. [source]

    State of the Art: Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Curative treatment of atrial fibrillation with catheter ablation is now a legitimate option for a large number of patients. In the last decade a tremendous amount has been discovered about this fascinating arrhythmia, yet there is still much that is understood. A number of different ablation strategies have been used including pulmonary vein isolation, targeting of fractionated electrograms, compartmentalising the atria with linear lesions and various combinations and modifications of these lesion sets. The optimal ablation strategy for both paroxysmal and long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation is unknown. In this review the possible mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation are examined along with the current catheter ablation techniques used in the treatment atrial fibrillation. [source]

    Temporary Occlusion of the Great Cardiac Vein and Coronary Sinus to Facilitate Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of the Mitral Isthmus

    Introduction: Ablation of the mitral isthmus to achieve bidirectional conduction block is technically challenging, and incomplete block slows isthmus conduction and is often proarrhythmic. The presence of the blood pool in the coronary venous system may act as a heat-sink, thereby attenuating transmural RF lesion formation. This porcine study tested the hypothesis that elimination of this heat-sink effect by complete air occlusion of the coronary sinus (CS) would facilitate transmural endocardial ablation at the mitral isthmus. Methods: This study was performed in nine pigs using a 30 mm-long prototype linear CS balloon catheter able to occlude and displace the blood within the CS (the balloon was inflated with ,5 cc of air). Using a 3.5 mm irrigated catheter (35 W, 30 cc/min, 1 minute lesions), two sets of mitral isthmus ablation lines were placed per animal: one with the balloon deflated (CS open) and one inflated (CS Occluded). After ablation, gross pathological analysis of the linear lesions was performed. Results: A total of 17 ablation lines were placed: 7 with CS Occlusion, and 10 without occlusion. Despite similar biophysical characteristics of the individual lesions, lesion transmurality was consistently noted only when using the air-filled CS balloon. Conclusions: Temporary displacement of the venous blood pool using an air-filled CS balloon permits transmurality of mitral isthmus ablation; this may obviate the need for ablation within the CS to achieve bidirectional mitral isthmus conduction. [source]

    Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation in Athletes Referred for Disabling Symptoms Preventing Usual Training Schedule and Sport Competition

    Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) may occasionally affect athletes by impairing their ability to compete, and leading to noneligibility at prequalification screening. The impact of catheter ablation (CA) in restoring full competitive activity of athletes affected by AF is not known. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of CA of idiopathic AF in athletes with palpitations impairing physical performance and compromising eligibility for competitive activities. Methods and Results: Twenty consecutive competitive athletes (all males; 44.4 13.0 years) with disabling palpitations on the basis of idiopathic drug-refractory AF underwent 46 procedures (2.3 0.4 per patient) according to a prospectively designed multiprocedural CA approach that consolidates pulmonary veins (PV) isolation through subsequent steps. Preablation, effort-induced AF could be documented in 13 patients (65%) during stress ECG and significantly reduced maximal effort capacity (176 21 W), as compared with patients with no AF during effort (207 43 W, P < 0.05). At the end of CA protocol, which also included ablation of atrial flutter (AFL) in 7 patients, 18 (90.0%) patients were free of AF and two (10.0%) reported short-lasting (minutes) episodes of palpitations during 36.1 12.7 months follow-up. Compared with preablation, postablation maximal exercise capacity significantly improved (from 183 32 to 218 20 W, P < 0.02). All baseline quality of life (QoL) parameters pertinent to physical activity significantly improved (P < 0.05) at the end of CA protocol. All athletes obtained reeligibility and could effectively reinitiate sport activity. Conclusions: AF, alone or in combination with AFL, may significantly impair maximal effort capacity thereby limiting competitive performance. Multiple PV isolation proved very effective in these patients to restore full competitive activity and allow reeligibility. [source]

    Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation: Have We Come the Full Circle?

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Electrophysiological Characteristics and Catheter Ablation in Patients with Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia and Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    Introduction: Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) is often associated with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relationship between PSVT and AF is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics in patients with PSVT and AF, and to demonstrate the origin of the AF before the radiofrequency (RF) ablation of AF. Methods and Results: Four hundred and two consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF (338 had a pure PV foci and 64 had a non-PV foci) that underwent RF ablation were included. Twenty-one patients (10 females; mean age 47 18 years) with both PSVT and AF were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 patients with inducible atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and AF. Group 2 consisted of seven patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and AF. Patients with non-PV foci of AF had a higher incidence of AVNRT than those with PV foci (11% vs. 2%, P = 0.003). Patients with AF and atypical AVNRT had a higher incidence of AF ectopy from the superior vena cava (SVC) than those with AF and typical AVNRT (86% vs. 14%, P = 0.03). Group 1 patients had smaller left atrial (LA) diameter (36 3 vs. 41 3 mm, P = 0.004) and higher incidence of an SVC origin of AF (50% vs. 0%, P = 0.047) than did those in Group 2. Conclusion: The SVC AF has a close relationship with AVNRT. The effect of atrial vulnerability and remodeling may differ between AVNRT and WPW syndrome. [source]

    Catheter Ablation of Peri-AV Nodal Atrial Tachycardia from the Noncoronary Cusp of the Aortic Valve

    Introduction: Atrial tachycardias (AT) originating from the anteroseptal region of the aortic root, near the atrioventricular node can be challenging to eliminate safely by catheter ablation. In this study, we examine the characteristics of anteroseptal ATs in a cohort of patients at our centers, and demonstrate the long-term efficacy and safety of targeting the arrhythmias from within the base of the noncoronary aortic valve cusp (NCC). Methods & Results: From among a cohort of 54 patients with symptomatic focal AT undergoing invasive electrophysiological evaluation, the point of earliest right atrial (RA) activation was at the peri-AV nodal region in 10 patients, just postero-superior to the His-bundle. Before further mapping, RA lesions placed in two patients were unsuccessful in eliminating the arrhythmia. Because of its proximity to the interatrial septum, the base of the NCC was mapped using a retrograde aortic approach, and revealed a point of early activation without the presence of a His potential. The arrhythmia terminated with <10 seconds of radiofrequency or cryothermal energy delivery and was successfully eliminated in 7 of 10 patients. Transient termination or acceleration of the AT was noted in the other three patients, prompting successful ablation from a left atrial septal position or a reattempt from a para-Hisian RA position. All patients have been arrhythmia free during follow-up (41 12 months). Conclusions: Catheter ablation from within the base of the NCC represents a safe and effective means to eliminate focal AT arising from the peri-AV nodal region. [source]

    Should the "Scalpel" Be Preferred to Catheter Ablation to Cure Atrial Fibrillation?

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Experimental Efficacy of Pericardial Instillation of Anti-inflammatory Agents during Percutaneous Epicardial Catheter Ablation to Prevent Postprocedure Pericarditis

    Introduction: Pericarditis is a potential complication of catheter-based percutaneous epicardial mapping and ablation. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of intrapericardial instillation of anti-inflammatory agents after pericardial mapping and ablation in a porcine model of postprocedural pericarditis. Methods and Results: Twenty-five healthy swine underwent epicardial mapping and ablation after transthoracic subxyphoid puncture. After 60 minutes of continuous catheter manipulation in the pericardial space, radiofrequency energy was delivered in a linear fashion to the epicardial surfaces of both atria. The animals were randomly divided to receive the anti-inflammatory agents, Hyaluronic Acid and Triamcinolone, or control. Fourteen days after ablation, the hearts were excised and the degree of pericardial reaction/adhesions scored. The severity was uniformly graded 4 (intense) in all control animals and was characterized by intense adhesion between the parietal and the visceral pericardium obscuring tissue planes and epicardial anatomy. Hyaluronic Acid provided a mild benefit (score 3.0 0.9), but 2 mg/kg of Triamcinolone significantly attenuated the inflammatory effect (all animals uniformly scored 1.0). Conclusion: In a porcine model of ablation-related pericarditis, intrapericardial instillation of 2 mg/kg of intermediate-acting corticosteroids effectively prevents post-procedure inflammatory adhesion formation. [source]

    A Novel Finding,Isolated Marshall's Ligament Rhythm After Catheter Ablation and Reconnection of the Marshall's Ligament with the Left Atrium After an Adenosine Bolus in One Patient with Atrial Fibrillation

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cost Comparison of Catheter Ablation and Medical Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation

    Introduction: There is emerging evidence for clinical superiority of catheter ablation over rate and rhythm control strategies in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The objective of this study was to compare costs related to medical therapy versus catheter ablation for PAF in Ontario (Canada). Methods: Costs related to medical therapy in the analysis included the cost of anticoagulation, rate and rhythm control medications, noninvasive testing, physician follow-up visits, and hospital admissions, as well as the cost of complications related to this management strategy. Costs related to catheter ablation were assumed to include the cost of the ablation tools (electroanatomic mapping or intracardiac echocardiography-guided pulmonary vein ablation), hospital and physician billings, and costs related to periprocedural medical care and complications. Costs related to these various elements were obtained from the Canadian Registry of Atrial Fibrillation (CARAF), government fee schedules, and published data. Sensitivity analyses looking at a range of initial success rates (50,75%) and late attrition rates (1,5%), prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF) (20,60%), as well as discounting varying from 3% to 5% per year were performed. Results: The cost of catheter ablation ranged from $16,278 to $21,294, with an annual cost of $1,597 to $2,132. The annual cost of medical therapy ranged from $4,176 to $5,060. Costs of ongoing medical therapy and catheter ablation for PAF equalized at 3.2,8.4 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Catheter ablation is a fiscally sensible alternative to medical therapy in PAF with cost equivalence after 4 years. [source]

    Time Course of Esophageal Lesions After Catheter Ablation with Cryothermal and Radiofrequency Ablation: Implication for Atrio-Esophageal Fistula Formation After Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    Background: Atrio-esophageal fistulas have been described as a consequence of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, whether cryoablation can avoid this potential fatal complication remains unclear. Methods and Results: We studied the effects of direct application of RF and cryoablation on the cervical esophagus in 16 calves. Cryoablation was performed with a 6.5-mm catheter probe using a single 5-minute freeze at <,80C, and RF ablation was delivered with an 8-mm catheter electrode at 50 W and 50C for 45,60 seconds. Histopathologic assessments were performed at 1, 4, 7, and 14 day(s) after completion of the ablation protocol: four animals were examined each day. A total of 85 direct esophageal ablations were performed: 41 with RF and 44 with cryoablation. There were no significant differences in lesion width, depth, or volume between cryoablation and RF ablation at Day 1, 4, and 14 after the procedure (P > 0.05). However, lesion width and volume were significantly larger with RF than with cryoablation at Day 7. Although acute (Day 1) and chronic (Day 14) RF and cryoablation lesions were of comparable size, histologic evidence of partial- to full-wall esophageal lesion ulceration was observed in 0 of 44 (0%) lesions with cryoablation, compared with 9 of 41 (22%) lesions with RF ablation (P = 0.0025). Conclusions: Direct application of cryoablation and RF ablation created similar acute and chronic lesion dimensions on the esophagus. However, cryoablation was associated with a significantly lower risk of esophageal ulceration, compared with RF ablation. [source]

    Successful Catheter Ablation of Two Types of Ventricular Tachycardias Triggered by Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: A Case Report

    We report a case of a patient with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, in whom an upgrade to biventricular pacing triggered multiple episodes of ventricular tachycardias (VTs) of two morphologies. First VT presented as repetitive nonsustained arrhythmia of the same morphology as isolated ectopic beats, suggesting its focal origin. Second VT was reentrant and was triggered by the former ectopy, leading to a therapy from the device. Electroanatomical mapping of the left ventricle revealed relatively small low voltage area in the left ventricular outflow tract and identified both an arrhythmogenic focus as well as critical isthmus for reentrant VT. Radiofrequency catheter ablation successfully abolished both VTs. After the procedure, biventricular pacing was continued without any recurrences during a period of 24 months. The report emphasizes the role of catheter ablation in management of VTs triggered by cardiac resynchronization therapy. [source]

    An Unusual Confluence of the Inferior Pulmonary Veins in a Patient Undergoing Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Fibrillating Areas Isolated within the Left Atrium after Radiofrequency Linear Catheter Ablation

    Introduction: Nonpulmonary vein sources have been implicated as potential drivers of atrial fibrillation (AF). This observational study describes regions of fibrillating atrial tissue isolated inadvertently from the left atrium (LA) following linear catheter ablation for AF. Methods and Results: We report four patients with persistent/permanent AF who underwent pulmonary vein isolation with additional linear lesions and who presented with recurrent AF (mean AF cycle length [AFCL] 175,270 ms). Further catheter ablation resulted in the inadvertent electrical isolation of significant areas of the LA in which AF persisted at the same AFCL as was measured prior to disconnection, despite the restoration of sinus rhythm (SR) in all other left and right atrial areas, strongly suggesting that these islands were driving the remaining atria into fibrillation. The disconnected areas were located in the lateral LA, including the left atrial appendage (LAA) in three patients (limited to the LAA in one) and in the posterior LA in one patient. These isolated fibrillating regions represented 15,24% of the global LA surface, as estimated by electroanatomic mapping. Conclusion: Fibrillation can be maintained within electrically isolated regions of the LA following catheter ablation of AF, demonstrating the importance of atrial drivers in the maintenance of AF. Further mapping of these drivers is needed to characterize their mechanism and thereby allow for a more specific ablation strategy. [source]

    Three-Dimensional Anatomy of the Left Atrium by Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Implications for Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    Background: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has become one of the primary treatments for symptomatic drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). During this procedure, delivery of ablation lesions to certain regions of the left atrium can be technically challenging. Among the most challenging regions are the ridges separating the left pulmonary veins (LPV) from the left atrial appendage (LAA), and the right middle pulmonary vein (RMPV) from the right superior (RSPV) and right inferior (RIPV) pulmonary veins. A detailed anatomical characterization of these regions has not been previously reported. Methods: Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed in patients prior to undergoing PVI. Fifty consecutive patients with a RMPV identified by MRA were included in this study. Ridges associated with the left pulmonary veins were examined in an additional 30 patients who did not have a RMPV. Endoluminal views were reconstructed from the gadolinium-enhanced, breath-hold three-dimensional MRA data sets. Measurements were performed using electronic calipers. Results: The width of the ridge separating the LPV from the LAA was found to be 3.7 1.1 mm at its narrowest point. The segment of this ridge with a width of 5 mm or less was 16.6 6.4 mm long. The width of the ridges separating the RMPV from the RSPV and the RIPV was found to be 3.0 1.5 mm and 3.1 1.8 mm, respectively. There were no significant differences between LPV ridges for patients with versus without a RMPV. Conclusion: The width of the ridges of atrial tissue separating LPV from the LAA and the RMPV from its neighboring veins may explain the technical challenge in obtaining stable catheter positions in these areas. A detailed assessment of the anatomy of these regions may improve the safety and efficacy of catheter ablation at these sites. [source]

    The Effect of Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation on Left Atrial Transport Function

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Initial Experience in the Use of Integrated Electroanatomic Mapping with Three-Dimensional MR/CT Images to Guide Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Introduction: No prior studies have reported the use of integrated electroanatomic mapping with preacquired magnetic resonance/computed tomographic (MR/CT) images to guide catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a series of patients. Methods and Results: Sixteen consecutive patients with drug-refractory AF underwent catheter ablation under the guidance of a three-dimensional (3D) electroanatomic mapping system (Carto, Biosense Webster, Inc., Diamond Bar, CA, USA). Gadolinium-enhanced MR (n = 8) or contrast-enhanced high-resolution CT (n = 8) imaging was performed within 1 day prior to the ablation procedures. Using a novel software package (CartoMerge, Biosense Webster, Inc.), the left atrium (LA) with pulmonary veins (PVs) was segmented and extracted for image registration. The segmented 3D MR/CT LA reconstruction was accurately registered to the real-time mapping space with a combination of landmark registration and surface registration. The registered 3D MR/CT LA reconstruction was successfully used to guide deployment of RF applications encircling the PVs. Upon completion of the circumferential lesions around the PVs, 32% of the PVs were electrically isolated. Guided by a circular mapping catheter, the remaining PVs were disconnected from the LA using a segmental approach. The distance between the surface of the registered 3D MR/CT LA reconstruction and multiple electroanatomic map points was 3.05 0.41 mm. No complications were observed. Conclusions: Three-dimensional MR/CT images can be successfully extracted and registered to anatomically guided clinical AF ablations. The display of detailed and accurate anatomic information during the procedure enables tailored RF ablation to individual PV and LA anatomy. [source]