Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Cap

  • acrosomal cap
  • animal cap
  • fibrous cap
  • ice cap
  • polar cap
  • price cap
  • root cap

  • Terms modified by Cap

  • cap case
  • cap cell
  • cap domain
  • cap layer
  • cap patient

  • Selected Abstracts

    The CAP: History and attempts at reform

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2000
    Richard Howarth
    This article outlines the economic consequences of the CAP, including the high level of protection, the burdens on consumers, taxpayers and the EU budget, environmental damage, the harm to international trading relations, and the failure to raise farmers' incomes. The numerous unsuccessful attempts at reform from 1968 to 1999 are described. Finally, some of the lessons of the reform attempts are drawn, including the apparent political impossibility of reducing farm support and bureaucratic intervention once it is in place. [source]

    Agricultural incomes and the CAP

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2000
    Berkeley Hill
    Concern with the living standards of farmers is central to the CAP yet it demonstrates the muddled objectives, inappropriate indicators and misdirected interventions that are the stuff of analysts' worst nightmares. As a consequence, the performance of the CAP in terms of this fundamental aim has, in all likelihood, been very poor. Attempts to reorientate the CAP to be more in line with its declared objectives face enormous vested interests in the agricultural industry and among policy-makers. [source]

    Credit Risk Models , Do They Deliver Their Promises?

    ECONOMIC NOTES, Issue 2 2003
    A Quantitative Assessment
    We develop a framework to assess the statistical significance of expected default frequency calculated by credit risk models. This framework is then used to analyse the quality of two commercially available models that have become popular among practitioners: KMV Credit Monitor and RiskCalc from Moody's. Using a unique database of expected default probability from both vendors, we study both the consistency of the prediction and its timeliness. We introduce the concept of cumulative accuracy profile (CAP) that allows to see in one curve the percentage of defaulting companies captured by the models one year in advance. We also use the Miller's information test to see if the models add information to the S&P rating. The result of the analysis indicates that these models indeed add relevant information not accounted for by rating alone. Moreover, with respect to rating agencies, the models predict defaults more than ten months in advance on average. (J.E.L.: C52). [source]

    Trade liberalisation and CAP reform in the EU

    ECONOMIC OUTLOOK, Issue 1 2006
    Article first published online: 26 JAN 200
    Europe has underperformed relative to its peers and to its own previous performance over the last two decades. That underperformance reflects a range of factors, from structural rigidities in labour and capital markets, to inappropriate macroeconomic policy. But one set of policy measures that could contribute to improved economic performance in the future is trade liberalisation and reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). This article examines the benefits that could accrue to the UK, EU and global economies from the liberalisation of trade in goods and from the replacement of the current CAP with other, more productive forms of spending. It finds that the current barriers to trade in the EU, and the resources dedicated to the maintenance of the CAP, are set to cost the EU some 2% of GDP by 2015 if they remain in place. Moreover, this cost falls disproportionately on the poorer members of society. [source]

    Competitive immunoassay by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence for the trace detection of chloramphenicol in animal-derived foods

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 16 2008
    Can Zhang
    Abstract A competitive immunoassay using CE with an LIF detector was developed for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP). The method was based on the competitive reactions between fluorescently labeled CAP hapten and free CAP, with a limited amount of anti-CAP antibody. The poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPA) hydrogel was added in the separation buffer as a dynamic modifier to reduce adsorption and enhance reproducibility. The linear range and LOD for CAP were 0.008,5,,g/L and 0.0016,,g/L, respectively. An ELISA using the same immuno-reagents was also developed for the analysis of CAP, with an LOD of 0.03,,g/L. The sensitivity of this CE immunoassay (CEIA)-LIF was almost 20 times greater than that of the ELISA. Using CEIA-LIF, equilibrium was reached in 15,min and the analytical results were obtained within 5,min by CE separation. Sample preparation for CEIA-LIF was not time-consuming and the matrix effect was easy to remove. An LOD of 0.1,,g/kg CAP in food matrices was easily achieved. This method is thus proposed as a fast and sensitive means of detecting trace amounts of CAP residues in animal-derived foods. [source]

    Seasonal and substrate preferences of fungi colonizing leaves in streams: traditional versus molecular evidence

    Liliya G. Nikolcheva
    Summary Aquatic hyphomycetes are the main fungal decomposers of plant litter in streams. We compared the importance of substrate (three leaf species, wood) and season on fungal colonization. Substrates were exposed for 12 4-week periods. After recovery, mass loss, fungal biomass and release of conidia by aquatic hyphomycetes were measured. Fungal communities were characterized by counting and identifying released conidia and by extracting and amplifying fungal DNA (ITS2), which was subdivided into phylotypes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Mass loss, fungal biomass and reproduction were positively correlated with stream temperature. Conidial diversity was highest between May and September. Numbers of different phylotypes were more stable. Principal coordinate analyses (PCO) and canonical analyses of principal coordinates (CAP) of presence/absence data (DGGE bands, T-RFLP peaks and conidial species) showed a clear seasonal trend (P, 0.002) but no substrate effect (P, 0.88). Season was also a significant factor when proportional similarities of conidial communities or relative intensities of DGGE bands were evaluated (P, 0.003). Substrate was a significant factor determining DGGE band intensities (P = 0.002), but did not significantly affect conidial communities (P = 0.50). Both traditional and molecular techniques suggest that strict exclusion of fungi by substrate type is rare, and that presence of different species or phylotypes is governed by season. Biomasses of the various taxa (based on DGGE band intensities) were related to substrate type. [source]

    Understanding the costs of an environmentally ,friendly' common agricultural policy for the European Union1,

    Pamela M. Barnes
    Part of the bedrock of the European Union's (EU's) Environmental Policy is the principle that those who pollute the environment should pay for the cost of remedying the damage they cause (the polluter pays principle) (Article 174 para. 2 TEC ex Article 130r TEC). In addition environmental objectives must be integrated into all the sectoral policies of the European Union (Article 6 TEC ex Article 3c TEC). The Common Agricultural Policy's (CAP's) role at the centre of the EU's sectoral policies would appear to make it an ideal focus for implementing Article 6 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEC). If integration of environmental protection can be achieved in this central area of the EU's activities then a major source of environmental degradation could be overcome. However, if these requirements are applied to European agriculture the sector will face a budgetary and financial crisis of even greater magnitude than at the present time. Recent reforms of the CAP have been designed with the objective of achieving an agricultural sector that is moving towards sustainability. As this article argues the political, social and economic significance of the agriculture sector is such that national governments of the EU have repeatedly shied away from adopting the measures, which could significantly reduce the pollution from the sector. The proposals for reform made by the Agricultural Commissioner, Franz Fischler, were amended by the meeting of the European Council that took place in Berlin on 24/25 March 1999. These amendments substantially weakened the ambitions of the strategy for development of the EU, the ,Agenda 2000' adopted in 1997, for a number of reasons (CEC, 1997). This article examines the reasons for the disappointments with the amended reforms and speculates on the possible future path that may be taken to improve matters. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Validation and clinical utility of a novel immunoradiometric assay exclusively for biologically active whole parathyroid hormone in the horse

    J. C. ESTEPA
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a critical role in the regulation of mineral metabolism in mammals. Until recently, the standard method for PTH measurement has been the 2nd generation intact-PTH (I-PTH) assay. Current evidence indicates that the I-PTH assay binds to the PTH molecule and to an inactive N-terminally truncated PTH fragment that tends to accumulate in the blood of uraemic patients. Therefore, a new 3rd generation PTH assay that detects only the whole PTH molecule (W-PTH; cyclase-activating PTH [CAP]) has been developed. Objectives: To validate this more specific W-PTH assay for measurement of equine PTH and evaluate its clinical utility. Methods: W-PTH and I-PTH were measured in plasma samples from normal horses (adults and foals) and horses with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (N2HPT) and with chronic renal failure (CRF). Replicate measurements and dilutional paralellism were used for assay validation. Changes in blood ionized calcium were induced by EDTA and CaCl2 administration. Results: Performance of the W-PTH assay (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and ability to detect changes in PTH in response to changes in calcium) was similar to that of the I-PTH assay. Surprisingly, the relative W-PTH concentration in normal horses and foals was higher than the relative I-PTH concentration. W-PTH values remained higher than I-PTH during acute hypo- and hypercalcaemia. An increase in both W-PTH and I-PTH concentrations was found in horses with N2HPT. In horses with CRF, W-PTH and I-PTH values were very low and no increase in I-PTH was observed. Conclusions: The W-PTH assay can be used for measurement of equine PTH. Potential relevance: The use of W-PTH assay is likely to improve the diagnosis of mineral metabolism in horses. [source]

    Equine pulmonary and systemic haemodynamic responses to endothelin-1 and a selective ETA receptor antagonist

    Summary Based on previous in vitro studies, we hypothesised that endothelin (ET) would induce vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circululation of the horse and that this action would be mediated via ETA receptors. Pulmonary and systemic haemodynamic responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoactive endogenous peptide, were investigated in 6 conscious, nonsedated horses at rest. Bolus i.v. injections of exogenous ET-1 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 ,g/kg bwt) caused significant increases in pulmonary (PAP) and carotid (CAP) artery pressures, with peak increases of 79% and 51% for mean PAP and CAP, respectively. The effect of ET-1 on PAP and CAP was rapid and transient for PAP (,10 min) but prolonged for CAP (up to 60 min). ET-1 significantly decreased cardiac output by up to 35% and significantly increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) by up to 104%. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) showed a trend (P>0.05) to increase with 0.2 and 0.4 ,g/kg bwt ET-1. Infusion of a selective ETA receptor antagonist (TBC11251) completely inhibited the responses to a subsequent bolus of 0.2 ,g/kg bwt ET-1. We conclude that exogenous ET-1 exerts a potent vasoconstrictive action on the pulmonary and systemic circulations of the horse. These effects appear to be mediated largely through ETA receptors in both circulations. Endothelin may play a role in hypertensive conditions in the horse. [source]

    A Competitive, Sustainable and Diverse Agriculture: A View of the CAP Beyond 2013 Pour une agriculture compétitive, durable and variée : un point de vue sur la PAC après 2013 Eine wettbewerbsfähige, nachhaltige und vielfältige Landwirtschaft: Ein Ausblick auf die GAP nach 2013

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2010
    Kris Peeters
    Summary A Competitive, Sustainable and Diverse Agriculture: A View of the CAP Beyond 2013 New challenges make clear that past achievements of the CAP cannot be taken for granted. A strong European agricultural policy remains necessary after 2013, at the service of Europe's citizens and agricultural sector. However, in order to realise the vision embedded in the European agricultural model, the CAP will have to evolve. Beyond dealing with the negative consequences of the economic crisis, more attention should go to competitiveness and entrepreneurship. The functioning of the supply chain should be improved leading to a fairer distribution of costs and benefits. Producer organisations should be expanded and strengthened. Work is needed to put into practice the concept of green growth and to explore the synergy between the demand for public goods and the need for higher farm income. An improved system of direct support remains justified, to compensate for extra costs and to stabilise income. The CAP post-2013 should offer a strong EU framework, able to meet shared challenges, with clear objectives and sufficient funding. Within that framework, diversity is a fact, and regions should be able to deploy CAP policies and funds in a more flexible way to accommodate local needs and problems and to be able to react to changing circumstances. De par l'apparition de nouveaux défis, il est clair que les réalisations antérieures de la PAC ne peuvent être considérées comme acquises.Une politique agricole européenne forte, au service des citoyens et du secteur agricole de l'Europe, reste indispensable après 2013. Cependant, pour concrétiser la vision comprise dans le modèle agricole européen, la PAC devra évoluer. Au-delà du traitement des conséquences négatives de la crise économique, l'attention doit se porter davantage sur la compétitivité et l'esprit d'entreprise. Il faudrait améliorer le fonctionnement de la filière de l'offre pour obtenir une répartition des coûts et des avantages plus équitable. Les organisations de producteurs devraient se développer et se renforcer. Des travaux sont nécessaires pour mettre en pratique le concept de croissance verte et pour étudier les synergies entre la demande de biens d'intérêt public et le renforcement nécessaire des revenus agricoles. Un système de soutien direct amélioré reste justifié, pour compenser les coûts supplémentaires et stabiliser les revenus. La PAC d'après 2013 devrait fournir un cadre européen solide, capable d'atteindre les défis partagés, avec des objectifs clairs et des financements suffisants. Au sein de ce cadre, la diversité est un fait et les régions devraient pouvoir déployer les politiques et les fonds de la PAC de manière plus flexible pour répondre aux besoins et problèmes locaux et pour permettre de réagir aux changements. Neue Herausforderungen lassen erkennen, dass die früheren Erfolge der GAP nicht als selbstverständlich angesehen werden können.Nach 2013 wird zum Wohle der Bürger und des Agrarsektors in Europa nach wie vor eine stabile europäische Agrarpolitik gebraucht. Die GAP wird sich jedoch weiterentwickeln müssen, um der Vision aus dem europäischen Agrarmodell entsprechen zu können. Das Augenmerk sollte hierbei nicht nur auf den Umgang mit den negativen Auswirkungen der Wirtschaftskrise, sondern ebenfalls auf Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Unternehmertum gerichtet werden. Die Funktionsfähigkeit der Wertschöpfungskette sollte erhöht werden und zu einer gerechteren Verteilung von Kosten und Nutzen führen. Erzeugerorganisationen sollten ausgeweitet und gestärkt werden. Es muss viel getan werden, um das Konzept des Grünen Wachstums umzusetzen und die Synergien zwischen der Nachfrage nach öffentlichen Gütern und der Notwendigkeit für höhere Einkommen in der Landwirtschaft zu untersuchen. Ein verbessertes System für die Direktzahlungen ist nach wie vor gerechtfertigt, um zusätzliche Kosten auszugleichen und die Einkommen zu stabilisieren. Nach 2013 sollte die GAP einen stabilen EU-Rahmen bieten, um den gemeinsamen Herausforderungen mit klaren Zielen und ausreichender Finanzierung begegnen zu können. Innerhalb dieses Rahmens ist Platz für Diversität, und die Regionen sollten dazu in der Lage sein, die Politikmaßnahmen der GAP flexibler einzusetzen, um auf die Bedürfnisse vor Ort reagieren und sich den wechselnden Bedingungen anpassen zu können. [source]

    After the Health Check What is the Future for the Common Agricultural Policy?

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 1 2009
    Nach dem Gesundheitscheck: Wie geht es weiter mit der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik?
    Summary After the Health Check What is the Future for the Common Agricultural Policy? The CAP has now completed another stage in its development. The Health Check negotiating marathon has ended. The Czech Republic has been against unequal conditions for member states as these deform fair competition and the common market. Progressive modulation in the originally proposed form would have created barriers to a unified Europe, thus going against the motto of the Czech presidency ,Europe without Barriers'. The Czech Republic can certainly be satisfied with the essence of the compromise. The cancellation of the milk quota in 2015 is a liberalising measure, and as such we support it. The Health Check opens the door to the Czech presidency for a discussion on the elimination of unfair differences in direct payments between member states and we will definitely take up the opportunity. After 2013 the CAP will have to take much greater account of the situation following the unprecedented expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2006. For the Czech Republic, a further reinforcing of freedom in decision making for farmers and their focus on the specific needs of the local, community and global market is fundamental. Further simplification of the CAP and ,better regulation', focussing on a reduction in the administrative burden on farmers, is one of the priority challenges. La PAC a maintenant atteint un autre stade de son développement. Le marathon de négociation du bilan de santé a abouti. La République tchèque s'est opposée aux conditions inégales proposées aux pays membres car elles faussent la concurrence équitable et le marché commun. La modulation progressive sous sa forme initiale aurait créé des barrières dans une Europe unifiée, ce qui va à l'encontre de la devise de la présidence tchèque "Une Europe sans barrières". La République tchèque peut certainement être satisfaite de l'essence du compromis. La suppression du système des quotas laitiers en 2015 est une mesure de libéralisation et nous la soutenons en tant que telle. Le bilan de santé ouvre la porte à la présidence tchèque pour une discussion sur l'élimination des différences injustes entre paiements directs selon le pays membre et nous profiterons bien entendu de l'occasion. Après 2013, la PAC devra prendre davantage en compte la situation créée par l'élargissement sans précédent de l'UE entre 2004 et 2006. Pour la République tchèque, il est fondamental de renforcer encore la liberté qu'ont les agriculteurs pour prendre leurs décisions et de s'orienter vers les besoins spécifiques du marché local, communautaire et mondial. Un des défis prioritaires est de continuer à simplifier la PAC et d'améliorer la réglementation en s'orientant vers une réduction de la charge administrative qui pèse sur les agriculteurs. Eine weitere Phase in der Entwicklung der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik ist nun abgeschlossen. Der Verhandlungsmarathon hinsichtlich des Gesundheitschecks ist vorbei. Die Tschechische Republik war dagegen, dass für die Mitgliedsstaaten unterschiedliche Bedingungen gelten sollen, da diese den fairen Wettbewerb und den gemeinsamen Markt verzerren. Eine progressive Modulation in der ursprünglich vorgeschlagenen Form hätte einem einheitlichen Europa Steine in den Weg gelegt und somit dem Motto "Europa ohne Grenzen" der tschechischen Präsidentschaft widersprochen. Die Tschechische Republik hat zweifellos mit dem Kompromiss ein im Wesentlichen zufriedenstellendes Ergebnis erzielt. Die Abschaffung der Milchquote bis 2015 ist eine Maßnahme zur Liberalisierung, und als solche findet sie unsere Unterstützung. Der Gesundheitscheck eröffnet der tschechischen Präsidentschaft die Diskussion über die Beseitigung unterschiedlich hoher , und somit ungerechter , Direktzahlungen an die Mitgliedsstaaten. Diese Gelegenheit werden wir uns nicht entgehen lassen. Nach 2013 wird sich die GAP sehr viel mehr mit der Situation beschäftigen müssen, die sich aus der beispiellosen EU-Erweiterung aus den Jahren 2004 und 2006 ergibt. Für die Tschechische Republik ist es von grundlegender Bedeutung, die Entscheidungsfreiheit für Landwirte und deren Orientierung an den lokalen, regionalen und globalen Märkten fortwährend zu stärken. Die weitere Vereinfachung der GAP und eine "bessere Regulierung", die den Verwaltungsaufwand für Landwirte verringern soll, gehören zu den vorrangigen Zielen. [source]

    The Birth of the CAP Die Geburt der GAP La naissance de la PAC

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2008
    David R. Stead
    Summary The Birth of the CAP Fifty years ago, a Conference was held at Stresa which could be said to be the single event that most appropriately marks the birth of the CAP. Although five policy objectives had been written into the 1957 Treaty of Rome, these have been widely criticised for being vague and contradictory, and the Treaty contained very few stipulations on the specific policy instruments to be adopted. The Stresa Conference made important, but incomplete, progress towards finalising the policy framework. Most notably, it was generally agreed to avoid a level of price support that created unwanted commodity surpluses and inhibited structural adjustment. But these good intentions, and the positive ,European spirit' of the Conference, began to unravel as soon as the fraught decisions were taken on the details of unifying the protectionist agricultural policies of six different countries. In particular, the decision to fix the initial level of common cereals prices at the upper end of the national spread set an unsatisfactory reference point for other support prices; and an attempt to introduce a genuine common structural policy was rejected. At the turn of the 1970s, the CAP was clearly unbalanced and protectionist, but the Community's first fully-fledged common policy had been constructed. Il y a cinquante ans, s'est tenue à Stresa une Conférence qui pourrait être considérée comme l'évènement unique qui marque le mieux la naissance de la PAC. Bien que cinq objectifs pour l'action publique aient été inscrits dans le Traité de Rome en 1957, leur caractère imprécis et contradictoire a fait l'objet de nombreuses critiques et le Traité ne comportait que de très rares indications sur les instruments de politique à adopter. La Conférence de Stresa a permis de réaliser des progrès importants mais incomplets dans la définition du cadre de l'action publique. Intéressant à noter, il a généralement été convenu d'éviter un niveau de soutien des prix qui engendrerait des surplus excessifs de produits de base et empêcherait l'ajustement structurel. Mais ces bonnes intentions, ainsi que l'esprit "européen" positif de la Conférence, ont commencéà se dissoudre dès que des décisions problématiques furent prises sur le détail de l'uniformisation des politiques agricoles protectionnistes de six pays différents. En particulier, la décision consistant à fixer le niveau initial des prix communs des céréales à la borne supérieur du spectre des prix nationaux a constitué un point de référence peu satisfaisant pour les autres prix de soutien; et la tentative d'introduire une vraie politique commune des structures a avorté. Au tournant des années soixante dix, la PAC était nettement déséquilibrée et protectionniste, mais la première politique complètement commune de la Communautéétait en place. Vor 50 Jahren fand in Stresa eine Konferenz statt, bei welcher es sich wohl um das einzige Ereignis handelt, welches am zutreffendsten als Geburtstag der GAP betrachtet werden kann. Obgleich die politische Zielsetzung bereits 1957 in den Römischen Verträgen festgelegt worden war, standen diese wegen ihrer vagen Formulierung und Widersprüchlichkeit häufig im Kreuzfeuer der Kritik. Die Verträge enthielten nur sehr wenige konkrete Vereinbarungen im Hinblick auf die einzuführenden politischen Instrumente. Durch die Konferenz in Stresa konnten wichtige, jedoch unvollständige, Fortschritte bei der Ausarbeitung der politischen Rahmenbedingungen erzielt werden. Vor allem gab es den allgemeinen Konsens, dass es aufgrund der Preisstützung nicht zu unerwünschten Überschüssen bei Agrarprodukten und zu einer Hemmung der Strukturanpassungen kommen dürfe. Diese guten Absichten und die "europäische Gesinnung" der Konferenz schwanden jedoch, als die bedeutsamen Entscheidungen hinsichtlich der Einzelheiten für die Vereinheitlichung der protektionistischen Agrarpolitiken der sechs verschiedenen Länder getroffen wurden. Insbesondere die Entscheidung, das Anfangsniveau der gemeinsamen Preise für Getreide an der oberen Grenze der nationalen Preisspannen festzumachen, legte einen unbefriedigenden Referenzpunkt für die übrigen Stützpreise fest. Der Vorschlag, eine originär gemeinsame Strukturpolitik einzuführen, wurde abgelehnt. Um 1970 war die GAP eindeutig unausgewogen und protektionistisch; der Entwurf der ersten vollständigen gemeinsamen Politik der Gemeinschaft war jedoch abgeschlossen. [source]

    Our Common European Model of Agriculture

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 3 2006
    Juha Korkeaoja
    Our Common European Model of Agriculture Future internal and external forces on European agriculture mean that the CAP may look very different after 2013. However large these changes, the CAP will need to retain its common principles based on the European Model of Agriculture (EMA). This became clear in an informal September meeting of EU agriculture ministers in Oulu, arranged by the Finnish Presidency. A strong CAP will be needed in the future but it will have to evolve to meet upcoming challenges. Work on the future CAP will need to start soon and the Oulu meeting may become known as the starting point for those discussions. The CAP will have to provide a reasonable environment for practicing agriculture for very different farmers in very diverse conditions, and facilitate the supply of a wide variety of goods and services to consumers and taxpayers as only truly multifunctional agriculture can. If the CAP can maintain these characteristics it has an important role to play in a future Europe. The meeting in Oulu was also an important milestone for a very special reason: for the first time, all ten New Member States took an active part in the EMA-debate with full rights and responsibilities as part of the Union. Once again this underlines the central role of our common European Model of Agriculture. Unser gemeinsames Europäisches Land wirts chafts modell Die zukünftigen internen und externen Einflüsse auf die europäische Landwirtschaft könnten zur Folge haben, dass die GAP nach dem Jahr 2013 ganz anders aussieht. Wie umwälzend diese Veränderungen auch sein mögen, die GAP wird ihre allgemeinen, auf dem Europäischen Landwirtschaftsmodell (EMA) beruhenden Grundsätze beibehalten müssen. Dies wurde im September bei einem von der finnischen Präsidentschaft arrangierten informellen Treffen der EU-Landwirtschaftsminister in Oulu deutlich. In der Zukunft brauchen wir eine starke GAP, die jedoch weiterentwickelt werden muss, um den kommenden Herausforderungen gerecht zu werden. Die Arbeit an der zukünftigen GAP muss in nächster Zeit beginnen, und das Treffen in Oulu könnte möglicherweise als Ausgangspunkt dieser Diskussionen gelten. Die GAP wird ein angemessenes Umfeld schaffen müssen, um sehr unterschiedlichen Landwirten mit sehr unterschiedlichen Arbeitsbedingungen die Ausübung der Landwirtschaft sowie Verbrauchern und Steuerzahlern die Versorgung mit einer großen Vielfalt an Waren und Dienstleistungen zu ermöglichen, wie es nur eine wirklich multifunktionale Landwirtschaft zu leisten vermag. Wenn es der GAP gelingt, diese Merkmale beizubehalten, wird ihr im zukünftigen Europa eine wichtige Rolle zukommen. Bei dem Treffen in Oulu handelt es sich auch aus einem ganz besonderen Grund um einen bedeutenden Meilenstein: Zum ersten Mal beteiligte sich jeder der zehn neuen Mitgliedsstaaten mit allen Rechten und voller Verantwortung als Teil der Union aktiv an der Debatte zum Europäischen Landwirtschaftsmodell. Wieder einmal unterstreicht dies die zentrale Rolle unseres gemeinsamen Europäischen Landwirtschaftsmodells. Ce modèle agricole européen qui nous est commun Du fait des forces internes et externes qui vont bientôt s'exercer sur l'agriculture européenne, la physionomie de la PAC après 2013 pourrait bien être très différente de ce qu'elle est maintenant. Quelque soit cependant l'importance de ces changements, la PAC devra conserver sa base commune actuelle, qui repose sur le « modèle agricole européen » (MAE). La chose est apparue clairement lors d'une réunion informelle des ministres de l'agriculture européens organisée par la présidence finnoise à Oulu, en septembre dernier. Une politique agricole musclée sera nécessaire à l'avenir, mais elle devra évoluer pour répondre à de nouveaux défis. Il va bientôt falloir commencer à travailler cette nouvelle PAC, et la réunion d'Oulu restera peut être comme le point de départ des discussions sur le sujet. La PAC devra fournir un environnement convenable pour la pratique d'agricultures diverses, par des agriculteurs différents les uns des autres, dans un vaste éventail de conditions. Elle devra permettre la production d'une grande variété de biens et de services financés par le consommateur ou le contribuable, comme seule une agriculture multifonctionnelle peut le faire. Si la PAC arrive à conserver ces caractéristiques, elle aura un grand rôle à jouer dans l'Europe de demain. Il y a encore une raison plus spécifique pour marquer d'une pierre blanche la réunion d'Oulu : pour la première fois, les dix nouveaux membres de l'Union ont activement participé et de plein droit aux discussions sur le MAE. Cela, une fois de plus, souligne le rôle essentiel du « modèle agricole européen » qui nous est commun. [source]

    Delivering on the Potential of the New CAP

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2005
    Mariann Fischer Boel
    Recent discussions on the CAP have focused on the budget. However, in the public debate the policy itself is often still a caricature of the old CAP that existed until the early 1990s. The CAP has changed fundamentally over the past decade. The recent direction of the CAP , markets and rural development , was set by the European Council in Göteborg and Lisbon. Strong economic performance must go hand in hand with the sustainable use of natural resources. The key elements of the new CAP are a market policy where intervention is a safety net, income stabilisation is delivered through decoupled aids subject to cross-compliance, and a reinforced rural development policy that focuses on jobs, growth and sustainability. We must use the new CAP to unlock the potential for growth, jobs and innovation and put good ideas into practice. We need to work in partnership with farmers, foresters, the agrifood business, NGOs, the population of rural areas, the research community and of course public authorities. But to achieve all of this we need a stable budgetary environment, in which farmers and businesses can plan. In short, we need the resources to deliver on the potential of the new CAP. Les discussions sur la PAC, récemment, se sont focalisées sur le budget. En même temps, le contenu politique de la réforme, tel qu'il est vu dans le débat public, n'est rien d'autre que la caricature de l'ancienne PAC telle qu'elle existait avant les années 90. Or, au cours de la dernière décennie, la PAC a radicalement changé. Son nouveau cours , axé sur les marchés et le développement rural , a été défini lors des conseils européens de Göteborg et de Lisbonne. Les bonnes performances économiques doivent aller de concert avec l'utilisation durable des ressources naturelles. Une politique de marché, pour laquelle l'intervention n'est qu'un filet de sécurité, une stabilisation des revenus qui prend la forme d'aides découplées sous réserve d'application de normes, un développement rural renforcé, enfin, centré sur les emplois, la croissance et la durabilité, voilà les clés de la nouvelle PAC. Celle-ci doit être utilisée pour déchaîner les possibilités en matière de croissance d'emplois, d'innovation et de durabilité. Il faut pour cela s'appuyer sur les agriculteurs, les forestiers, les industries agroalimentaires, les organisations non gouvernementales, les populations des zones rurales, les chercheurs, et bien sûr les autorités publiques. Mais pour réaliser tout cela, il faut encore un environnement budgétaire stable, permettant aux agriculteurs et aux industriels de planifi er leurs actions. En d'autres termes, il faut des ressources pour que la nouvelle PAC tienne ses promesses. Die jüngsten Diskussionen über die GAP konzentrierten sich auf den Haushalt. In der öffentlichen Debatte ist die Politik selbst jedoch häufig noch ein Zerrbild der alten GAP, wie diese sich bis in die frühen 1990er Jahre darstellte. In den letzten zehn Jahren hat sich die GAP von Grund auf verändert. Die jüngste Richtung der GAP , Märkte und die Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums , wurde vom Europäischen Rat in Göteborg und Lissabon vorgegeben. Eine hohe wirtschaftliche Leistungsfähigkeit muss mit der nachhaltigen Nutzung der natürlichen Ressourcen Hand in Hand gehen. Die Schlüsselelemente der neuen GAP sind eine Marktpolitik, in der die Intervention als Sicherheitsnetz dient und eine Einkommensstabilisierung mittels entkoppelter Beihilfen erfolgt, für die Cross Compliance gilt; sowie eine gestärkte Politik zur Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums, welche sich auf Arbeitsplätze, Wachstum sowie Nachhaltigkeit konzentriert. Wir müssen die neue GAP dazu verwenden, das Potenzial für Wachstum, Arbeitsplätze und Innovationen frei zu setzen, und gute Ideen in die Tat umsetzen. Wir müssen partnerschaftlich mit den Landwirten, Förstern, Unternehmen der Agrar- und Ernährungswirtschaft, Nicht-Regierungsorganisationen (NRG), der Landbevölkerung, der Forschungsgemeinschaft und natürlich der öffentlichen Verwaltung zusammen arbeiten. Dafür benötigen wir jedoch eine stabile Haushaltssituation, die es den Landwirten und Unternehmen ermöglicht zu planen. Kurzum: Wir benötigen die Ressourcen, um das Potenzial der GAP auszuschöpfen. [source]

    The CAP for Turkey?

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2005
    Budgetary Implications, Potential Market Effects
    EU accession negotiations with Turkey are scheduled to start in October 2005. The period of accession negotiations will probably last for ten years or longer, but the effects of applying the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to Turkey are currently a controversial discussion in the EU. Effects of Turkish accession on EU agricultural markets are likely to be small. The EU would gain additional export opportunities for cereals and animal products. On the other hand, Turkish agricultural exports to the EU are projected to increase for only a few fruit and vegetable products. EU budgetary outlays for the application of the CAP to Turkey could total between £3.5 and £6.3 billion in 2015 , depending on whether direct payments are phased in or not , and £5.4 billion in 2025. Most of these outlays would be for direct payments to agricultural producers and that may not be in Turkey's best interest. This is because direct payments tend to be capitalized in land prices and may thus inhibit the necessary process of improving the Turkish agricultural structure. Transfers under the second pillar of the CAP may hold more interest for Turkey, because they can be targeted at improving productivity and thereby income. Projected outlays for the CAP take a backseat to projected transfers to Turkey under the structural policy of the EU. Les négociations sur l'adhésion de la Turquie à l'UE doivent commencer en octobre 2005. Les préliminaires vont sans doute durer au moins une dizaine d'années, mais les effets de l'application de la Politique Agricole Commune (PAC) à la Turquie font déjà l'objet de controverses au sein de l'UE. Sur les marchés, on s'attend à des effets plutôt faibles. L'UE gagnerait certaines possibilités d'exportation de céréales et de produits animaux. Par ailleurs, les exportations de la Turquie vers l'UE ne s'accroîtraient que pour quelques fruits et légumes. Les dépenses budgétaires totales qui résulteraient pour l'UE de l'application de la PAC à la Turquie se situeraient en 2015 entre 3,5 et 6,3 milliards d'Euros, selon que les paiements directs seront ou ne seront pas progressivement éliminés. Elles atteindraient 5,4 milliards en 2025. Il s'agirait pour l'essentiel de paiements directs aux producteurs agricoles, ce qui ne correspondrait pas forcément à l'intérêt bien compris de la Turquie. De fait, les paiements directs tendent àêtre capitalisés en valeurs foncières. Ils pourraient par conséquent inhiber le processus d'amélioration des structures, pourtant bien nécessaire. Les transferts liés au second pilier de la PAC pourraient être plus utiles, parce qu'ils peuvent être ciblés sur les accroissements de productivité et donc de revenus. C'est pourquoi il y a lieu d'envisager des transferts à la Turquie au titre des politiques d'amélioration de structures en arrière plan des budgets prévisionnels pour la PAC. Im Oktober 2005 sollen die EU-Beitrittsverhandlungen mit der Türkei beginnen. Diese Verhandlungen werden wahrscheinlich über einen Zeitraum von zehn Jahren oder länger geführt werden, die Auswirkungen der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik (GAP) auf die Türkei werden im Moment in der EU jedoch kontrovers diskutiert. Der EU-Beitritt der Türkei wird sich wahrscheinlich nur geringfügig auf die EU-Agrarmärkte auswirken. Die EU erhielte zusätzliche Exportmöglichkeiten für Getreide und tierische Erzeugnisse. Die Agrarexporte der Türkei in die EU hingegen würden vermutlich nur bei einigen wenigen Obstund Gemüseprodukten zunehmen. Durch die Anwendung der GAP auf die Türkei würde der EU-Haushalt im Jahr 2015 mit 3,5 bis 6,3 Milliarden Euro (je nachdem, ob die Direktzahlungen schrittweise eingeführt werden oder nicht) und im Jahr 2025 mit 5,4 Milliarden Euro belastet. Der grö,te Teil dieser Kosten entstünde aufgrund von Direktzahlungen an landwirtschaftliche Erzeuger. Dies dürfte für die Türkei nicht die bestmögliche Alternative darstellen, da Direktzahlungen zumeist in den Bodenpreisen kapitalisiert werden, wodurch der notwendige Prozess zur Verbesserung der türkischen Agrarstruktur ins Stocken geraten könnte. Transferleistungen im Rahmen der zweiten Säule der GAP dürften für die Türkei interessanter sein, da sie auf eine Produktivitätssteigerung ausgerichtet werden könnten, um so die Einkommenssituation zu verbessern. Die zu erwartenden Ausgaben für die GAP im Rahmen der Strukturpolitik der EU spielen im Vergleich zu den zu erwartenden Transferleistungen an die Türkei eine untergeordnete Rolle. [source]

    Hungarian Agriculture at the Dawn of EU Accession

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 1 2004
    Imre Nemeth
    Summary Hungarian AgricuIture at the Dawn of EU Accession Hungary and Hungarian agriculture nurse high hopes for EU-accession. Agriculture and rural development were of pivotal importance during the accession negotiations, in the accession referendum and the preparations for accession. The success in integrating our agriculture into the CAP and the single market will substantially influence public opinion in the post-accession years. We expect our membership to stabilise market conditions and to improve development possibilities in rural areas where there is great demand for better employment and living conditions. These benefits will emerge from our integration into the single market, our involvement in decision-making and from the backing of EU resources. But the challenges of EU membership also evoke fears amongst Hungarian farmers. The transformation of agriculture is incomplete, agricultural incomes and investments are stagnant, rural infrastructure is somewhat weak and marketing systems are rather inefficient. Hungarian farmers have difficulty accepting the relatively low levels of direct aids whereas they face full health and food safety restrictions from day one of accession. The CAP Reform of June 2003 confuses and slows down our preparatory work. Hungarian agriculture, however, is determined to respond to the challenges of accession. Our common Europe will prove stronger with Hungarian agriculture, and Hungarian agriculture has to become stronger through our EU membership. L'agriculture hongroise au temps zéro de I'accession OLa Hongrie et l'agriculture hongroise mettent de grands espoirs dans L'accession à l'Union Européenne. L'agriculture et le développement rural ont été au centre des négotiations sur l'accession, du référendum associé et des mesures préparatoires correspondantes. l'opinion publique sera grandement influenceée, dans les années qui suivront l'accession, par le succés de l'intégration de notre agriculture dans la politique agricole commune et le marché unique. De notre appartenance à l'UE, nous attendons la stabilisation des marchés et l'amélioration des perspectives de développement dans les zones rurales oú le besoin de meilleures conditions de vie et d'emploi se fait sentir avec acuité. Ces avantages devraient provenir de notre intégration dans le marché unique, de notre participation aux décisions collectives et d'un soutien à la mesure des ressources de l'Union Européenne. Cependant, les défis de l'intégration européenne ne vont pas aussi sans susciter des craintes chez les agriculteurs hongrois. La transformation de l'agriculture est incompléte, les revenus et les investissements stagnent, les infrastructures rurales sont insuffisantes et l'organisation des marchés inefficace. Les agriculteurs hongrois acceptent difficilement de ne bénéficier que d'aides directes relativement faibles, alors que, dés le premier jour de l'accession, ils seront soumis à tous les réglements communautaires en matiére de santé et de sécurité alimentaires. La réforme de la PAC en juin 2003 complique encore et ralentit les travaux préparatoires à l'accession. Néanmoins, l'agriculture hongroise est résolue à relever le défi. L'Europe commune sera plus forte avec l'agriculture hongroise et cette derniére sera renforcée par son appartenance à l' Europe Ungarische Landwirtschaft kurz vor dem EU-Beitritt Ungarn und die ungarische Landwirtschaft setzen große Hoffnungen in den EU-Beitritt. Die Landwirtschaft und die Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums waren in den Beitrittsverhandlungen, beim Volksentscheid zum Beitritt und bei den Vorbereitungen des Beitritts von entscheidender Bedeutung. Das Gelingen bei der Integration unserer Landwirtschaft in die GAP und den Binnenmarkt wird die öffendiche Meinung in den Jahren nach dem Beitritt entscheidend beeinflussen. Wir erhoffen uns von unserer Mitgliedschaft stabilere Marktbedingungen und bessere Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten im ländlichen Raum, wo Verbesserungen im Hinblick auf Beschäftigungssituation und Lebensbedingungen dringend erforderlich sind. Dies wird durch unsere Integration in den Binnenmarkt, unseren Beitrag zur Entscheidungsfindung und mit Hilfe von EU-Ressourcen erfolgen. Die Herausforderungen der EU-Mitgliedschaft rufen jedoch bei den ungarischen Landwirten auch Ängste hervor. Die Transformation der Landwirtschaft ist noch nicht abgeschlossen, die ländwirtschaftlichen Einkommen und die Investitionen stagnieren, die landliche Infrastruktur ist recht schwach entwickelt und die Vermarktung ist relativ ineffizient. Die ungarischen Landwirte können nur schwer akzeptieren, dass ab dem ersten Tag ihres Beitritts zwar alle Gesundheits- und Nahrungs-mittelsicherheitsbestimmunge n eingehalten werden müssen, aber nur geringe direkte Beihilfen gewährt werden. Die Reform der GAP vom Juni 2003 irritiert und verzögert unsere Vorbereitungen. Die ungarische Landwirtschaft ist jedoch entschlossen, sich den Herausforderungen des Beitritts zu stellen. Unser gemeinsames Europa wird mit der ungarischen Landwirtschaft noch stärker, und die ungarische Landwirtschaft muss durch unsere EU-Mitgliedschaft gestärkt werden. [source]

    The midterm review and the new challenges for EU agriculture

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 3 2002
    Tassos Haniotis
    Summary The Midterm Review and the New Challenges for EU Agriculture The Brussels Summit agreement of October 2002 on the financing of the CAP opens the way for a final agreement on enlargement and defines the level of the agricultural budget for the next financial perspective. Answering the how much question allows the debate to focus on the how question of support for EU agriculture. To these questions the Commission had responded with its Midterm Review of July 2002. Although proposals will have to be adapted in view of the new financial perspective, the fundamental issues addressed in the Midterm Review remain unchanged as these reflect the gradual shift from supply driven to demand driven orientations for the CAR The citizens of the EU seem to agree that EU agriculture should, at the same time, be competitive and promote the highest environmental, product quality and animal welfare standards. This apparent paradox implies, on the one hand, the need for lower prices and, on the other hand, higher production costs. To resolve this dilemma the underlying philosophy of the Midterm Review is to shift the policy debate onto the efficiency of the available policy instruments in meeting their stated objectives. Thus the need for safety-net market support, decoupled income support and strengthened rural development. La revue à mi parcours et les nouveaux défis de l'agriculture européenne Grâce à l'accord obtenu sur le financement de la PAC au sommet de Bruxelles d'octobre 2002, la voie est maintenant ouverte à un accord final sur l,élargissement et sur la définition du budget agricole pour les prochaines échéances. Répondre à la question "à quel niveau" permet au débat de se centrer sur le "comment" soutenir l'agriculture européenne. La commission a donné sa réponse à ces questions dans sa "revue à mi-parcours". Même si les propositions en question devront faire l'objet d'ajustements aux nouvelles perspectives budgétaires, les problèmes fondamentaux posés par la revue à mi-parcours demeurent, dans la mesure où elles reflètent le passage graduel d'un pilotage de PAC par l'offre à un pilotage par la demande. Les citoyens de l'UE semblent d'accord pour dire que l'agriculture doit être à la fois compétitive, et obtenir les plus hauts standards possibles en matière de qualité et de bien-être animal. Ce paradoxe apparent implique d'un côté, des prix plus bas, et de l'autre, des coûts de production plus élevés. Pour résoudre ce conflit, la philosophie sous-jacente à la "revue à mi-parcours" consiste à faire glisser le débat politique sur la question de l'efficacité des instruments disponibles et de leur aptitude à atteindre les objectifs ainsi fixés. D'où le besoin d'un filet de sécurité sur les marchés, d'un soutien découplé pour les revenus et d'un renforcement du développement rural. Die Zwischenbewertung und die neuen Herausforderungen an die Landwirtschaft der EU Das Abkommen vom Brüsseler Gipfel im Oktober 2002 zur Finanzierung der GAP eröffnet die Möglichkeit einer endgültigen Einigung im Hinblick auf die Erweiterung und legt die Höhe des Agrarhaushalts für die kommende Finanzplanungsperiode fest. Durch die Festlegung kann sich die Debatte nun der Frage widmen, auf welche Art und Weise die Landwirtschaft der EU unterstützt werden soil. Diesen beiden Aspekten hatte die Kommission in der Zwischenbewertung vom Juli 2002 Rechnung getragen. Obwohl die Vorschläge angesichts der neuen Finanzplanungsperiode angepasst werden müssen, bleiben die grundlegenden, in der Zwischenbewertung angesprochenen Probleme bestehen, da diese den schrittweisen Übergang der GAP von der Angebotsorientierung hin zur Nachfrageorientierung widerspiegeln. Die EU-Bürger stimmen scheinbar darin überein, dass die Landwirtschaft der EU gleichermaßen wettbewerbsfähig sein und die höchsten Standards im Hinblick auf die Umwelt, die Produktqualität und den Tierschutz erreichen sollte. Dieser offenkundige Widerspruch erfordert einerseits niedrigere Preise und zieht andererseits höhere Produktionskosten nach sich. Zur Auflösung dieses Dilemmas sieht es der der Zwischenbewertung zugrunde liegende Ansatz vor, den Fokus der politischen Debatte darauf zu richten, wie effizient die verfügbaren Politikmaßnahmen zum Erreichen der Zielsetzung beitragen. Daraus ergibt sich die Notwendigkeit für eine Marktstützung als Sicherheitsnetz, für eine entkoppelte Einkommensstützung und für eine intensivere Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums. [source]

    Long-term follow-up of adolescent onset anorexia nervosa in northern Sweden

    Karin Nilsson
    Abstract Objective This study examines the long-term outcome of adolescent onset anorexia nervosa, 8 and 16 years after first admission to child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) treatment in northern Sweden. Method Two follow-ups (1991 and 1999) were made of 68 women who were first admitted to CAP between 1980 and 1985. The follow-ups included interviews and self-report inventories. Eating disorders and GAF were evaluated according to DSM-III-R. Results Recovery increased from 46 (68%) to 58 (85%). EDNOS (eating disorder not otherwise specified) decreased from 16 (24%) to seven (10%). The numbers for anorexia nervosa (AN) were the same, two (3%) in both follow-ups. Bulimia nervosa (BN) decreased from four (6%) in the first follow-up to one (1.5%) in the second follow-up. The mortality rate was one (1%). Self-evaluation of mental health indicated that 15% had problems with depression, anxiety or compulsive symptoms. Somatic problems and paediatric inpatient care during the first treatment period could predict long-term outcome. Most former patients had a satisfactory family and work situation. Conclusion Recovery from eating disorders continued during the follow-ups. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Circulating levels of copeptin, a novel biomarker, in lower respiratory tract infections

    B. Müller
    Abstract Background, Vasopressin has haemodynamic as well as osmoregulatory effects, and reflects the individual stress response. Copeptin is cosynthesized with vasopressin, directly mirroring vasopressin levels, but is more stable in plasma and serum. Both levels are increased in patients with septic shock. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a precursor of sepsis. Thus, we investigated circulating levels and the prognostic use of copeptin for the severity and outcome in patients with LRTI. Materials and methods, Five hundred and forty-five consecutive patients with LRTI and 50 healthy controls were evaluated. Serum copeptin levels were measured with a new chemiluminescens sandwich immunoassay. Results, Of the 545 patients, 373 had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), 60 acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 59 acute bronchitis, 13 exacerbations of asthma and 40 other final diagnoses. Copeptin levels were significantly higher in patients with LRTI as compared to controls (P < 0·001) with highest levels in patients with CAP. Copeptin levels increased with increasing severity of CAP, as classified by the pneumonia severity index (PSI) (P < 0·001). In patients who died, copeptin levels on admission were significantly higher as compared to levels in survivors [70·0 (28·8,149·0) vs. 24·3 (10·8,43·8) pmol L,1, P < 0·001]. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for survival was 0·75 for copeptin, which was significantly higher as compared to C-reactive protein (AUC 0·61, P = 0·01), leukocyte count (AUC 0·59, P = 0·01) and similar to procalcitonin (AUC 0·68, P = 0·21). Conclusions, Copeptin levels are increased with increasing severity of LRTI namely in patients with CAP and unfavourable outcome. Copeptin levels, as a novel biomarker, might be a useful tool in the risk stratification of patients with LRTI. [source]

    Climatology at Urban Long-Term Ecological Research Sites: Baltimore Ecosystem Study and Central Arizona,Phoenix

    Anthony J. Brazel
    The Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) and Central Arizona,Phoenix (CAP) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) programs, established in 1997, are part of an international National Science Foundation long-term ecology monitoring and research network. The study sites are excellent laboratories to integrate ideas on climate of urban areas and how climate change and local variability of climate relate to social, political, economic, and ecological processes over a long time period. A large variety of research data are available online from individual LTER Web sites and a combined database called CLIMDB/HYDRODB is available for climate and ecology researchers and others, to investigate climate and hydrology in LTER study regions including those of BES and CAP. The basic program, climate aspects of these two areas, selected past research, and current ongoing work is briefly reviewed. A large benefit of this National Science Foundation program is the maintenance of support over a very long period of time. With the advent of a National Ecological Observatory Network, continuing collection of climate and environmental information over the coming decades at the local and regional scales, and maintenance of protocols of measurement, it is hoped that a more meaningfully integrated urban climatology with urban ecology will emerge. This will better prepare scientists to gage the impending rapid global warming expected not only of natural environments, but also of burgeoning urban places around the world. [source]

    Variability in the upper limit of normal for serum alanine aminotransferase levels: A statewide study,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Anand Dutta
    We conducted a study to characterize the variability in the upper limit of normal (ULN) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) across different laboratories (labs) in Indiana and to understand factors leading to such variability. A survey was mailed to all eligible labs (n = 108) in Indiana, and the response rate was 62%. The survey queried for ALT ULN, the type of chemical analyzer used, five College of American Pathologists (CAP) sample results, and methods used to establish the reference interval. There was a wide variability in the ALT ULN for both men and women. Eighty-five percent of labs used chemical analyzers belonging to one of the four brands. For all five CAP samples, there was a statistically significant difference in ALT values measured by different analyzers (P < 0.0001), but these differences were not clinically significant. The majority of labs used the manufacturers' recommendations for establishing their ALT ULN rather than in-house healthy volunteer testing (only 17%). When healthy volunteers were tested, the process for testing was haphazard in terms of the number of individuals tested, frequency of testing, and criteria for choosing the reference population. After controlling for chemical analyzer type, there was no significant relationship between ALT ULN values and the method used for its establishment. Conclusion: Wide variability in ALT ULN across different labs is more likely due to variable reference intervals of different chemical analyzers. It may be possible to minimize variability in ALT ULN by (1) each lab solely following the manufacturers' recommendations and (2) manufacturers of different analyzers following consistent and rigorous methodology in establishing the reference range. Alternatively, studies should be undertaken to identify outcome-based reference intervals for ALT. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Domain Poisoning: The Redundancy of Current Models of Assessment through Art

    Tom Hardy
    With the National Foundation for Educational Research concluding that schools which include Contemporary Art Practice (CAP) in their curriculum add significant value to their students' art experience, [1] and at a time when much of the discussion around contemporary art questions the value of the art object itself, this article addresses the question: how are we to engage students with the contemporary and, at the same time, make value judgments of their own work? And, while the professional fine art world subscribes increasingly to the ,rhizomatic' [2] template of art processes, how do we square this with current assessment criteria which require that students produce work where the preparation and finished product occupy separate domains and rely on ,procedures and practices that reach back to the nineteenth century'? [3] By way of a postscript to the inconclusive findings of the Eppi-centre art and design review group [4], this article will also address what we have lost in the drive for domain-based assessment and how to regain some of the ground lost since the introduction of Curriculum 2000. [source]

    Performance of CURB-65 and CURB-age in community-acquired pneumonia

    P. K. Myint
    Summary Background:, Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is common and associated with significant mortality. In this study, we validated a newly proposed severity assessment rule for CAP, CURB-age, and also compared with to the currently recommended criteria in UK, CURB-65. Methods:, We conducted a prospective study in three hospitals in Norfolk and Suffolk, UK. One hundred and ninety patients were included and followed up for 6 weeks. Results:, Of 190 patients, 100 were men (53%). The age range was 18,101 years (median 76 years). Sixty-five (34%) had severe pneumonia by CURB-65 and 54 (28%) had severe pneumonia by CURB-age. There were 54 deaths during follow-up. There were 32 deaths (50%) in severe and 22 deaths (18%) in non-severe group by CURB-65. There were 27 deaths each in both the groups by CURB-age (50% of severe cases and 20% of non-severe cases). For CURB-65, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 59.3% (45.0,72.4), 75.7% (67.6,82.7), 49.2% (36.6,61.9) and 82.4% (74.6,88.6), respectively. For CURB-age, the respective values were 50.0% (31.1,63.9), 80.1% (72.4,86.5), 50.0% (36.1,63.9) and 80.1% (72.4,86.5). Exclusion of patients aged < 65 years did not alter the results. Conclusions:, Despite better specificity in correctly identifying 6-week mortality for CAP, CURB-age appears to be less sensitive than CURB-65. Our findings further assure the usefulness of CURB-65 for predicting mortality in CAP. [source]

    Resonances and pseudoresonances in a potential with attractive coulomb tail: A study using analytic-continuation techniques

    Imke B. Müller
    Abstract The performance of the complex absorbing potential (CAP) and the complex scaling (CS) methods in the detection and calculation of complex Siegert energies is studied using a 1-D long-range attractive model potential. This potential is constructed to mimic molecular properties, in particular an attractive Coulombic term, to allow one to draw conclusions on molecular ab initio studies. Analyzing the spectrum of the model potential, one compact bound state embedded in the manifold of Rydberg states is found that shows artificial resonance characteristics when applying the CAP and the CS methods. This pseudoresonance problem is less pronounced in the calculation using the CS method than in that using the CAP method. Despite this deficiency, the CAP method is shown to possess advantages over CS when dealing with physical resonances under conditions that simulate the application of standard basis sets in ab initio calculations. The accuracy of the Siegert energy is shown to be maintained when applying a subspace projection technique to the CAP method. This technique reduces the computational demand significantly and leads to an important improvement of the CAP method, which should be of particular significance in molecular applications. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2003 [source]

    Exploring the Determinants of CAP Reform: A Delphi Survey of Key Decision-Makers,

    A panel of key decision-makers, closely involved in the 1992, 1999 and 2003 CAP reforms, participated in a Delphi survey designed to ascertain what had prompted the European Commission to launch these reform initiatives and what factors were relevant in determining the reform packages subsequently decided by the Council. [source]

    Europeanization and Globalization: The Missing Link

    Marjoleine Hennis
    European integration theory is currently dominated by a debate about the role of domestic changes, state-society relations, and policy networks within Europe. This article seeks to contribute to this debate by dealing with what is understood as a generally poor conceptualization of the interaction between globalization and Europeanization. A framework is offered which takes account of the impact of globalization on the underlying economic structure and on European regulation. It is argued that only such a comprehensive approach can provide a greater insight into the development of European integration. These issues are addressed through the analysis of the common agricultural policy (CAP). [source]

    Effect of Antibiotic Guidelines on Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with Nursing Home,Acquired Pneumonia

    Ali A. El Solh MD
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the 2003 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) guideline and the 2005 healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) guideline on time to clinical stability, length of hospital stay, and mortality in nursing home patients hospitalized for pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Three tertiary-care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred thirty-four nursing home patients. MEASUREMENTS: Patients were classified according to the antibiotic regimens they received based on the 2003 CAP guideline or the 2005 HCAP guideline. Time to clinical stability, time to switch therapy, and mortality were evaluated in an intention-to-treat analysis. A multivariate survival model using propensity analysis was used to adjust for heterogeneity between the two groups. RESULTS: Of the 334 patients, 258 (77%) were treated according to the 2003 HCAP guideline. Time to clinical stability did not differ between those treated according to the 2003 CAP or the 2005 HCAP guidelines. Only the Pneumonia Severity Index (P=.006) and multilobar involvement (P=.005) were significantly associated with delay in achieving clinical stability. Adjusted in-hospital and 30-day mortality were comparable in both cohorts (odds ratio (OR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.49,1.34, and OR=0.79, 95% CI=0.42,1.31, respectively), although time to switch therapy and length of stay were longer for those treated according to the 2005 HCAP guideline. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized nursing home patients with pneumonia, treatment with an antibiotic regimen according to the 2003 CAP guideline achieved comparable time to clinical stability and in-hospital and 30-day mortality with a regimen based on the 2005 HCAP guideline. [source]

    Outcome Predictors of Pneumonia in Elderly Patients: Importance of Functional Assessment

    Olga H. Torres MD
    Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) seen at an acute-care hospital, analyzing the importance of CAP severity, functional status, comorbidity, and frailty. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Emergency department and geriatric medical day hospital of a university teaching hospital. Participants: Ninety-nine patients aged 65 and older seen for CAP over a 6-month recruitment period. Measurements: Clinical data were used to calculate Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), Barthel Index (BI), Charlson Comorbidity Index, and Hospital Admission Risk Profile (HARP). Patients were then assessed 15 days later to determine functional decline and 30 days and 18 months later for mortality and readmission. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze outcomes. Results: Functional decline was observed in 23% of the 93 survivors. Within the 30-day period, case-fatality rate was 6% and readmission rate 11%; 18-month rates were 24% and 59%, respectively. Higher BI was a protective factor for 30-day and 18-month mortality (odds ratio (OR)=0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.94,0.98 and OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.95,0.99, respectively; P<.01), and PSI was the only predictor for functional decline (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01,1.05; P=.01). Indices did not predict readmission. Analyses were repeated for the 74 inpatients and indicated similar results except for 18-month mortality, which HARP predicted (OR=1.73; 95% CI=1.16,2.57; P<.01). Conclusion: Functional status was an independent predictor for short- and long-term mortality in hospitalized patients whereas CAP severity predicted functional decline. Severity indices for CAP should possibly thus be adjusted in the elderly population, taking functional status assessment into account. [source]

    Role of D1 and E Cyclins in Cell Cycle Progression of Human Fibroblasts Adhering to Cementum Attachment Protein,

    Takayoshi Yokokoji
    Abstract Cementum attachment protein (CAP) is a collagenous protein present in the matrix of tooth cementum that mediates preferential attachment of some mesenchymal cell types, and CAP binding capacity is related to mineralizing tissue-forming capacity in culture. We have examined if adhesion to surfaces containing CAP as the only attachment protein permits human fibroblasts to escape G1 arrest and synthesize DNA, and if adhesion to CAP modulates the levels of cyclins D1 and E. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were serum-starved, trypsinized, and added to plates coated with CAP or bovine serum albumin (BSA). Cells were then exposed to either 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or to cementum-derived growth factor (CGF), an insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-like molecule sequestered in tooth cementum, plus epidermal growth factor (EGF). DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]thymidine uptake, and cyclin D1 and E levels were determined by Western analysis. Cyclin E-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity was assessed in terms of H1 kinase activity in immunoprecipitates of cyclin E. Cells adhering to CAP synthesized DNA, whereas on BSA they remained unattached and did not synthesize DNA. Protein levels of cyclin D1 were higher in cells adhering to CAP in the absence and presence of growth factors. Cyclin E levels were not affected by adhesion alone, but they increased in the presence of growth factors. Cyclin E-associated kinase activity was higher in cells adherent on CAP, and it increased further in the presence of growth factors. Our results indicate that adhesion to CAP increases cyclin D1 levels and cyclin E-associated Cdk activity, and that these increases contribute to cell cycle progression. We previously observed that the signaling reactions induced during adhesion are characteristic of the CAP; together these observations indicate that specific matrix components present in the local environment can contribute to recruitment and differentiation of specific cell types for normal homeostasis and wound healing. [source]

    Endomyocardial biopsy derived adherent proliferating cells,A potential cell source for cardiac tissue engineering

    Marion Haag
    Abstract Heart diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Cardiac stem cells (CSC) are considered as candidates for cardiac-directed cell therapies. However, clinical translation is hampered since their isolation and expansion is complex. We describe a population of human cardiac derived adherent proliferating (CAP) cells that can be reliably and efficiently isolated and expanded from endomyocardial biopsies (0.1,cm3). Growth kinetics revealed a mean cell doubling time of 49.9,h and a high number of 2.54,×,107 cells in passage 3. Microarray analysis directed at investigating the gene expression profile of human CAP cells demonstrated the absence of the hematopoietic cell markers CD34 and CD45, and of CD90, which is expressed on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and fibroblasts. These data were confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. CAP cells could not be differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, or myoblasts, demonstrating the absence of multilineage potential. Moreover, despite the expression of heart muscle markers like ,-sarcomeric actin and cardiac myosin, CAP cells cannot be differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Regarding functionality, CAP cells were especially positive for many genes involved in angiogenesis like angiopoietin-1, VEGF, KDR, and neuropilins. Globally, principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis and comparison with microarray data from many undifferentiated and differentiated reference cell types, revealed a unique identity of CAP cells. In conclusion, we have identified a unique cardiac tissue derived cell type that can be isolated and expanded from endomyocardial biopsies and which presents a potential cell source for cardiac repair. Results indicate that these cells rather support angiogenesis than cardiomyocyte differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 109: 564,575, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]