Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Catchment

  • experimental catchment
  • forest catchment
  • forested catchment
  • mountain catchment
  • mountainous catchment
  • river catchment
  • small catchment
  • study catchment
  • tropical catchment
  • upper catchment

  • Terms modified by Catchment

  • catchment area
  • catchment hydrology
  • catchment land use
  • catchment management
  • catchment outlet
  • catchment response
  • catchment scale
  • catchment size
  • catchment soil

  • Selected Abstracts


    Abstract This paper describes an adaptive learning framework for forecasting end-season water allocations using climate forecasts, historic allocation data, and results of other detailed hydrological models. The adaptive learning framework is based on artificial neural network (ANN) method, which can be trained using past data to predict future water allocations. Using this technique, it was possible to develop forecast models for end-irrigation-season water allocations from allocation data available from 1891 to 2005 based on the allocation level at the start of the irrigation season. The model forecasting skill was further improved by the incorporation of a set of correlating clusters of sea surface temperature (SST) and the Southern oscillation index (SOI) data. A key feature of the model is to include a risk factor for the end-season water allocations based on the start of the season water allocation. The interactive ANN model works in a risk-management context by providing probability of availability of water for allocation for the prediction month using historic data and/or with the incorporation of SST/SOI information from the previous months. All four developed ANN models (historic data only, SST incorporated, SOI incorporated, SST-SOI incorporated) demonstrated ANN capability of forecasting end-of-season water allocation provided sufficient data on historic allocation are available. SOI incorporated ANN model was the most promising forecasting tool that showed good performance during the field testing of the model. [source]

    Comparing agglomerative clustering and three weed classification frameworks to assess the invasiveness of alien species across spatial scales

    Roger A. Lawes
    ABSTRACT To prioritize weed management at the catchment scale, information is required on the species present, their relatively frequency, abundance, and likely spread and impact. The objective of this study was to classify the invasiveness of alien species that have invaded the Upper Burdekin Catchment in Queensland, Australia, at three spatial scales. A combination of three published weed classification frameworks and multivariate techniques were employed to classify species based on their frequency and cover at a range of spatial scales. We surveyed the Upper Burdekin Catchment for alien species, and for each species determined the following distribution indices , site frequency, total cover, transect frequency per site frequency and quadrat frequency per site frequency, cover per quadrat when present, cover per transect when present, and cover per site when present. These indices capture the effect of species abundance and frequency between sites (site frequency and total cover), within sites (transect frequency per site and cover per transect when present), and within transects (quadrat frequency per site frequency and cover per site). They were used to classify the species into seven groups using a hierarchical cluster analysis. The relationship between the indices was explored to determine how effective the small scale, site-specific indices were at predicting the broader, landscape-scale patterns. Strong correlations were observed between transect frequency per site and frequency (r2 = 0.89) and cover per transect when present and total cover (r2 = 0.62). This suggests that if a weed is abundant at the site level, it has the potential to occupy large areas of the catchment. The species groupings derived from the application of the three published weed classification frameworks were compared graphically to the groupings derived from the cluster analysis. One of the frameworks classified species into three groups. The other two frameworks classified species into four groups. There was a high degree of subjectivity in applying the frameworks to the survey data. Some of the data were of no relevance to the classification frameworks and were therefore ignored. We suggest that the weed classification frameworks should be used in conjunction with existing multivariate techniques to ensure that classifications capture important natural variations in observed data that may reflect invasion processes. The combined use of the frameworks and multivariate techniques enabled us to aggregate species into categories appropriate for management. [source]

    Persistence of road runoff generation in a logged catchment in Peninsular Malaysia

    Alan D. Ziegler
    Abstract Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and diagnostic model simulations show that all types of logging road/trail in the 14·4 ha Bukit Tarek Experimental Catchment 3 (BTEC3) generate substantial Horton overland flow (HOF) during most storms, regardless of design and level of trafficking. Near-surface Ks(0,0·05 m) on the main logging road, skid trails and newly constructed logging terraces was less than 1, 2 and 34 mm h,1, respectively. Near-surface Ks on an abandoned skid trail in an adjacent basin was higher (62 mm h,1), owing to the development of a thin organic-rich layer on the running surface over the past 40 years. Saturated hydraulic conductivity measured at 0·25 m below the surface of all roads was not different (all <6 mm h,1) and corresponded to the Ks of the adjacent hillslope subsoil, as most roads were excavated into the regolith more than 0·5,1 m. After 40 years, only limited recovery in near-surface Ks occurred on the abandoned skid trail. This road generated HOF after the storage capacity of the upper near-surface layer was exceeded during events larger than about 20 mm. Thus, excavation into low- Ks substrate had a greater influence on the persistence of surface runoff production than did surface compaction by machinery during construction and subsequent use during logging operations. Overland flow on BTEC3 roads was also augmented by the interception of shallow subsurface flow traveling along the soil,saprolite/bedrock interface and return flow emerging from the cutbank through shallow biogenic pipes. The most feasible strategy for reducing long-term road-related impacts in BTEC3 is limiting the depth of excavation and designing a more efficient road network, including minimizing the length and connectivity of roads and skid trails. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Controlling factors of gullying in the Maracujá Catchment, southeastern Brazil

    L. de A. P. Bacellar
    Abstract Hundreds of gullies (,voçorocas') of huge dimensions (up to 400,500 m long, 150 m wide and 50 m deep) are very common in the small Maracujá Catchment in southeastern Brazil. These erosional features, which occur with an uneven intensity throughout the area, started due to bad soil management practices at the beginning of European settlement, at the end of the 17th century, and nowadays are still evolving, but at a slower rate. As surface soils are usually very resistant to erosion, the outcrop of the more erodible basement saprolites seems to be an essential condition for their beginning. An analysis of well known erosion controlling factors was performed, aiming to explain the beginning and evolution of these gullies and to understand the reasons for their spatial distribution. Data shows that geology and, mainly, geomorphology are the main controlling factors, since gullies tend to be concentrated in basement rock areas with lower relief (domain 2) of Maracujá Catchment, mainly at the fringes of broad and flat interfluves. At the detailed scale (1:10 000), gullies are more common in amphitheatre-like headwater hollows that frequently represent upper Quaternary gullies (paleogullies), which demonstrate the recurrence of channel erosion. So, gullies occur in areas of thicker saprolites (domain 2), in places with a natural concentration of surface and underground water (hollows). Saprolites of the preserved, non-eroded hollows are usually pressurized (confined aquifer) due to a thick seal of Quaternary clay layer, in a similar configuration to the ones found in hollows of mass movement (mudflow) sites in southeastern Brazil. Therefore, the erosion of the resistant soils by human activities, such as road cuts and trenches (,valos'), or their mobilization by mudflow movements, seem to be likely mechanisms of gullying initiation. Afterwards, gullies evolve by a combination of surface and underground processes, such as wash and tunnel erosion and falls and slumps of gully walls. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Predicting the biodiversity benefits of the Saltshaker Project, Boorowa, NSW

    David Freudenberger
    Did the 2-year Saltshaker Project nudge the Boorowa Catchment along a new pathway towards improved biodiversity? [source]

    Modelling rising groundwater and the impacts of salinization on terrestrial remnant vegetation in the Blackwood River Basin

    Geoff Hodgson
    Summary Southwest Western Australia has a particularly rich biodiversity. Clearing for agriculture has greatly reduced the extent of native vegetation in wheatbelt catchments; it also set into train hydrogeological and hydrological changes that are still evolving toward a new equilibrium. With those changes come widespread land salinization that presents a further risk to remnant vegetation, particularly in low portions of the landscape. The equilibrium position of shallow groundwater was modelled for the Blackwood Catchment, and used to assess the extent of risk to a set of remnant vegetation classes. A total of 37 368 ha of remnant vegetation was identified to be at risk of salinization when hydrological equilibrium is reached. Further hydrological modelling assessed the rate of development of these watertables (and hence the rate of impact on remnants), as well as the potential to protect remnants by controlling groundwater recharge with revegetation. The results demonstrate that only high levels of revegetation are effective at protecting high value remnants in the longer term. The timing of events is dependant on the accuracy of estimating recharge. [source]

    Veligers of an introduced bivalve, Limnoperna fortunei, are a new food resource that enhances growth of larval fish in the Paraná River (South America)

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2010
    Summary 1.,Larvae of ,sábalo', Prochilodus lineatus, whose adults represent over 60% of overall fish biomass in the Río de la Plata Catchment, have been observed to feed intensively on veligers of the exotic bivalve Limnoperna fortunei. 2.,To assess the effects of this dietary shift on the growth of P. lineatus, 28-day laboratory experiments were carried out feeding newly hatched P. lineatus larvae with three diets: zooplankton artificially enriched with L. fortunei veligers; natural zooplankton; and zooplankton artificially enriched with cladocerans and copepods. The average length, weight and gut contents of the fish larvae were assessed weekly and metabolic rates of fish larvae were measured. 3.,Proportions of veligers in gut contents were always higher than those in the experimental diet: 100, 76 and 21% for veliger-enriched, natural and low-veliger diets, respectively. Larvae fed a veliger-enriched diet grew to a significantly larger size than larvae fed the other two diets. In energetic balance comparisons using metabolic rates and prey energy content, all three diets were sufficient to support metabolism and growth. The greatest values of excess energy at the end of each week were in the veliger-enriched experiments. 4.,Feeding on veligers of L. fortunei significantly enhances the growth of P. lineatus larvae and supports the idea that this new and abundant resource is selectively preyed upon by P. lineatus during its larval stage. Higher growth rates may stem from the higher energy contents of veligers compared to crustaceans and/or from the lower energy costs of capturing slower prey. [source]

    Catchment- and site-scale influences of forest cover and longitudinal forest position on the distribution of a diadromous fish

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Summary 1. The hydrologic connectivity between landscape elements and streams means that fragmentation of terrestrial habitats could affect the distribution of stream faunas at multiple spatial scales. We investigated how catchment- and site-scale influences, including proportion and position of forest cover within a catchment, and presence of riparian forest cover affected the distribution of a diadromous fish. 2. The occurrence of koaro (Galaxias brevipinnis) in 50-m stream reaches with either forested or non-forested riparian margins at 172 sites in 24 catchments on Banks Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand was analysed. Proportions of catchments forested and the dominant position (upland or lowland) of forest within catchments were determined using geographical information system spatial analysis tools. 3. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated forest position and proportion forested at the catchment accounted for the majority of the variation in the overall proportion of sites in a catchment with koaro. 4. Where forest was predominantly in the lower part of the catchments, the presence of riparian cover was important in explaining the proportion of sites with koaro. However, where forest was predominantly in the upper part of the catchment, the effect of riparian forest was not as strong. In the absence of riparian forest cover, no patterns of koaro distribution with respect to catchment forest cover or forest position were detected. 5. These results indicate that landscape elements, such as the proportion and position of catchment forest, operating at catchment-scales, influence the distribution of diadromous fish but their influence depends on the presence of riparian vegetation, a site-scale factor. [source]

    Relative influence of variables at multiple spatial scales on stream macroinvertebrates in the Northern Lakes and Forest ecoregion, U.S.A.

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2003
    Brian M. Weigel
    Summary 1We used 94 sites within the Northern Lakes and Forests ecoregion spanning Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan to identify environmental variables at the catchment, reach and riparian scales that influence stream macroinvertebrates. Redundancy analyses (RDA) found significantly influential variables within each scale and compared their relative importance in structuring macroinvertebrate assemblages. 2Environmental variables included landcover, geology and groundwater delivery estimates at the catchment scale, water chemistry, channel morphology and stream habitat at the reach scale, and landcover influences at three distances perpendicular to the stream at the riparian scale. Macroinvertebrate responses were characterised with 22 assemblage attributes, and the relative abundance and presence/absence of 66 taxa. 3Each scale defined macroinvertebrates along an erosional to depositional gradient. Wisconsin's macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity, Ephemeroptera,Plecoptera,Trichoptera taxa and erosional taxa corresponded with forest streams, whereas organic pollution tolerant, Chironomidae and depositional taxa corresponded with wetland streams. Reach scale analyses defined the gradient similarly as dissolved oxygen and wide, shallow channels (erosional) opposed instream macrophytes and pool habitats (depositional). Riparian forests within 30 m of the stream coincided with an erosional assemblage and biotic integrity. 4Next, we combined all significant environmental variables across scales to compare the relative influence of each spatial scale on macroinvertebrates. Partial RDA procedures described how much of the explained variance was attributable to each spatial scale and each interrelated scale combination. 5Our results appeared consistent with the concept of hierarchical functioning of scale in which large-scale variables restrict the potential for macroinvertebrate traits or taxa at smaller spatial scales. Catchment and reach variables were equally influential in defining assemblage attributes, whereas the reach scale was more influential in determining relative abundance and presence/absence. 6Ultimately, comprehending the relative influence of catchment and reach scale properties in structuring stream biota will assist prioritising the scale at which to rehabilitate, manage and derive policies for stream ecosystem integrity. [source]

    Temporal coherence of two alpine lake basins of the Colorado Front Range, U.S.A.

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    J. I. L. L. S. Baron
    1. Knowledge of synchrony in trends is important to determining regional responses of lakes to disturbances such as atmospheric deposition and climate change. We explored the temporal coherence of physical and chemical characteristics of two series of mostly alpine lakes in nearby basins of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Using year-to-year variation over a 10-year period, we asked whether lakes more similar in exposure to the atmosphere be-haved more similarly than those with greater influence of catchment or in-lake processes. 2. The Green Lakes Valley and Loch Vale Watershed are steeply incised basins with strong altitudinal gradients. There are glaciers at the heads of each catchment. The eight lakes studied are small, shallow and typically ice-covered for more than half the year. Snowmelt is the dominant hydrological event each year, flushing about 70% of the annual discharge from each lake between April and mid-July. The lakes do not thermally stratify during the period of open water. Data from these lakes included surface water temper-ature, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, silica, bicarbonate alkalinity and conductivity. 3. Coherence was estimated by Pearson's correlation coefficient between lake pairs for each of the different variables. Despite close geographical proximity, there was not a strong direct signal from climatic or atmospheric conditions across all lakes in the study. Individual lake characteristics overwhelmed regional responses. Temporal coherence was higher for lakes within each basin than between basins and was highest for nearest neighbours. 4. Among the Green Lakes, conductivity, alkalinity and temperature were temporally coherent, suggesting that these lakes were sensitive to climate fluctuations. Water tem-perature is indicative of air temperature, and conductivity and alkalinity concentrations are indicative of dilution from the amount of precipitation flushed through by snowmelt. 5. In Loch Vale, calcium, conductivity, nitrate, sulphate and alkalinity were temporally coherent, while silica and temperature were not. This suggests that external influences are attenuated by internal catchment and lake processes in Loch Vale lakes. Calcium and sulphate are primarily weathering products, but sulphate derives both from deposition and from mineral weathering. Different proportions of snowmelt versus groundwater in different years could influence summer lake concentrations. Nitrate is elevated in lake waters from atmospheric deposition, but the internal dynamics of nitrate and silica may be controlled by lake food webs. Temperature is attenuated by inconsistently different climates across altitude and glacial meltwaters. 6. It appears that, while the lakes in the two basins are topographically close, geologically and morphologically similar, and often connected by streams, only some attributes are temporally coherent. Catchment and in-lake processes influenced temporal patterns, especially for temperature, alkalinity and silica. Montane lakes with high altitudinal gradients may be particularly prone to local controls compared to systems where coherence is more obvious. [source]

    Local Knowledge and Economic Realities Affecting Soil Erosion in the Rach Rat Catchment, Vietnam

    Abstract Several parts of Binh Phuóc Province, southern Vietnam, suffer from degraded soils and vegetation as a result of both natural erosion of weak mud rocks and sandstones and intensive human activity, especially through land clearing for agriculture on unstable slopes, deforestation, and abandonment of poor farmland. The underlying cause of this land degradation has been the farming habits of migrants of varying ethnic groups who have settled in the area since 1980. The indigenous farming knowledge of these people and the role of that knowledge in soil erosion were examined by a series of household surveys. They enabled farming practices to be related to ground cover established from a 2002 Landsat 7 ETM (Enhanced Thematic Mapper), and erosion data from a series of erosion bridge measurements. A GIS (Geographical Information System) approach was piloted as a means of identifying areas vulnerable to erosion. This could then be combined with the understanding of farming practices to reveal the relative roles of farmer behaviour, crop cover, and slope and soil characteristics in the erosion process. Land use, local people's knowledge and economic realities are the main factors, as well as natural conditions, that drive this land degradation. [source]

    Simulation of groundwater dynamics in the North China Plain by coupled hydrology and agricultural models

    Tadanobu Nakayama
    Abstract We simulated the effects of irrigation on groundwater flow dynamics in the North China Plain by coupling the NIES Integrated Catchment-based Ecohydrology (NICE) model with DSSAT-wheat and DSSAT-maize, two agricultural models. This combined model (NICE-AGR) was applied to the Hai River catchment and the lower reach of the Yellow River (530 km wide by 840 km long) at a resolution of 5 km. It reproduced excellently the soil moisture, evapotranspiration and crop production of summer maize and winter wheat, correctly estimating crop water use. So, the spatial distribution of crop water use was reasonably estimated at daily steps in the simulation area. In particular, NICE-AGR reproduced groundwater levels better than the use of statistical water use data. This indicates that NICE-AGR does not need detailed statistical data on water use, making it very powerful for evaluating and estimating the water dynamics of catchments with little statistical data on seasonal water use. Furthermore, the simulation reproduced the spatial distribution of groundwater level in 1987 and 1988 in the Hebei Plain, showing a major reduction of groundwater level due mainly to overpumping for irrigation. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Water resource hazard management system: assessing sustainable practices at the farm and catchment scales,

    W. O. Ochola
    qualité de l'eau; gestion des risques; pratique de la gestion des eaux; système d'aide a la decision Abstract Water quality is a pivotal environmental indicator of sustainable land management and environmental ,health'. Hazards to water resource use at the farm and catchment scales have far-reaching physical, biological, environmental and socio-economic impacts. These impacts are exacerbated by on-site and off-site agricultural and non-agricultural activities. A prototype water hazard management decision support system that uses an integrated framework to identify, by origin, hazards and related best water management practices guidelines is proposed. The system recommends best management guidelines with respect to the inherent water resource use mitigations. The system has been calibrated by and applied to expert knowledge and experimental and survey data from Kiumbu Catchment in central Kenya. Suggestions are made for the inclusion of GIS capabilities for the production of water resource assessment maps and other spatial water quality indicators. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. RÉSUMÉ La qualité de l'eau est un indice fondamental pour l'estimation de l'aménagement territorial et de la ,santé' environnementale. Les risques dus à l'utilisation des ressources hydriques au niveau des exploitations agricoles et des bassins versants ont de grands impacts physiques, biologiques, environnementaux et socio-économiques. Ces impacts sont de plus en plus accentuées par des activités aussi bien agricoles que non-agricoles. On propose ici un prototype de système d'aide à la décision pour la gestion des risques qui, utilisant une structure integrée, permettra d'identifier les risques selon leur origine et de proposer les grands axes d'une meilleure gestion des ressources hydriques. Le système recommande des directives en rapport avec les mesures environnementales inhérentes au site. Le système a été calibré par des données provenant d'une connaisaance théorique et expérimentale dans le bassin versant Kiumbu du Kenya central. Des suggestions ont été faites afin d'inclure des capacités GIS pour la production des cartes d'estimation des ressources hydriques mais aussi d'autres indicateurs de la qualité de l'eau. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparison of 85Kr and 3H Apparent Ground-Water Ages for Source Water Vulnerability in the Collyer River Catchment, Maine,

    William C. Sidle
    Abstract:, Apparent ground-water ages as determined by the noble gas isotope 85Kr and the water isotope 3H are compared. Refined gas extraction methodology at the wellhead permits efficient collection of Kr for 85Kr isotope enrichment. 85Kr isochrones elucidate areas of much younger ground-water ages than 3H. Declining 3H activities in the catchment prevent its correlation with the youngest measured 85Kr ages. Source water for most drinking water supplies in the Collyer River catchment is recharged within 40 years BP (2004). Mean-age (,) transport modeling suggests uncertainty of ground-water ages is greatest in the central basin area. [source]

    Rehabilitation of Stream Ecosystem Functions through the Reintroduction of Coarse Particulate Organic Matter

    Kane T. Aldridge
    Abstract In streams, coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) acts as a substrate for microbial activity, which promotes nutrient retention. However, in urban areas, increased peak flows within streams lead to decreased retention of CPOM. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the reintroduction of CPOM, in the form of leaf litter, into a degraded urban stream would increase biofilm activity and phosphorus retention, two ecosystem functions that reflect the integrity of the ecosystem. Stream metabolism and nutrient retention were assessed in treated (T) and control (C) channels of the Torrens River Catchment, South Australia, before and after CPOM addition. Gross primary production and community respiration (CR) were measured as oxygen production and consumption within benthic chambers. Phosphorus retention was measured through a series of short-term filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) addition experiments. Before CPOM addition, there were no differences in CR, but C retained 6.8% more FRP than T. After CPOM addition, CR was greater in T than in C (572 and 276 mg O2·m,2·day,1, respectively), and T retained 7.7% more FRP than C. The increase in FRP retention in T compared to C was attributed to phosphorus limitation of the CPOM and increased demand for phosphorus of the attached microbial heterotrophic community. The reintroduction of CPOM into degraded streams will be an important step in the restoration of stream metabolism and nutrient retention. Maintenance of CPOM may be achieved through restoration of riparian vegetation, a reduction in the increased peak flows, and rehabilitation of stream morphology. [source]

    Vegetation correlates of gibbon density in the peat-swamp forest of the Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Marie Hamard
    Abstract Understanding the complex relationship between primates and their habitats is essential for effective conservation plans. Peat-swamp forest has recently been recognized as an important habitat for the Southern Bornean gibbon (Hylobates albibarbis), but information is scarce on the factors that link gibbon density to characteristics of this unique ecosystem. Our aims in this study were firstly to estimate gibbon density in different forest subtypes in a newly protected, secondary peat-swamp forest in the Sabangau Catchment, Indonesia, and secondly to identify which vegetation characteristics correlate with gibbon density. Data collection was conducted in a 37.1,km2 area, using auditory sampling methods and vegetation "speed plotting". Gibbon densities varied between survey sites from 1.39 to 3.92,groups/km2. Canopy cover, tree height, density of large trees and food availability were significantly correlated with gibbon density, identifying the preservation of tall trees and good canopy cover as a conservation priority for the gibbon population in the Sabangau forest. This survey indicates that selective logging, which specifically targets large trees and disrupts canopy cover, is likely to have adverse effects on gibbon populations in peat-swamp forests, and calls for greater protection of these little studied ecosystems. Am. J. Primatol. 72:607,616, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Morphological characteristics of on-farm water storages and their similarity to natural water bodies in the Border Rivers Catchment, Australia

    Susan Lutton
    Abstract 1.Natural wetlands throughout the world are under threat from water resource development required to support an ever increasing population. In the Border Rivers Catchment in Queensland, Australia, a large irrigation industry and highly variable flow regime have necessitated the building of large on-farm water storages. With the decline in number and size of natural wetlands, the presence of these storages on the floodplain has raised the question of their suitability as alternative habitat for aquatic fauna. This paper explores the variety of water storage types in the Border Rivers Catchment and how their morphology compares with that of natural wetlands , in particular, factors likely to influence aquatic biodiversity. 2.Storages and natural wetlands formed two distinct groups based on morphology. Storages tended to be large, deep structures with a more regular shape while natural wetlands were irregular and shallow with large perimeters. Although there was a degree of variability amongst the storage sites, a large proportion fell into one group and were considered ,typical storages'. Typical storages contained tailwater and had the following characteristics: situated 3,km from the source river, 10 years old, embankment height of 5,m, area of 400,000,m2, perimeter of 2.5,km and capacity of 1,700,000,m3. 3.Due to their uniform structure we believe that most on-farm storages are unlikely to support as diverse or abundant an aquatic population as natural wetlands. The presence of tailwater and associated chemicals is also likely to reduce the aquatic biodiversity of storages compared with natural wetlands. While they may be unsuitable as replacement wetlands, given their numbers they could provide significant aquatic habitat across the landscape, if managed effectively. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Distribution and Forming Model of Fluvial Terrace in the Huangshui Catchment and its Tectonic Indication

    Xianyan WANG
    Abstract: The Huang Shui River, a main tributary of the Yellow River, crosses a series of tectonically subsided and uplifted areas that show different patterns of terrace formation. The distribution of fluvial terrace of the Huang Shui River is studied through topographic and sedimentologic terrace mapping. Three terraces in the Haiyan Basin, four terraces in the Huangyuan Basin, 19 terraces in the Xi'ning Basin (the four high terraces may belong to another river), nine terraces in the Ping'an Basin, five terraces in the Ledu Basin and 12 terraces in the Minhe Basin are recognized. Sedimentology research shows that the geomorphologic and sedimentological pattern of the Huang Shui River, which is located at the margin of Tibet, are different from that of the rivers at other regions. The formation process of the terrace is more complicated at the Huang Shui catchment: both accumulation terrace and erosion terrace were formed in each basin and accumulation terraces were developed in some basins when erosion terraces were formed in other basins, indicating fluvial aggradation may occur in some basins simultaneously with river incision in other basins. A conceptual model of the formation process of these two kinds of fluvial terraces at Huang Shui catchment is brought forward in this paper. First, the equilibrium state of the river is broken because of climatic change and/or tectonic movement, and the river incises in all basins in the whole catchment until reaching a new equilibrium state. Then, the downstream basin subsides quickly and the equilibrium state is broken again, and the river incises at upstream basins while the river accumulates at the subsidence basin quickly until approaching a new equilibrium state again. Finally, the river incises in the whole catchment because of climatic change and/or tectonic movement and the accumulation terrace is formed at the subsidence basin while the erosion terrace is formed at other basins. The existence of the accumulation terrace implied the tectonic subsidence in the sub-basins in Huang Shui catchment. These tectonic subsidence movements gradually developed from the downstream Minhe Basin to the upstream Huangyuan Basin. Dating the terrace sequence has potential to uncover the relationship between the subsidence in the catchment and the regional tectonic at the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. [source]

    Hydrogeological Characteristics of a Karst Mountainous Catchment in the Northwest of Vietnam

    V. T. TAM
    Abstract This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the hydrogeological characteristics of a karst mountainous catchment, the Suoi Muoi River catchment, in the northwest of Vietnam. The catchment is located at 600,700 m a.s.l. and covers an area of 284 km. Exposed limestone occupies 32% of the total catchment area. Various types of assessments have been carried out, including geological and hydrogeological field surveys, cave surveys, dye-tracer tests, meteorological and surface water monitoring. Geological studies and cave surveys have identified the most important active cave/conduit systems within the catchment. Although these data are essential, they are insufficient to make a comprehensive appraisal of the hydrologic nature of the catchment under interest. An attempt was made to calculate a global water balance of the catchment, based on short-term (15 months) meteorological and streamflow records. The results show that, despite the existence of a number of substantial cavern conduit systems, the groundwater system of the catchment is governed by the fracture/fissure matrix. The cavern conduit systems only collect groundwater from the adjacent fracture matrix and/or connect topographically isolated surface watercourses. The groundwater storage of the cavern conduit systems appears to be regionally insignificant in comparison with the governed fracture matrix groundwater system. [source]

    Catchments as Basic Units of Management in Conservation Biology Courses

    William E. Magnusson
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Communities in Catchments: Implications for Natural Resource Management

    Abstract Economic and social considerations in natural resource management include the need for community participation and a greater appreciation of social and economic processes in understanding environmental problems. It is anticipated that new frameworks will guide these inclusions and redirect planning and management activities to achieve environmental sustainability. This paper examines issues of participation and the nature of ,community' through an analysis of relevant natural resource management policy documents and a case study of a public drinking water supply catchment in Western Australia. The findings indicate that if NRM strategies are to be successful, then a much wider and more inclusive view of community is needed, one that fully captures the different stakeholder groups beyond farmers, such as town residents, indigenous people, and those involved in other land uses. We need strategies that can accommodate differences within and between communities. [source]

    Assessment Tools for Urban Catchments: Developing Stressor Gradients,

    David W. Bressler
    Abstract:, This is the first in a series of three articles designed to establish empirically defined biological indicators and thresholds for impairment for urbanized catchments, and to describe a process by which the biological condition of waterbodies in urbanized catchments can be applied. This article describes alternative gradients of urbanization for assessing and selecting a nationally applicable biological index (article 2 ,Purcell et al., this issue) and defining the potential of biological communities within a gradient of cumulative stressors (article 3 ,Paul et al. this issue). Gradients were designed to represent the most prominent mosaic of stressors found in urban settings. A primary urban gradient was assembled based on readily obtained information of urbanization to include three broad-scale parameters: percent urban land use/land cover, population density, and road density. This gradient was used as the standard by which alternative urban gradients, which included fine-scale instream chemical and hydrologic parameters, were assessed. Five alternative gradients were developed to provide numerous environmental management options based on availability of data from water program resources. The urban gradients were developed with the intent that they be applied throughout the country; therefore, data from three different regions of the United States (Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and Pacific Coast) were used to validate the urban gradient model. Our study showed that a relatively straightforward stressor gradient consisting of human population density, road density, and urban land use is useful in providing a framework for developing relevant biological indicators and evaluating the potential of biological communities as a basis for assessing attainment of designated aquatic life use. [source]

    Contribution of the largest events to suspended sediment transport across the USA

    J. C. Gonzalez-Hidalgo
    Abstract This work analyses the contribution of the largest events to suspended sediment transport on the continental scale. The analysis is based on the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Suspended Sediment and Ancillary database. Data were obtained from 1314 catchments, comprising more than 2,500,000 daily events. The total number of days in the dataset amounts to 10,000 years. Catchments are of different sizes and belong to distinct climatic environments; they are distributed for the analysis according to USA hydrological divisions (HDs). The main objective of the research is to examine the effect of the n -largest event on the total suspended sediment load over recorded periods, and to discuss different behaviour between HDs. To accomplish this, the daily events at each catchment are ranked by magnitude, and then the percentage represented by the n -largest event (e.g. 3-largest, 5-largest, 10-largest, 15-largest, 20-largest, 25-largest) is calculated from the total accumulated load. Results indicate that suspended sediment transported by the 25-largest events represents on average more than 50,per cent of the total load. The California HD, mostly under Mediterranean climatic conditions, accounts for the highest percentage of sediment transport across conterminous USA, whatever n -largest daily events are selected. There, the 3-largest events contribute, on average, 38,per cent of the total sediment load, the 10-largest events represent 61,per cent and the 25-largest events produce more than 76,per cent of the total sediment transport. Overall, the contribution of largest daily events seems not to depend on the climatic conditions in small catchments (<100,km2) and, in addition, the percentage of suspended sediment increases over all HDs, while, at the same time, the catchment size decreases. Finally, we discuss differences between catchments across the USA, according to climatic and historical (i.e. land use) factors. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparing agglomerative clustering and three weed classification frameworks to assess the invasiveness of alien species across spatial scales

    Roger A. Lawes
    ABSTRACT To prioritize weed management at the catchment scale, information is required on the species present, their relatively frequency, abundance, and likely spread and impact. The objective of this study was to classify the invasiveness of alien species that have invaded the Upper Burdekin Catchment in Queensland, Australia, at three spatial scales. A combination of three published weed classification frameworks and multivariate techniques were employed to classify species based on their frequency and cover at a range of spatial scales. We surveyed the Upper Burdekin Catchment for alien species, and for each species determined the following distribution indices , site frequency, total cover, transect frequency per site frequency and quadrat frequency per site frequency, cover per quadrat when present, cover per transect when present, and cover per site when present. These indices capture the effect of species abundance and frequency between sites (site frequency and total cover), within sites (transect frequency per site and cover per transect when present), and within transects (quadrat frequency per site frequency and cover per site). They were used to classify the species into seven groups using a hierarchical cluster analysis. The relationship between the indices was explored to determine how effective the small scale, site-specific indices were at predicting the broader, landscape-scale patterns. Strong correlations were observed between transect frequency per site and frequency (r2 = 0.89) and cover per transect when present and total cover (r2 = 0.62). This suggests that if a weed is abundant at the site level, it has the potential to occupy large areas of the catchment. The species groupings derived from the application of the three published weed classification frameworks were compared graphically to the groupings derived from the cluster analysis. One of the frameworks classified species into three groups. The other two frameworks classified species into four groups. There was a high degree of subjectivity in applying the frameworks to the survey data. Some of the data were of no relevance to the classification frameworks and were therefore ignored. We suggest that the weed classification frameworks should be used in conjunction with existing multivariate techniques to ensure that classifications capture important natural variations in observed data that may reflect invasion processes. The combined use of the frameworks and multivariate techniques enabled us to aggregate species into categories appropriate for management. [source]

    A catchment scale evaluation of the SIBERIA and CAESAR landscape evolution models

    GR Hancock
    Abstract Landscape evolution models provide a way to determine erosion rates and landscape stability over times scales from tens to thousands of years. The SIBERIA and CAESAR landscape evolution models both have the capability to simulate catchment,wide erosion and deposition over these time scales. They are both cellular, operate over a digital elevation model of the landscape, and represent fluvial and slope processes. However, they were initially developed to solve research questions at different time and space scales and subsequently the perspective, detail and process representation vary considerably between the models. Notably, CAESAR simulates individual events with a greater emphasis on fluvial processes whereas SIBERIA averages erosion rates across annual time scales. This paper describes how both models are applied to Tin Camp Creek, Northern Territory, Australia, where soil erosion rates have been closely monitored over the last 10 years. Results simulating 10,000 years of erosion are similar, yet also pick up subtle differences that indicate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two models. The results from both the SIBERIA and CAESAR models compare well with independent field data determined for the site over different time scales. Representative hillslope cross-sections are very similar between the models. Geomorphologically there was little difference between the modelled catchments after 1000 years but significant differences were revealed at longer simulation times. Importantly, both models show that they are sensitive to input parameters and that hydrology and erosion parameter derivation has long-term implications for sediment transport prediction. Therefore selection of input parameters is critical. This study also provides a good example of how different models may be better suited to different applications or research questions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Commonwealth of Australia [source]

    Rainfall variability and hydrological and erosive response of an olive tree microcatchment under no-tillage with a spontaneous grass cover in Spain

    E. V. Taguas
    Abstract Most studies on runoff and soil loss from olive orchards were performed on plots, despite the fact that measurements that examine a range of erosive processes on different scales are essential to evaluate the suitability of the use and soil management of this type of land. The main environmental limitations of much of the land used for olive orchards in the Mediterranean are the steep slopes and the shallow soil depth , and this was the case in the study area. Soil erosion and runoff over two hydrological years (2005,2006 and 2006,2007) were monitored in an olive orchard microcatchment of 6·1,ha under no-tillage with spontaneous grass in order to evaluate its hydrological and erosive behaviour. Moreover, soil parameters such as organic matter (%OM), bulk density (BD) and hydraulic saturated conductivity (Ks) were also examined in the microcatchment to describe management effects on hydrological balance and on erosive processes. In the study period, the results showed runoff coefficients of 6·0% in the first year and 0·9% in the second. The differences respond to the impact of two or three yearly maximum events which were decisive in the annual balances. On the event scale, although maximum rainfall intensity values had a big influence on peak flows and runoff, its importance on mean sediment concentrations and sediment discharges was difficult to interpret due to the likely control of grass cover on volume runoff and on soil protection. In the case of annual soil erosion, they were measured as 1·0,Mg,ha,1,yr,1 and 0·3,Mg,ha,1,yr,1. Both are lower than the tolerance values evaluated in Andalusia (Spain). These results support the implementation of no-tillage with spontaneous grass cover for sloping land, although the reduced infiltration conditions determined by Ks in the first horizon suggest grass should be allowed to grow not only in spring but also in autumn. In addition, specific measurements to control gullies, which have formed in the terraced area in the catchment, should be included since it is expected that they could be the main sources of sediments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Climatic influence on the inter-annual variability of late-Holocene minerogenic sediment supply in a boreal forest catchment

    Gunilla Petterson
    Abstract Processes controlling sediment yield vary over a range of timescales, although most process-based observations are extremely short. Lake sediments, however, can be used to extend the observational timescale and are particularly useful when annually laminated (varved) sediment is present. The sediment record at Kassjön (N. Sweden) consists of ,6400 varves, each 0·5,1 mm thick. Image analysis was used to determine grey-scale variation and varve thickness from which annual minerogenic accumulation rate (MinAR) (mg cm,2 year,1) was inferred for the period 4486 BC , AD 1900. MinAR varies on annual to centennial scales and mainly reflects channel bank erosion by the inflow streams. The mineral input reflects the intensity of the spring run-off, which is dependent on the amount of snow accumulated during the winter, and hence MinAR is a long-term record of variability in past winter climate; other factors will be a variable response to catchment uplift, vegetation succession and pedogenesis. A major shift from low to high MinAR occurred ,250 BC, and peaks occurred around AD 250, 600, 1000, 1350 and 1650. Wavelet power spectrum analysis (confirmed by Fourier analyses) indicated significantly different periodicities throughout the period 4000 BC , AD 1700, including 275 years for the period 4000 BC , 2900 BC, 567 years for the period 2901 BC , 1201 BC, and 350 and 725 years for the period 1200 BC , AD 1700. The long-term, centennial scale variability (,350 years) may reflect solar forcing (cf the 385-year peak in tree-ring calibrated 14C activity) but interestingly, there is no obvious link to high frequency forcing, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. The high resolution component of the record highlights the relevance of varved lake sediment records for understanding erosion dynamics in undisturbed forested catchments and their link to long-term climate dynamics and future climate change. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sources and sediment yield from a rural catchment in humid temperate environment, northwest Spain

    M. L. Rodríguez-Blanco
    Abstract A study was carried out on a rural catchment located in northwest Spain to examine the sediment yield from the catchment by measuring suspended sediments during rainfall events. Within the catchment regular surveys were conducted to obtain data on the suspended sediment sources. Important variations in sediment load were detected at event scale (0·3,21·0,Mg); some of these can be explained in terms of event size, antecedent conditions, rainfall distribution and soil surface erosion. To study the variables controlling suspended sediment yield during the events in the catchment, several event and pre-event variables were calculated for all events. The sediment load is strongly influenced by discharge variables. During the events discharge,suspended sediments were also analysed. When the soil surface was unprotected, the formation of rills and ephemeral gullies on agricultural land at the catchment head was an important source of suspended sediments in the catchment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Quantifying sediment storage in a high alpine valley (Turtmanntal, Switzerland)

    Jan-Christoph Otto
    Abstract The determination of sediment storage is a critical parameter in sediment budget analyses. But, in many sediment budget studies the quantification of magnitude and time-scale of sediment storage is still the weakest part and often relies on crude estimations only, especially in large drainage basins (>100,km2). We present a new approach to storage quantification in a meso-scale alpine catchment of the Swiss Alps (Turtmann Valley, 110,km2). The quantification of depositional volumes was performed by combining geophysical surveys and geographic information system (GIS) modelling techniques. Mean thickness values of each landform type calculated from these data was used to estimate the sediment volume in the hanging valleys and the trough slopes. Sediment volume of the remaining subsystems was determined by modelling an assumed parabolic bedrock surface using digital elevation model (DEM) data. A total sediment volume of 781·3×106,1005·7×106,m3 is deposited in the Turtmann Valley. Over 60% of this volume is stored in the 13 hanging valleys. Moraine landforms contain over 60% of the deposits in the hanging valleys followed by sediment stored on slopes (20%) and rock glaciers (15%). For the first time, a detailed quantification of different storage types was achieved in a catchment of this size. Sediment volumes have been used to calculate mean denudation rates for the different processes ranging from 0·1 to 2·6,mm/a based on a time span of 10,ka. As the quantification approach includes a number of assumptions and various sources of error the values given represent the order of magnitude of sediment storage that has to be expected in a catchment of this size. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Post-European settlement response gradients of river sensitivity and recovery across the upper Hunter catchment, Australia

    Kirstie Fryirs
    Abstract Most analyses of river adjustment have focused on parts of catchments where metamorphosis has occurred. This provides a non-representative view of river responses to human-disturbance. Although many rivers have been subjected to systematic land-use change and disturbance, significant variability is evident in the form, extent and consequences of adjustment. This study documents the catchment-wide distribution of river sensitivity and adjustment in the upper Hunter catchment, New South Wales, Australia in the period since European settlement. The spatial distribution and timing of lateral, vertical and wholesale river adjustments are used to assess river sensitivity to change. The type and pattern of rivers, influenced largely by valley setting, have induced a fragmented pattern of river adjustment in the upper Hunter catchment. Adjustments have been largely non-uniform and localized, reflecting the predominance of bedrock-controlled rivers which have limited capacity to adjust and are resilient to change. Less than 20% of river courses have experienced metamorphosis. Phases of reach-scale geomorphic adjustment to human disturbance are characterized as a gradient of primary, secondary and tertiary responses. In general terms, primary responses such as cutoffs or straightening were followed by secondary responses such as channel expansion. These secondary responses occurred between 50,70 years after initial disturbance. A subsequent tertiary phase of river recovery, denoted as a transition from predominantly erosional to predominantly depositional geomorphic processes such as channel contraction, occurred around 70,120 years after initial disturbance. Such responses are ongoing across much of the upper Hunter catchment. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]