Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Campaign

  • action campaign
  • advertising campaign
  • awareness campaign
  • communication campaign
  • education campaign
  • educational campaign
  • election campaign
  • eradication campaign
  • field campaign
  • general election campaign
  • global campaign
  • health campaign
  • health promotion campaign
  • information campaign
  • marketing campaign
  • measurement campaign
  • media campaign
  • military campaign
  • national campaign
  • organising campaign
  • political campaign
  • presidential campaign
  • promotion campaign
  • prophylaxis campaign
  • public campaign
  • public health campaign
  • public relations campaign
  • sampling campaign
  • screening campaign
  • successful campaign
  • vaccination campaign

  • Terms modified by Campaign

  • campaign contribution
  • campaign effort
  • campaign finance
  • campaign finance law
  • campaign message
  • campaign period

  • Selected Abstracts

    Challenges to Farmworker Organizing in the South: From the Southern Tenant Farmers Union to the Farm Labor Organizing Committee's Mt. Olive Campaign

    Professor David Griffith
    First page of article [source]

    From scrubland to vintage wine: Australia's response to substance-related problems in the last 40 years,

    Abstract Over the last 40 years Australia's response to substance-related problems compared with most western nations has been outstandingly good. Since the 1960s concerns about problems of substance use have expanded from a focus on alcohol to include tobacco and a wide range of other licit as well as illicit psychoactive substances. During this period there have been major advances in our knowledge and understanding of substance-related problems and effective methods of prevention, intervention and treatment. In parallel has been the development of a large number of non-government, government and professional organizations concerned with problems of substance use. These groups, individually and collectively, have contributed to the development of policies, plans, resources and programmes to prevent and minimize substance-related harm. Although significant progress in these endeavours took place between 1960 and 1986, there has been accelerated growth since and largely as a result of the establishment of the National Campaign Against Drug Abuse in 1986 and the ensuing National Drug Strategy and the Illicit Drug Strategy. However, much of this more recent success was possible because of the existence of the organizations, networks and infrastructures established in the earlier period and the Nation's general health, social and educational programmes. These initiatives have been associated with reductions in alcohol and tobacco use and related problems and evidence of reductions in some problem areas associated with illicit drug use. Despite these gains, there have been areas of failure and missed opportunities. Finally, it is critical to ensure that past achievements and opportunities for continued successful initiatives are not undermined by identifiable impediments and risks that could imperil the philosophy, goals, infrastructure and programmes that form the basis for Australia's success to date. [source]

    Phenobarbital for the Treatment of Epilepsy in the 21st Century: A Critical Review

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2004
    Patrick Kwan
    Summary:, Phenobarbital (PB) is the most widely used antiepileptic drug (AED) in the developing world and remains a popular choice in many industrialized countries. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials suggest that few differences in efficacy exist between PB and other established AEDs, but its possible deleterious cognitive and behavioral side effects remain a concern in the developed world. In contrast, high degrees of efficacy and tolerability in everyday clinical use have been demonstrated consistently in observational studies in developing countries. We propose that a pragmatic, comprehensive outcomes program be carried out, perhaps under the aegis of the Global Campaign Against Epilepsy, to optimize the conditions of the use of PB, so that more people around the world can benefit from this cost-effective medication and live more fulfilling lives. [source]

    Migraine Disability Awareness Campaign in Asia: Migraine Assessment for Prophylaxis

    HEADACHE, Issue 9 2008
    Shuu-Jiun Wang MD
    Objectives., This study aimed to survey the headache diagnoses and consequences among outpatients attending neurological services in 8 Asian countries. Methods., This survey recruited patients who consulted neurologists for the first time with the chief complaint of headache. Patients suffering from headaches for 15 or more days per month were excluded. Patients answered a self-administered questionnaire, and their physicians independently completed a separate questionnaire. In this study, the migraine diagnosis given by the neurologists was used for analysis. The headache symptoms collected in the physician questionnaire were based on the diagnostic criteria of migraine proposed by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-2). Results., A total of 2782 patients (72% females; mean age 38.1 ± 15.1 years) finished the study. Of them, 66.6% of patients were diagnosed by the neurologists to have migraine, ranging from 50.9% to 85.8% across different countries. Taken as a group, 41.4% of those patients diagnosed with migraine had not been previously diagnosed to have migraine prior to this consultation. On average, patients with migraine had 4.9 severe headaches per month with 65% of patients missing school, work, or household chores. Most (87.5%) patients with migraine took medications for acute treatment. Thirty-six percent of the patients had at least one emergency room consultation within one year. Only 29.2% were on prophylactic medications. Neurologists recommended pharmacological prophylaxis in 68.2% of patients not on preventive treatment. In comparison, migraine prevalence was the highest with ICHD-2 "any migraine" (ie, migraine with or without migraine and probable migraine) (73.3%) followed by neurologist-diagnosed migraine (66.6%) and ICHD-2 "strict migraine" (ie, migraine with or without aura only) (51.3%). About 88.6% patients with neurologist-diagnosed migraine fulfilled ICHD-2 any migraine but only 67.1% fulfilled the criteria of ICHD-2 strict migraine. Conclusions., Migraine is the most common headache diagnosis in neurological services in Asia. The prevalence of migraine was higher in countries with higher referral rates of patients to neurological services. Migraine remains under-diagnosed and under-treated in this region even though a high disability was found in patients with migraine. Probable migraine was adopted into the migraine diagnostic spectrum by neurologists in this study. [source]

    Potential Savings from an Evidence-Based Consumer-Oriented Public Education Campaign on Prescription Drugs

    Julie M. Donohue
    Objective. To estimate potential savings associated with the Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs program, a national educational program that provides consumers with price and effectiveness information on prescription drugs. Data Sources. National data on 2006 prescription sales and retail prices paid for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), ,-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-coA) reductase inhibitors (statins). Study Design. We converted national data on aggregate unit sales of drugs in the four classes to defined daily doses (DDD) and estimated a range of potential savings from generic and therapeutic substitution. Principal Findings. We estimated that $2.76 billion, or 7.83 percent of sales, could be saved if use of the drugs recommended by the educational program was increased. The recommended drugs' prices were 15,65 percent lower per DDD than their therapeutic alternatives. The majority (57.4 percent) of potential savings would be achieved through therapeutic substitution. Conclusions. Substantial savings can be achieved through greater use of comparatively effective and lower cost drugs recommended by a national consumer education program. However, barriers to dissemination of consumer-oriented drug information must be addressed before savings can be realized. [source]

    Editorials: From the World Stroke Day to the World Stroke Campaign: one in six: act now!

    Markku Kaste
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Human Rights of Migrants: Challenges of the New Decade

    Patrick A. Taran
    This review summarizes main trends, issues, debates, actors and initiatives regarding recognition and extension of protection of the human rights of migrants. Its premise is that the rule of law and universal notions of human rights are essential foundations for democratic society and social peace. Evidence demonstrates that violations of migrants' human rights are so widespread and commonplace that they are a defining feature of international migration today. About 150 million persons live outside their countries; in many States, legal application of human rights norms to non-citizens is inadequate or seriously deficient, especially regarding irregular migrants. Extensive hostility against, abuse of and violence towards migrants and other non-nationals has become much more visible worldwide in recent years. Research, documentation and analysis of the character and extent of problems and of effective remedies remain minimal. Resistance to recognition of migrants' rights is bound up in exploitation of migrants in marginal, low status, inadequately regulated or illegal sectors of economic activity. Unauthorized migrants are often treated as a reserve of flexible labour, outside the protection of labour safety, health, minimum wage and other standards, and easily deportable. Evidence on globalization points to worsening migration pressures in many parts of the world. Processes integral to globalization have intensified disruptive effects of modernization and capitalist development, contributing to economic insecurity and displacement for many. Extension of principles in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights culminated in the 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. With little attention, progress in ratifications was very slow until two years ago. A global campaign revived attention; entry into force is likely in 2001. Comparative analysis notes that ILO migrant worker Conventions have generally achieved objectives but States have resisted adoption of any standards on treatment of non-nationals. A counter-offensive against human rights as universal, indivisible and inalienable underlies resistance to extension of human rights protection to migrants. A parallel trend is deliberate association of migration and migrants with criminality. Trafficking has emerged as a global theme contextualizing migration in a framework of combatting organized crime and criminality, subordinating human rights protections to control and anti-crime measures. Intergovernmental cooperation on migration "management" is expanding rapidly, with functioning regional intergovernmental consultative processes in all regions, generally focused on strengthening inter-state cooperation in controlling and preventing irregular migration through improved border controls, information sharing, return agreements and other measures. Efforts to defend human rights of migrants and combat xenophobia remain fragmented, limited in impact and starved of resources. Nonetheless, NGOs in all regions provide orientation, services and assistance to migrants, public education and advocating respect for migrants rights and dignity. Several international initiatives now highlight migrant protection concerns, notably the UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights of Migrants, the Global Campaign promoting the 1990 UN Convention, UN General Assembly proclamation of International Migrants Day, the 2001 World Conference Against Racism and Xenophobia, anti-discrimination activity by ILO, and training by IOM. Suggestions to governments emphasize the need to define comprehensive, coordinated migration policy and practice based on economic, social and development concerns rather than reactive control measures to ensure beneficial migration, social harmony, and dignified treatment of nationals and non-nationals. NGOs, businesses, trade unions, and religious groups are urged to advocate respect for international standards, professionalize services and capacities, take leadership in opposing xenophobic behaviour, and join international initiatives. Need for increased attention to migrants rights initiatives and inter-agency cooperation by international organizations is also noted. [source]

    Effectiveness of a Media Campaign to Reduce

    Traffic Crashes Involving Young Drivers
    This article describes the evaluation of a 4-1/2-month multimedia traffic-safety campaign that targeted young drivers in northeastern Tennessee. Discussion groups with teenagers provided the basis for public-service announcements (TV, radio, and billboard), which were developed specifically for this intervention. To determine the impact on crash frequencies among drivers 16,19 years old, baseline, intervention, and follow-up crash data were obtained from statistics maintained by the state. A time-series analysis of these data indicated that during the intervention period, there was a 21.6% decrease in crashes for which 16,19-year-old drivers were at fault, whereas a control location in southeastern Tennessee exhibited no significant change. [source]


    Article first published online: 20 SEP 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Testing the Long-Term Effects of the Go Sun Smart Worksite Health Communication Campaign: A Group-Randomized Experimental Study

    Peter A. Andersen
    This study examined the long-term effects of the Go Sun Smart (GSS) campaign, a large-scale health communication intervention designed to promote sun safety to employees at 26 ski areas in western North America. Employees were enrolled in a pair-matched group-randomized pretest,posttest controlled design with 2 follow-up surveys. Half of the ski areas were randomly assigned to implement GSS in the winter. This article reports analyses of a hierarchical linear design with responses from 1,463 employees who completed the second follow-up survey at the end of the following summer (69% of those who completed the first posttest). GSS continued to have positive effects on employees who worked at intervention ski areas into the summer. Employees exposed to GSS reported less sunburning, engaged in more sun safety behaviors, were more aware of the program, and had more discussions of sun safety at home than employees at matched control group resorts. The long-term effects of GSS support recommending that sun protection programs be implemented at workplaces, but such programs should be implemented with high fidelity to achieve maximum benefits. Despite limitations due to nonresponse, geography, measurement, and ethnicity, the hierarchical clustered design improved the internal validity and generalizability of the findings. [source]

    The Effects of Negativity and Motivated Information Processing During a Political Campaign

    Michael F. Meffert
    This research investigated how voters select, process, are affected by, and recall political information in a dynamic campaign environment. It was hypothesized that voters' information selection, processing, and recall are subject to a negativity bias (i.e., negative information dominates over positive information), a congruency bias (i.e., positive information about the preferred candidate and negative information about the opponent candidate dominate over negative information about the preferred candidate and positive information about the opponent), and a candidate bias (i.e., information about the preferred candidate dominates over information about the opponent). Motivated by an initial candidate preference, participants were also expected to develop more polarized candidate evaluations over time. Participants were exposed to quickly changing information in the form of newspaper-style headlines on a dynamic, computer-based information board. The results generally supported negativity bias and candidate bias, whereas congruency bias was only found during information recall. At the information selection and processing stages, participants with a strong initial candidate preference showed a disproportionate preference for negative information about the preferred candidate. However, they developed more positive attitudes at the evaluation and recall stage. This finding suggests that participants were engaged in motivated information processing by counterarguing negative information about their preferred candidate. [source]

    To Prevail: An American Strategy for the Campaign against Terrorism by Kurt M. Campbell and Michele A. Flournoy.

    $18.95 paper., 416 pp., DC: CSIS Press, Washington

    LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude resolution

    R. Avila
    ABSTRACT We report the development and first results of an instrument called Low Layer SCIDAR (Scintillation Detection and Ranging) (LOLAS) which is aimed at the measurement of optical-turbulence profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer with high altitude resolution. The method is based on the Generalized SCIDAR (GS) concept, but unlike the GS instruments which need a 1-m or larger telescope, LOLAS is implemented on a dedicated 40-cm telescope, making it an independent instrument. The system is designed for widely separated double-star targets, which enables the high altitude resolution. Using a 200-arcsec-separation double star, we have obtained turbulence profiles with unprecedented 12-m resolution. The system incorporates necessary novel algorithms for autoguiding, autofocus and image stabilization. The results presented here were obtained at Mauna Kea Observatory. They show LOLAS capabilities but cannot be considered as representative of the site. A forthcoming paper will be devoted to the site characterization. The instrument was built as part of the Ground Layer Turbulence Monitoring Campaign on Mauna Kea for Gemini Observatory. [source]

    Humanitarian aid beyond "bare survival": Social movement responses to xenophobic violence in South Africa

    ABSTRACT In this article, I investigate responses to the humanitarian crisis that emerged following the May 2008 xenophobic violence against South African nonnationals that resulted in 62 deaths and the displacement of well over 30,000 people. I focus specifically on how a South African AIDS activist movement, the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) and its partners, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF,Doctors Without Borders) and the AIDS Law Project (ALP), translated a particular style and strategy of AIDS activism into legal, medical, humanitarian, and political responses to the massive population displacement. The TAC provided relief to displaced people in the form of basic needs, such as food, clothes, and blankets, as well as legal aid, and it engaged in activism that promoted the rights of the refugees. I investigate how the ideas and practices of global agencies such as the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) were deployed and reinterpreted by TAC activists. I also examine how TAC activists involved in assisting the refugees drew on a global humanitarian assemblage of categories, legal definitions, norms and standards, and procedures and technologies that went beyond the simple management of "bare life." TAC's shift from fighting for antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to fighting for refugees' rights reveals a "politics of life" that spans multiple issues, networks, and constituencies. It is also a politics that, at times, strategically deploys standardized bureaucratic logics and biopolitical techniques of humanitarian aid. [source]

    Breastfeeding policies and the production of motherhood: a historical,cultural approach

    NURSING INQUIRY, Issue 1 2003
    Dagmar Estermann Meyer
    Breastfeeding policies and the production of motherhood: a historical,cultural approach This paper revisits some of the aspects that allow us to situate historically the process that has been called the ,politicization of women's breasts'. It is part of a broader research project being undertaken in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, which is studying information from the educational material used in the National Campaign for the Incentive of Breastfeeding. The methodological approach used is cultural analysis, and its theoretical basis is informed by feminist studies and cultural studies, from a poststructuralist perspective. Knowledges and practices that produce notions of maternity are problematized to argue that current political and economic arrangements have necessitated a redefinition of motherhood. This re-signification of motherhood has transferred to women the duty of solving an array of problems that were previously considered government's responsibility, in particular those related to the physical and emotional development of infants. [source]

    Advocates in the Age of Jazz: Women and the Campaign for the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill

    PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 3 2003
    Mary Jane Brown
    More than three thousand people, predominantly African American males, were lynched in the United States between 1892 and 1940. Occurring mostly in the South, lynching was a means that white southerners used to enforce white supremacy and prevent African Americans from achieving political, social, and economic gains after the Civil War ended slavery. White southerners declared that the threat of black men raping white women necessitated lynching. They further argued that inaction by the courts and the black community's shielding of criminals justified mob action, theories that gained wide acceptance in the South and that were commonly accepted in the North as well. In the 1890s, black women, led by anti-lynching advocate Ida B. Wells-Barnett, began a protest against lynching that swelled into a sizable movement. Under Wells-Barnett's leadership, anti-lynching activists dismantled the theory of white women's protection and formulated a strategy of investigation and exposure that became the template for future anti-lynching drives. When the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was founded in 1909, it made anti-lynching a priority and drew black and white women to its anti-lynching battle. By the 1920s, women 's anti-lynching activity had become essential to the NAACP's drive for federal anti-lynching legislation and its campaign for passage of the Dyer bill. NAACP secretary Walter White's reliance on women increased throughout the 1920s, and women, courted both as voters and moral authorities, achieved a new level of importance in social movements and drives for legislation. This marked the beginning of the NAACP's twenty-year struggle for federal anti-lynching legislation, a campaign in which black and white women worked cooperatively and were essential to the campaign for the Dyer bill. [source]

    Candidate Strategies in the Presidential Nomination Campaign

    This article examines the situations under which candidates in multicandidate races go on the attack (both intraparty and interparty), paying special attention to the timing of the attacks, whether the attacker or the attacked is a front-runner or trailing, and candidate ideology. Using ad tracking data from the 2004 and 2008 U.S. presidential nomination campaigns and detailed polling data from each state, the authors find that timing is an important consideration in launching an attack and that candidate ideology determines who gets attacked. While candidate standing and candidate resources have little influence on intraparty attack behavior, both are important predictors of attacks across party lines. [source]

    Text and Context in the 1952 Presidential Campaign: Eisenhower's "I Shall Go to Korea" Speech

    This article examines the textual context of Eisenhower's famous "I Shall Go to Korea" speech, delivered during the closing days of the 1952 presidential campaign. Four interlocking contexts of discourse are identified,the discourses of cold war, foreign policy, Korea, and the Eisenhower persona. By rhetorically activating each of these contexts, Eisenhower invited his listeners to understand his speech not merely as a campaign pledge but as a rhetorically, historically, psychologically, and ideologically satisfying means of making sense of the Korean War. Dramatically structured in the form of a courtroom case, with Eisenhower taking on the roles of both prosecuting attorney and witness, the "I Shall Go to Korea" speech was rhetorically tailored to take advantage of the audience's preexisting beliefs, values, and attitudes. [source]

    Punishment and Forgiveness in Israel's Migratory Campaign , By Won W. Lee

    Tyler Mayfield
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Educating the Least Informed: Group Endorsements in a Grassroots Campaign

    Kevin Arceneaux
    Theories of low-information rationality claim that uninformed voters can compensate for their lack of political knowledge by employing heuristics, such as interest group endorsements, to make voting decisions as if they were fully informed. Critics of low-information rationality contend that politically unaware voters are unlikely to use group endorsements effectively as a heuristic since they are unlikely to know the political relevance of interest groups. We address this debate by entertaining the possibility that contextual information coupled with a source cue may enhance the effectiveness of group endorsements as a heuristic. We test competing expectations with a field experiment conducted during the 2006 election in two highly competitive Pennsylvania statehouse races where a well-known liberal interest group endorsed Democratic candidates and canvassed both core supporters and Republicans believed to be likeminded. Our results reveal that Republicans used the endorsement as a negative voting cue and that the group's endorsement helped some Republicans compensate for their lack of awareness about politics. [source]

    Prospecting for (Campaign) Gold

    Wendy K. Tam Cho
    Campaigns and political parties are faced with the immensely important practical challenge of financing their efforts. Raising money is instrumental to all other aims. In recent years, this task has been complicated by the need to enlist ever greater numbers of contributors to raise ever larger sums of money. At the same time, fundraising burdens are eased a bit because contributors flock together. That is, campaign contributing is a spatially dependent phenomenon, associated with affluence and the presence of networks. Accordingly, geospatial tools provide a helpful method for understanding and predicting where contributions can be most successfully mined. [source]

    A Glorious Disaster: Barry Goldwater's Presidential Campaign and the Origins of the Conservative Movement , By J. William Middendorf II

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 4 2009
    John J. Langdale III
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Equipment Dealers'Perceptions of a Community-based Rollover Protective Structures Promotion Campaign

    Timothy W. Struttmann M.S.P.H
    ABSTRACT Farming is one of the most hazardous occupations, and tractor overturns are the leading cause of agricultural fatalities. This article examines a community-based injury intervention designed to increase the number of rollover protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts on tractors and to promote safe operation of farm tractors in two counties. Equipment dealers who sell retrofit ROPS kits to farmers were a critical component of the intervention. Interviews were conducted with dealers after the 31-month intervention period to understand their perceptions, any difficulties they experienced as a result of the project and how a similar project could be improved. Comments were analyzed in relation to theories of persuasion. Results indicated that dealers believed the intervention was successful in producing behavior change among some farmers. Dealers also provided important insights into why some farmers continued to resist retrofitting tractors with ROPS. Recommendations are offered for designers of community-based interventions beyond the ROPS project described here. [source]

    Albedo, atmospheric solar absorption and heating rate measurements with stacked UAVs

    M. V. Ramana
    Abstract This paper reports unique measurements of albedo, atmospheric solar absorption, and heating rates in the visible (0.4 to 0.7 µm) and broadband (0.3 to 2.8 µm) spectral regions using vertically stacked multiple lightweight autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The most significant finding of this study is that when absorbing aerosols and water vapour concentrations are measured accurately and accounted for in models, and when heating rates are measured directly with stacked aircraft, the simulated clear sky heating rates are consistent with the observed broadband heating rates within experimental errors (about 15%). We conclude that there is no need to invoke anomalous or excess absorption or unknown physics in clear skies. Aerosol,radiation,cloud measurements were made over the tropical Indian Ocean within the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere during the Maldives Autonomous UAV Campaign (MAC). The UAVs and ground-based remote sensing instruments determined most of the parameters required for calculating the albedo and vertical distribution of solar fluxes. The paper provides a refined analytical procedure to reduce errors and biases due to the offset errors arising from mounting of the radiometers on the aircraft and due to the aircraft attitude. Measured fluxes have been compared with those derived from a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer algorithm which can incorporate both gaseous and aerosol components. Under cloud-free conditions the calculated and measured incoming fluxes agree within 2,10 W m,2 (<1%) depending upon the altitudes. Similarly, the measured and calculated reflected fluxes agreed within 2,5 W m,2 (<5%). The analysis focuses on a cloud-free day when the air was polluted due to long-range transport from India, and the mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) was 0.31 and mean single scattering albedo was 0.92. The UAV-measured absorption AOD was 0.019 which agreed within 20% of the value of 0.024 reported by a ground-based instrument. The observed and simulated solar absorption agreed within 5% above 1.0 km and aerosol absorption accounted for 30% to 50% of the absorption depending upon the altitude and solar zenith angle. Thus there was no need to invoke spurious or anomalous absorption, provided we accounted for aerosol black carbon. The diurnal mean absorption values for altitudes between 0.5 and 3.0 km above mean sea level were observed to be 41 ± 3 W m,2 (1.5 K/day) in the broadband region and 8 ± 2 W m,2 (0.3 K/day) in the visible region. The contribution of absorbing aerosols to the heating rate was an order of magnitude larger than the contribution of CO2 and one-third that of the water vapour. In the lowest 3 km of the tropical atmosphere, aerosols accounted for more than 80% of the atmospheric absorption in the visible region. Copyright © 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Impact study of the 2003 North Atlantic THORPEX Regional Campaign

    Nadia Fourrié
    Abstract An experiment took place during autumn 2003 with the aim of testing the feasibility of an operational targeting of observations over the North Atlantic Ocean in the context of the international programme THORPEX. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of these additional observations in the French operational model ARPEGE during the last three weeks of the campaign. Results are shown for large regions over and around the North Atlantic Ocean and for specific verification areas. Over Europe, the addition of observations is slightly beneficial for the forecast, mostly in the low troposphere over wide areas and above 100 hPa. However, the impact of extra data is more significant but also more mixed for the dedicated verification areas: they are case, forecast-range and level dependent. In addition, the information content is studied with the Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DFS) for the evaluation of the observation impact on the analysis of one case of December 2003. Firstly, the variations of the DFS have been illustrated in a simplified data assimilation system. It has been found for that case that satellite data have the most important global contribution to the overall analysis, especially the humidity sensitive infrared radiances. For the conventional data, the wind measurements of the aircraft and from the geostationary satellites are the most informative. For the targeted area, the data from aircraft and the dropsondes have the largest DFS. It has been noted that the DFS of the dropsondes located in the sensitivity maximum is larger than the other one even if there is no link between the DFS and the forecast. However, the impact of the dropsondes grows with respect to the forecast range and leads to an improvement of the forecast for this case. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Front and Back Covers, Volume 26, Number 5.

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 5 2010
    October 2010
    Front and back cover caption, volume 26 issue 5 Front cover RETHINKING SUICIDE BOMBING The body is a key focus for anthropological research and analysis. The cover photographs highlight the way multiple aspects of life, including political life, are mapped onto the body, and the emergence of a collective, as well as individual, identity through these experiences. The front cover shows a young Palestinian boy staring at an Israeli guard's gun, inches from his face, while waiting at the Abu Dis checkpoint in East Jerusalem. Although the scene is calm, the photograph captures an implicit violence (any step out of line can and will be punished) and reveals the daily reality of political and structural violence in the lives of Palestinians. In this image, the child can be seen as an individual who may experience personal trauma as a result of these daily encounters with violence. But he can also be seen as representing a collective Palestinian body which, under the occupation, is humiliated and forced into a childlike position, with daily decisions, including over movement, entirely in the control of Israeli forces. In her article in this issue, Natalia Linos calls on anthropology to offer a critical analysis of suicide bombing and examine the central role of the body in this act. She posits that in a context of political and structural violence that encroaches on both individual and group identity, suicide attacks may be considered an extreme form of reclaiming the violated body through self-directed violence. Through suicide attacks in public spaces, the body may be used to contest physical barriers imposed by an oppressor, resist power imbalances, and reclaim authority over one's body as well as geographical space. Back cover ASSEMBLING BODIES The back cover shows a South African ,body map', on display at the University of Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (MAA) until 6 November 2010 as part of the exhibition ,Assembling bodies: Art, science and imagination', reviewed in this issue. This self-portrait by Babalwa depicts her life as an activist and epitomizes the ethical and political negotiations that surround definition and treatment of particular bodies in contemporary South Africa. Babalwa was a member of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), which successfully campaigned for the widespread availability of antiretroviral treatment therapies. Her self-portrait is one of a series of life-sized body maps made by members of the Bambanani Womens Group in 2003, as part of a project documenting the lives of women with HIV/AIDS. The body maps and associated narratives trace the co-existence of multiple ways of understanding and experiencing bodies and disease in these women's lives. The imagery , referring to family and friends, political life, biomedical science, anatomical details, moral pollution and religious beliefs , suggests many bodies existing within a single corporeal form. In addition to revealing individual subjectivities, the body maps also highlight the shifting dynamics of sociality. Behind each self-portrait is the outline of another shadowy form, a reminder of the help received and the potential for future support. [source]

    Geographers Mobilize: A Network-Diffusion Analysis of the Campaign to Free Ghazi-Walid Falah1

    ANTIPODE, Issue 2 2010
    Mark De Socio
    Abstract:, In summer 2006, Professor Ghazi-Walid Falah, a political geographer and editor-in-chief of the journal,Arab World Geographer, was arrested by Israeli police after taking photographs of rural landscapes in Northern Galilee. Falah was subsequently held for 23 days,,incommunicado,,and without charge. An international campaign to "Free Ghazi" was launched by his family, friends and colleagues, largely over academic listservs and other media. Utilizing social network analysis and contextualizing the campaign within structures of telecommunications technologies, the purpose of this paper is to assess the various factors that contributed to the campaign's coalescence, its rapid development, and its global reach. [source]

    Women of Steel: Constructing and Contesting New Gendered Geographies of Work in the Australian Steel Industry

    ANTIPODE, Issue 2 2000
    Liza Tonkin
    The article argues that although structuralist-inspired approaches to steel restructuring have provided significant insights and recognised the role of "labour" in sectoral change, such studies have predominantly equated labour politics with unionism, downplaying the impact of other forms of workers' politics. This has created a problematic disjunction between "real world" events and academic research, with ensuing issues for policy development and delivery. In response to this difficulty, the paper builds on Herod's concept of a labour geography to develop multiple labour geographies of power, an approach that describes different forms of workers' politics. To illustrate this approach, the paper presents female steelworkers' politics of restructuring. It details the Jobs for Women Campaign in Wollongong, Australia, a 1980s place-based initiative that sought to gain blue-collar employment for women in the local steelworks. The study demonstrates how female steelworkers developed restructuring politics addressing gender and employment discrimination, issues not normally associated with labour politics. The paper concludes that such workers' struggles need to be analysed as they affect restructuring impacts and processes. [source]

    Worth Fighting For: Inside the ,Your Rights at Work' Campaign , By Kathie Muir

    Amanda Tattersall
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Building a Better Youth Antismoking Campaign

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]