Bull Calves (bull + calf)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Proteome analysis of early post-mortem changes in two bovine muscle types: M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosis

Xiaohong Jia
Abstract To study early post-mortem changes in muscle tissues from bull calves, cytosole proteins from two muscles: M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and M. semitendinosis (ST) at 0 and 24,h after slaughter were analysed by 2-DE. Principal component analysis (PCA) and rotation testing were used to analyse the protein patterns in the two muscles in order to select protein spots that were significantly different at the two time-points. Selected proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Five proteins, namely cofilin, lactoylglutathione lyase, substrate protein of mitochondrial ATP-dependent proteinase SP-22, HSP 27 and HSP20, were changed in both LD and ST muscles during post-mortem storage. Fifteen additional protein changes were observed in either LD or ST muscles, and some of these changes have not previously been observed to change during post-mortem storage of bovine muscles. Further studies will reveal the relevance of these biomarkers for meat quality. [source]

Post-natal Changes in Testicular Concentrations of Interleukin-1 Alpha and Beta and Interleukin-6 during Sexual Maturation in Bulls

ET Bagu
Contents Based on observations in laboratory animals interleukins could be regulators of testicular development. The objects of this study were to see if interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6) are present in the developing bull testis and to establish the temporal patterns of concentrations of IL-1 and IL-6 in the bovine testis during development. Separate groups of six bull calves were castrated every 4 weeks from 5 to 33 weeks of age, and at 56 weeks of age. Mean testicular IL-1 alpha concentrations decreased (p < 0.01) from 5 to 9 weeks of age and 13 to 21 weeks of age. Mean testicular IL-1 beta concentrations decreased (p < 0.01) from 13 to 17 weeks of age and from 29 to 33 weeks of age. Mean IL-1 bioactivity increased from 13 to 17 weeks of age, decreased to 21 weeks, increased to 25 weeks, decreased to 29 weeks and decreased from 33 to 56 weeks of age (p < 0.05). Mean testicular IL-6 concentrations decreased (p < 0.05) from 9 to 13 weeks of age, increased (p < 0.05) to 21 weeks, decreased (p < 0.05) to 25 weeks, increased (p < 0.05) to 29 weeks and decreased (p < 0.01) to 56 weeks of age. In conclusion, testicular IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 were found in the bovine testis and concentrations were age dependent. Testicular IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta concentrations were highest in the early post-natal period; however, IL-1 bioactivity and IL-6 concentrations were greatest in the immediate pre-pubertal period. These findings suggest a functional role for interleukins in testicular development in the bull. [source]

Bovine umbilical hernia maps to the centromeric end of Bos taurus autosome 8

M. Ron
Summary Twelve bull calves were produced by mating elite Israeli cows to ,Glenhapton Enhancer', a Canadian Holstein bull. The frequency of umbilical hernia (UH) in the progeny of the sons ranged from 1 to 21%, consistent with the hypothesis that Enhancer is the carrier of major dominant or codominant gene with partial penetrance for UH. Five sons of Enhancer produced progeny with >10% frequency of UH including sire 3259, whereas progeny of three sons had <3% UH. A total of 116 grand-progeny of Enhancer, all progeny of 3259, were genotyped for 59 microsatellites spanning the 29 bovine autosomes. Of these offspring, 41 were affected. Significant differences in paternal allele frequencies between the affected and unaffected progeny groups were found for marker BMS1591 on bovine chromosome 8 (BTA8). The UH-associated paternal allele originated from Enhancer. The chromosomal segment associated with UH was more precisely mapped between UWCA47, on the centromeric end of BTA8 and RM321, 12 cM from the centromere. A maximum LOD score of 3.84 was obtained 2.5 cM from the centromere with a support interval of 8 cM. Haplotype analysis of eight sons of Enhancer suggested that the UH gene is located in the centromeric end of BTA8 beyond ARO71/ARO72. Thus, by integrating the results from progeny of sire 3259 and sons of Enhancer the location of the UH gene was further refined to the BTA8 segment between ARO71/ARO72 and UWCA47. [source]

The effect of experimental inhibition of gastric acid secretion on curd formation in abomasum and weight gain of calves

ABSTRACT Eight Holstein bull calves were divided into two groups; a non-treated control group and a famotidine treated group. Fresh milk was fed twice a day. The experiment was conducted between 7 and 14 days of age. During the experimental period the control group was injected with physiological saline, and the famotidine group was injected with famotidine, a histamine-H2-receptor blocker, into the jugular vein 30 minutes prior to each feeding. The control group showed maximum curd formation 2 h after feeding at both 7 and 14 days of age. Curd scores of 7-day-old and 14-day-old calves were significantly lower in the famotidine than in the control group at 2 and 4 h after feeding. Most fecal samples from the famotidine group exhibited an acidic smell. The famotidine group showed significantly lower values for both average weight gain and the rate of weight gain from 7 to 14 days of age. The inhibition of gastric acid secretion decreased curd formation in the abomasum as well as daily weight gain compared to non-treated control calves. This suggested that curd formation in the abomasum is important for the weight gain of newborn calves. [source]

Effects of feeding level of milk replacer on body growth, plasma metabolite and insulin concentrations, and visceral organ growth of suckling calves

Mitsuru KAMIYA
ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate effects of feeding level of milk replacer on body growth, plasma metabolite and insulin concentrations, and allometric growth of visceral organs in suckling calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 8; 3,4 days of age) were fed either a low amount (average 0.63 kgDM/day, LM) or high amount (average 1.15 kgDM/day, HM) of high protein milk replacer until they were slaughtered at 6 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) at 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age, feed intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency were higher in the HM than LM calves. The HM group had higher plasma glucose at 3 and 4 weeks of age and insulin levels after the age of 4 weeks compared with LM calves whereas no effect was detected on plasma nonesterified fatty acid or urea nitrogen concentrations. The HM calves had greater empty body weight (EBW), viscera-free BW and most of the organs dissected than LM calves. Relative weights (% of EBW) of liver, spleen, kidneys, and internal fat were higher, whereas head and large intestine was lower in HM than LM calves. The results suggest that increased milk feeding levels would accelerate the growth of the body and specific organs. [source]

Bovine fetal microchimerism in normal and embryo transfer pregnancies and its implications for biotechnology applications in cattle

Lauretta Turin Dr.
Abstract Fetal cells and DNA have been detected in the maternal circulation during and after pregnancy in a few mammalian species. The incidence of similar microchimerism in cattle could have repercussion for the application of modern biotechnologies such as the transfer of transgenic embryos. To determine if feto-maternal leakage can occur in pregnant cows, we have analyzed maternal blood samples for the presence of fetal DNA during gestation and post-partum periods. Y chromosome-specific DNA was detected in up to 73% of blood samples from naturally mated heifers carrying conventional bull calves and a transgene-specific sequence in up to 50% of recipient cows carrying transgenic fetuses. These findings document for the first time that transplacental leakage of fetal DNA into the maternal circulation can occur in cattle despite the epitheliochorial placenta of ruminants, with potential implications for the utilization of recipient cows in the food chain. [source]