Buccal Mucosa (buccal + mucosa)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Permeation of Sumatriptan Through Human Vaginal and Buccal Mucosa

HEADACHE, Issue 2 2000
P. Van Der Bijl DSc
Continued interest in the various routes by which sumatriptan may be administered prompted us to investigate its passage through buccal mucosa. Because human buccal mucosa is scarce, we proposed using the relatively abundant vaginal mucosa, which has been shown to have comparable diffusion rates for a number of widely varying molecules, as a model of buccal mucosa. In addition, by comparing these two tissues with respect to their permeability to sumatriptan, the human vaginal/buccal mucosa model could be further evaluated. Clinically healthy human vaginal and buccal mucosa specimens were used in the permeability studies. Permeability to sumatriptan was determined using a continuous flow-through diffusion system in the presence and absence of permeation enhancers. No statistically significant differences in permeability could be demonstrated for both mucosae toward sumatriptan. Flux values obtained in the absence and presence of glycodeoxycholate and lauric acid (1:1 molar ratio) to sumatriptan of buccal and vaginal mucosa, respectively, were not significantly different. The results obtained further support the hypothesis of the vaginal/buccal mucosal in vitro permeability model and suggest that this model may be used in conjunction with various absorption enhancers. Further studies on the buccal route of absorption of sumatriptan are thus warranted. [source]

Fabrication of Myomucosal Flap Using Tissue-engineered Bioartificial Mucosa Constructed With Oral Keratinocytes Cultured on Amniotic Membrane

Kang-Min Ahn
Abstract:, The purpose of this study was to fabricate bioartificial mucosa using cultured oral keratinocytes (OKCs) on an amniotic membrane (AM), and to evaluate the possibility of developing a prelaminated myomucosal flap using the fabricated bioartificial mucosa and local muscle flap. Buccal mucosa was harvested from male New Zealand rabbits (n = 40, 2.5,3.0 kg) and primary cultivation was performed. The cultured OKCs were seeded on the AM and a submerged culture was performed. Prelamination of the bioartificial mucosa was performed on the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of rabbits. Survival rate, layer of OKCs, and Cinamon's score (CS) based on macroscopic and microscopic examinations were evaluated 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after prelamination (n = 10 per day). The OKCs cultured on AM showed multiple layers (3.85 ± 1.32) and cells were tightly adhered with desmosomes. Basal layer cells adhered to the AM with hemidesmosomes. In addition, the AM played an excellent role as a substrate for the OKCs and simplified handling during prelamination. A myomucosal flap with OKCs cultured on AM was fabricated within 2 weeks (CS: 11.05 ± 2.63). The basement component of laminin was observed 2 weeks after prelamination and showed enough strength to adhere to the underlying fascia. A myomucosal flap was successfully developed using prelamination of bioartificial mucosa on the LD muscle between 10 and 14 days. [source]

Intraoral Extraction of Cheek Skin Cyst

Richard Bennett MD
Background. When a physician encounters a benign subcutaneous cyst in the cheek, his or her decision whether to excise and how to excise the cyst takes into account the potential risk of postsurgical scarring. Objective. To describe and show an intraoral buccal mucosal approach to excising a cyst in the inferior-anterior cheek so that skin scarring is avoided. Method. An incision was made intraorally in the buccal mucosa, and dissection was carried through the buccinator muscle until the cyst wall was seen. Careful separation of tissue around the cyst was done by blunt dissection, and the unruptured cyst was removed through the buccal mucosal incision. Result. The entire intact cyst was removed without creating any excision marks in the cheek skin. No complications were encountered, and buccal mucosal healing was excellent. Conclusion. A buccal mucosal intraoral approach is an alternative to a percutaneous excision to remove a cyst in the lower cheek region. The intraoral approach avoids a visible scar on the cheek skin. RICHARD BENNETT, MD, MUBA TAHER, MD, AND JUSTINE YUN, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

Minocycline-Induced Hyperpigmentation of the Tongue: Successful Treatment with the Q-Switched Ruby Laser

Ilyse S. Friedman MD
background. Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation (MIH) is a benign condition that may persist for years despite abrogation of therapy. The Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) has been successful in removing such lesions from the skin. To date there is no documentation of QSRL or any laser being used to treat lingual hyperpigmentation associated with minocycline therapy. objective. Long-term follow-up results are reported for the use of QSRL to treat lingual hyperpigmentation. The literature is reviewed comparing the use of different laser systems on MIH. methods. A 26-year-old woman with pigment changes of the tongue and buccal mucosa due to long-term minocycline therapy was treated with four consecutive sessions with QSRL (694 nm, 20-nsec pulse duration, and 6.5 mm spot size) at 3.6,4.0 J/cm2. results. A 90% resolution was achieved after three treatments. After the final treatment the lesions were completely gone. There were no side effects reported. No new pigment was detected at follow-up. conclusion. Treatment with the QSRL is a safe and effective strategy for treating hyperpigmentation of the tongue associated with minocycline therapy. [source]

The oral health consequences of chewing areca nut

C. R. Trivedy
Its effects on dental caries and periodontal tissues, two major oral diseases, are less well researched. Areca-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa or tongue are reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers a condition known as betel chewer's mucosa, a discoloured areca nut-encrusted change, is often found where the quid particles are retained. Areca nut chewing is implicated in oral leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes in Asian populations. In 1985 the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence to conclude that areca chewing may directly lead to oral cancer. There is, however, new information linking oral cancer to pan chewing without tobacco, suggesting a strong cancer risk associated with this habit. Public health measures to quit areca use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as submucous fibrosis and oral cancer among Asian populations. [source]

Squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: One institution's experience with 119 previously untreated patients,

Eduardo M. Diaz Jr. MD, FACS
Abstract Background. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the buccal mucosa is a rare, but especially aggressive, form of oral cavity cancer, associated with a high rate of locoregional recurrence and poor survival. We reviewed our institution's experience with 119 consecutive, previously untreated patients with buccal SCC. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 250 patients who were seen at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between January, 1974, and December, 1993. Of these, 119 were untreated and were subsequently treated exclusively at our institution. Patients who were previously treated elsewhere or whose lesions arose in other sites and only secondarily involved the buccal mucosa were excluded. Results. Patients with T1- or T2-sized tumors had only a 78% and 66% 5-year survival, respectively. Muscle invasion, Stensen's duct involvement, and extracapsular spread of involved lymph nodes were all associated with decreased survival (p < .05). Surgical salvage for patients with locoregional recurrence after radiation therapy was rarely successful. Conclusions. SCC of the buccal mucosa is a highly aggressive form of oral cavity cancer, with a tendency to recur locoregionally. Patients with buccal mucosa SCC have a worse stage-for-stage survival rate than do patients with other oral cavity sites. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 267,273, 2003 [source]

Permeation of Sumatriptan Through Human Vaginal and Buccal Mucosa

HEADACHE, Issue 2 2000
P. Van Der Bijl DSc
Continued interest in the various routes by which sumatriptan may be administered prompted us to investigate its passage through buccal mucosa. Because human buccal mucosa is scarce, we proposed using the relatively abundant vaginal mucosa, which has been shown to have comparable diffusion rates for a number of widely varying molecules, as a model of buccal mucosa. In addition, by comparing these two tissues with respect to their permeability to sumatriptan, the human vaginal/buccal mucosa model could be further evaluated. Clinically healthy human vaginal and buccal mucosa specimens were used in the permeability studies. Permeability to sumatriptan was determined using a continuous flow-through diffusion system in the presence and absence of permeation enhancers. No statistically significant differences in permeability could be demonstrated for both mucosae toward sumatriptan. Flux values obtained in the absence and presence of glycodeoxycholate and lauric acid (1:1 molar ratio) to sumatriptan of buccal and vaginal mucosa, respectively, were not significantly different. The results obtained further support the hypothesis of the vaginal/buccal mucosal in vitro permeability model and suggest that this model may be used in conjunction with various absorption enhancers. Further studies on the buccal route of absorption of sumatriptan are thus warranted. [source]

Improvement in orofacial granulomatosis on a cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet

Allison White RD
Abstract Background: Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a chronic inflammatory disorder presenting characteristically with lip swelling but also affecting gingivae, buccal mucosa, floor of mouth, and a number of other sites in the oral cavity. Although the cause remains unknown, there is evidence for involvement of a dietary allergen. Patch testing has related responses to cinnamon and benzoate to the symptoms of OFG, with improvement obtained through exclusion diets. However, an objective assessment of the effect of a cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet (CB-free diet) as primary treatment for OFG has not previously been performed. Thus, this study was undertaken to investigate the benefits of a CB-free diet as first-line treatment of patients with OFG. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with a confirmed diagnosis of OFG were identified from a combined oral medicine/gastroenterology clinic. All had received a CB-free diet as primary treatment for a period of 8 weeks. Each patient underwent a standardized assessment of the oral cavity to characterize the number of sites affected and the type of inflammation involved before and after diet. Results: There was a significant improvement in oral inflammation in patients on the diet after 8 weeks. Both global oral and lip inflammatory scores improved (P < 0.001), and there was significant improvement in both lip and oral site and activity involvement. However, improvement in lip activity was less marked than oral activity. Response to a CB-free diet did not appear to be site specific. A history of OFG-associated gut involvement did not predict a response to the diet. Conclusions: The impact of dietary manipulation in patients with OFG can be significant, particularly with regard to oral inflammation. With the disease most prevalent in the younger population, a CB-free diet can be recommended as primary treatment. Subsequent topical or systemic immunomodulatory therapy may then be avoided or used as second line. [source]

Oro-facial granulomatosis: Crohn's disease or a new inflammatory bowel disease?

FRCP, Jeremy Sanderson MD
Abstract Background: Oro-facial granulomatosis (OFG) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder presenting characteristically with lip swelling but also affecting gingivae, buccal mucosa, floor of mouth, and a number of other sites in the oral cavity. Histologically, OFG resembles Crohn's disease (CD), and a number of patients with CD have oral involvement identical to OFG. However, the exact relationship between OFG and CD remains unknown. Methods: Thirty-five patients with OFG and no gut symptoms were identified from a combined oral medicine/gastroenterology clinic. All underwent a standardized assessment of the oral cavity and oral mucosal biopsy to characterize the number of sites affected and the type of inflammation involved. Hematological and biochemical parameters were also recorded. All 35 patients underwent ileocolonoscopy and biopsy to assess the presence of coexistent intestinal inflammation. Results: Ileal or colonic abnormalities were detected in 19/35 (54%) cases. From gut biopsies, granulomas were present in 13/19 cases (64%). An intestinal abnormality was significantly more likely if the age of OFG onset was less than 30 years (P = 0.01). Those with more severe oral inflammation were also more likely to have intestinal inflammation (P = 0.025), and there was also a correlation between the histologic severity of oral inflammation and the histologic severity of gut inflammation (P = 0.047). No relationship was found between any blood parameter and intestinal involvement. Conclusions: Endoscopic and histologic intestinal abnormalities are common in patients with OFG with no gastrointestinal symptoms. Younger patients with OFG are more likely to have concomitant intestinal involvement. In these patients, granulomas are more frequent in endoscopic biopsies than reported in patients with documented CD. OFG with associated intestinal inflammation may represent a separate entity in which granulomatous inflammation occurs throughout the gastrointestinal tract in response to an unknown antigen or antigens. [source]

Oral acanthosis nigricans, tripe palms and sign of leser-trélat in a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma

M. Pentenero DDS
Acanthosis nigricans (AN), tripe palms (TP) and the sign of Leser-Trélat (LT) may be seen with the presence of malignancy. Acanthosis nigricans may have a mucocutaneous localization involving the oral mucosa with papillomatous and verrucous lesions usually on the lips and buccal mucosa. These paraneoplastic dermatoses are generally linked with intra-abdominal malignancy, most often gastric adenocarcinoma. Improvement of the associated dermatoses after the treatment of the malignancy has been frequently observed. We report the case of a 53-year-old man suffering from advanced gastric adenocarcinoma, in which metastases seemed to sustain all three paraneoplastic dermatoses. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of a patient showing manifestations of all three paraneoplastic dermatoses. Patients presenting with this set of dermatoses should be suspected to harbor an occult malignancy, or have persistence of a known malignancy. [source]

Mucous membrane pemphigoid, thymoma, and myasthenia gravis

Haideh Yazdani Sabet
In November 1997, approximately 1 year before being evaluated at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, a 63-year-old woman presented with erosive tongue lesions that were diagnosed by her physician as oral lichen planus. The lesions responded well to 3 months of treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroids and topical antiyeast medication. She stopped taking the medications and had a relapse. A few months after the oral lesions developed, her left eyelid became ptotic. Results of magnetic resonance imaging of her brain were normal, and the ptosis resolved spontaneously after 2 weeks. One year later, her right eyelid began to droop, and the results of edrophonium testing were positive. She was prescribed prednisone, 30 mg daily, and pyridostigmine, as needed. The ptosis improved, but never fully resolved. Radiography revealed a left ,,thyroid nodule,'' but computed tomography did not show a mediastinal mass. She was advised to have the ,,nodule'' removed surgically and came to the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, for a second opinion. Her medical history was significant for the following: tinnitus, glaucoma, early bilateral cataracts, and long-standing hypertension, for which she took losartan, 50 mg twice daily. Other medications included: prednisone, 30 mg daily; pyridostigmine as needed; famotidine, 40 mg daily; and eyedrops for glaucoma. She denied any history of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, head and neck irradiation, family history of thyroid disease, or diplopia. Hepatitis serologic studies revealed hepatitis B exposure and recovery, hepatitis C immunity, and a previous hepatitis A viral infection. On examination at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, an erosive hypertrophic plaque was noted on the posterior dorsal half of the tongue, and vesicles and erythematous erosions on the hard and soft palates ( Fig. 1a). A lace-like white pattern was seen on the buccal mucosa bilaterally, and a small erosive patch on the left buccal mucosa ( Fig. 1b). Ocular and nasal mucous membranes were normal in appearance, and there were no pertinent skin findings. Dermatopathologic examination of an excisional biopsy specimen from the left dorsum of the tongue demonstrated an ulcer with epitheliomatous hyperplasia and a granulomatous reaction, presumably due to yeast infection. Silver staining showed hyphae and yeast at the base of the tongue ulcer. The results of the direct immunofluorescence study were negative and revealed no lichenoid changes on hematoxylin and eosin staining. Indirect immunofluorescence testing of the serum revealed a 1 : 80 titer of basement membrane zone antibodies, reflecting pemphigoid. This test was positive on repeat study. Salt-split skin on monkey esophagus revealed an epidermal pattern of basement membrane zone antibodies. Treatment included fluocinonide gel applied to the involved areas four times daily and oral antiyeast therapy (fluconazole, 200 mg once daily by mouth) while the rest of the evaluation was being completed. Figure 1(a). Erosive hypertrophic tongue plaque. Figure (b) ,. Erosive patch on the buccal mucosa. As part of the evaluation of the ptosis, a myasthenia gravis antibody panel was performed. It revealed the following abnormalities: striated muscle antibody at 1 : 480 (reference range, <1 : 60), acetylcholine receptor binding antibody at 6.33 nmol/L (reference range, ,,0.02 nmol/L), acetylcholine receptor blocking antibody at 31% (reference range, 0,25%), and acetylcholine receptor modulating antibody at 100% (reference range, 0,20%), suggesting thymoma. Treatment included pyridostigmine, 30,45 mg 3,4 times daily, to control the myasthenia symptoms, while the ill-defined neck mass was being evaluated. A mildly enlarged thyroid was noted on physical examination. Hematology panel revealed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the low normal range; the thyroid microsomal antibody was normal. Chest radiography showed minor tracheal deviation, and a previous computed tomogram showed what appeared to be a 3-cm enlarged mass in the thyroid. Ultrasonographically guided thyroid biopsy did not show malignancy, but a benign mesenchymal-type tumor was found and surgical excision was planned. Intraoperatively, a thymoma of the left cervical thymic tongue was found. At 6 months' follow-up, the ptosis and oral mucosal lesions had improved significantly, although she continued topical corticosteroid therapy intermittently for minor erosive oral disease. [source]

A Japanese case of Kindler syndrome

Yasushi Suga MD
A 25-year-old Japanese woman presented with contracture of the fingers and toes, and difficulty in opening her mouth. Her grandparents are first cousins, but none of the other members of the family are affected. Bulla formation started at birth on areas of the skin that received pressure, and in infancy and early childhood the lesions were limited only to the acral areas. She also had bilateral, incomplete syndactylies involving all web spaces ( Fig. 1a). The formation of blisters ceased after the age of 15 years, but a generalized progressive poikiloderma then appeared with accompanying cutaneous atrophy of the skin of the neck, trunk, and extremities ( Fig. 1b). The patient experienced mild photosensitivity of the face and neck. At age 18 years, surgical removal of the webbing of all her fingers was performed. Oral examination showed atrophy of the buccal mucosa, and an inability to fully open the mouth. The patient also suffered from poor dentition and easily bleeding gums, but had no symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Figure 1. Clinical manifestations of the patient with Kindler syndrome. (a) Dorsal surface of the patient's hands. Note the marked cutaneous atrophy with a severely wrinkled appearance on the dorsal surface of the hands, as well as the proximal fusion of the fingers. (b) Lower left leg of the patient. Atrophic thinning of the skin and poikiloderma with reticular pigmentation are evident Histology of separate biopsy specimens, taken from the poikilodermatous pretibial and trunk skin, showed classical features of poikiloderma, namely epidermal atrophy with flattening of the rete ridges, vacuolization of basal keratinocytes, pigmentary incontinence, and mild dermal perivascularization ( Fig. 2a). Interestingly, dyskeratotic cells ( Fig. 2b) and eosinophilic rounded bodies (colloid bodies) ( Fig. 2c) were frequently found at the basal keratinocyte layer and in the upper dermis, respectively. Pigment was also present in the upper epidermis. Figure 2. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of a biopsy specimen taken from pretibial skin. (a) Epidermal atrophy with flattening of the rete ridges. Note the dyskeratotic cells (arrowheads) and vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer in the epidermis. Bar = 50 ,m. (b) Higher magnification of dyskeratotic cells (arrowheads). Bar = 10 ,m. (c) Higher magnification of colloid bodies (arrowheads) in the superficial dermis. Bar = 10 ,m To rule out the possibility of a congenital epidermolysis bullosa, ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies were performed. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated the reduplication of the basal lamina with branching structures within the upper dermis and cleavage between the lamina densa and the cell membrane of the keratinocytes ( Fig. 3a). The numbers of associated anchoring fibrils did not seem to be reduced, and colloid bodies and dyskeratotic cells were detected. Immunofluorescence studies with the antibody against type VII collagen (LH 7 : 2) were subsequently carried out. The results showed extensive broad bands with intermittently discontinuous and reticular staining at the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) ( Fig. 3b), whereas a linear distribution is typically seen in healthy tissue (data not shown). Interestingly, direct immunofluorescence studies revealed intracellular accumulation of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, and C3 in colloid bodies under the basement membrane ( Fig. 3c). Figure 3. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical findings of the patient with Kindler syndrome. (a) Ultrastructural study of the dermo-epidermal junction. The branching structures of the lamina densa (arrowheads) were frequently seen. The asterisks show the cleavage in the lamina lucida. Bar = 1 ,m. (b) Immunohistochemical studies with the antibody to type VII collagen (LH 7 : 2). An extensive broad band with reticular patterns is evident. Bar = 50 ,m. E, epidermis; D, dermis. (c) Direct immunofluorescence study. Intracytoplasmic deposition of IgM in the basal keratinocytes is evident (arrowheads). Bar = 50 ,m. E, epidermis; D, dermis [source]

Myopericytoma: report of two cases associated with trauma

Alvaro C. Laga
Myopericytoma is a rare, recently described tumor demonstrating a hemangiopericytoma-like vascular pattern. We present two cases of myopericytoma associated with trauma: a 64-year-old man who developed several nodules on his nose four months after sustaining multiple abrasions to his forehead and nose, and a 72-year-old woman with a solitary growth in the alveolar ridge of unknown duration. Biopsy specimens of the lesions in both cases demonstrated a striking concentric perivascular proliferation of bland spindle-shaped pericytic cells characteristic of myopericytoma. Despite sharing morphologic features with angioleiomyoma, myofibroma and glomus tumor, myopericytoma is thought to represent a distinct perivascular myoid neoplasm of skin and soft tissues. The tumor is characterized by a radial and perivascular arrangement of ovoid, spindled to round neoplastic cells that are immunoreactive to alpha-smooth muscle actin, often for h-caldesmon as well as smooth muscle myosin-heavy chain, and usually negative for desmin antibodies. Most cases of myopericytoma are benign, however, local recurrence and malignancy have recently been reported, Myopericytoma can be multifocal involving a single or multiple anatomic regions, and tends to occur in dermal and superficial soft tissues of adults primarily on the extremities. Our cases are unusual examples of myopericytoma manifesting as multiple nodules on the nose, and a solitary growth on the buccal mucosa after trauma. [source]

Lupus erythematosus: clinical and histopathological study of oral manifestations and immunohistochemical profile of epithelial maturation

Silvia Vanessa Lourenço
Background:, Lupus erythematosus (LE) is an autoimmune disease of unknown cause. Prevalence of oral involvement in patients with LE is uncertain but may vary from 9 to 45% in patients with systemic disease and from 3 to 20% in patients with chronic cutaneous involvement. Methods:, Incidence of oral lesions of LE and their clinical aspects were investigated. Their histopathologic features were analyzed, and the status of epithelial maturation was assessed through the expression patterns of cytokeratins. Results:, Twenty-six patients (from 188 examined) presented oral lesions of LE. Most of them were females (19) with systemic disease (11). Clinical aspects of these lesions varied, and lips and buccal mucosa were most affected. Histologically, lesions revealed lichenoid mucositis with perivascular infiltrate and thickening of basement. Cytokeratins profile showed hyperproliferative epithelium, with expression of CK5/6, and CK14 on all epithelial layers, CK16 on all suprabasal layers and CK10 on prickle cell layers only. Conclusions:, Oral lesions of LE show a variety of aspects, and their microscopic features are of a lichenoid mucositis with deep inflammatory infiltrate. Cytokeratins expression patterns are of hyperproliferative epithelium, and this phenomenon must be analyzed in relation to the inflammatory cytokines for a better understanding of the mechanisms of the disease. [source]

Esthetic Correction of Gingival Recession Using a Modified Tunnel Technique and an Acellular Dermal Connective Tissue Allograft

ABSTRACT Esthetic correction of gingival recession is an important goal of periodontal therapy. This article describes a surgical technique that combines a modified tunnel technique and an acellular dermal connective tissue allograft. With the aid of vertical incisions, a tunnel is created under the buccal mucosa of the affected tooth. These incisions enable easy access for graft placement and create mobility for gingival coronal positioning. The use of an acellular dermal connective tissue allograft eliminates the need for a surgical palatal donor site. This minimizes postsurgical complications. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The combination of a modified tunnel technique and an acellular dermal connective tissue allograft permits esthetic root coverage in a manner that reduces postsurgical complications. [source]

Clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical expression of p53, Ki-67, Mcm-2 and Mcm-5 in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia

Adriele Ferreira Gouvêa
J Oral Pathol Med (2010) 39: 447,452 Background:, Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a distinct and aggressive type of oral leukoplakia which affects elderly women without risk behavior and presents high rates of malignant transformation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and the distribution of cell proliferation markers, aiming to elucidate the distinct biological behavior of the PVL. Methods:, Clinical and microscopical features of 12 patients with PVL were reviewed. Immunohistochemical analysis for p53, Ki-67, Mcm-2 and Mcm-5 were performed and the data were correlated. Results:, All patients were women, above 50 years of age, 91.7% were non-smoker and 100% were non-habitual drinker. Alveolar ridge (66.6%), tongue (50%) and buccal mucosa (41.6%) were the most affected sites. Four patients developed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The immunohistochemical findings showed higher positivity for p53, Ki-67, Mcm-2 and Mcm-5 in SCCs. However, some patients with mild or moderate dysplasia, specially the patients who developed SCC, presented high expression of Mcm-2 and Mcm-5. Conclusions:, High immunoexpression of Mcm-2 and Mcm-5 in mild and moderate dysplasia could be helpful to predict the malignant transformation of PVL. [source]

Oral cancer over four decades: epidemiology, trends, histology, and survival by anatomical sites

Avraham Zini
J Oral Pathol Med (2010) 39: 299,305 Background:, Oral cancer is one of the few life-threatening oral diseases. The subtypes and different sites of oral cancer has different etiology epidemiology and survival rate. Prevalence of the various anatomical oral sites provided potential baseline for improvement of clinical approach. Methods:, Incidence and survival rates were derived from the Israel National Cancer Registry and included all registered data between 1970 and 2006. Oral cancer included the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, gums, vestibulum, floor of the mouth, and palate. Results:, Most prevalent oral cancer subtype was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among men above the age of 55 years. Females had a higher incidence of SCC in lateral border of tongue, gums and buccal mucosa. Lymphoma and sarcoma were the most prevalent under the age of 20. Melanomas and metastatic disease revealed the lowest survival rate, while invasive or infiltrating basal cell carcinoma in the lips had the highest rate. The highest oral survival rate was for the lip, and the lowest was for the tongue and gums. Conclusions:, Early detection of oral cancer is important for all the medical health team. Decrease in lip carcinoma may be a result of occupational or awareness changes and should be studied. Non-epithelial tumors under the age of 20 should be considered as a differential diagnosis. A basic oral examination should be included in all routine medical examinations, with emphasis on high-risk patients and high-risk oral sites. [source]

Increased survivin expression in high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma: a study in Indian tobacco chewers

C. Jane
Background:, Oral cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancer in the Indian population. In the present study we analyzed the expression of apoptosis regulating genes, viz. survivin, Bcl-2, Bax and p53 in precancerous and cancerous lesions of the buccal mucosa of Indian tobacco chewers. Method:, Paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 38 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 17 patients with leukoplakia were used. The expression of survivin, Bcl-2, Bax, and p53 was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining method. Results:, Thirty-six percent OSCC were found to be positive for nuclear p53 staining while none of the precancerous lesions showed p53 positivity. Survivin, Bcl-2 and Bax expression was found to increase with increased grade of malignancy. Increase in survivin expression was statistically most significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion:, Increased expression of anti-apoptotic survivin in high-grade tumors suggests that survivin is likely to contribute significantly to apoptosis resistance in response to therapy. [source]

Short-term clinical evaluation of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection for ulcerative oral lichen planus

Juan Xia
Background:, Efforts are made in a continued searching for novel therapies for symptomatic oral lichen planus (OLP). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injection for ulcerative OLP. Methods:, Forty-five patients with clinical and histologically confirmed ulcerative OLP on bilateral buccal mucosa, one for treatment and the other for control, were studied. All participants received 0.5 ml TA (40 mg/ml) on experimental sites. Visual analogue scale score and lesion areas were recorded at the time of injection and 1-week interval. After 2 weeks, if the treated ulceration reduced <81% in size, a second injection was given. Results:, The treated group gave rapid relief of signs and symptoms, while the control group showed minimal decrease. 38 (84.4%) patients demonstrated complete response in ulceration size. No complications were noted with TA injections. Conclusions:, Intralesional TA injection in ulcerative OLP is effective and safe in achieving lesion and pain regression. [source]

Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectactic tumor of the buccal mucosa

Fumio Ide
Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectactic tumor (PHAT) of soft parts is a recently defined mesenchymal tumor of uncertain differentiation, with only a limited number of examples reported to date. We present a case of PHAT of the buccal mucosa in an 86-year-old woman. To our knowledge, there is no formal description of this tumor in the oral cavity. [source]

Diffusion of reduced arecoline and arecaidine through human vaginal and buccal mucosa

P. Van der Bijl
Abstract: Because alkaloids from areca nut, arecoline and arecaidine, have been implicated in the development of oral submucous fibrosis, we determined their diffusion kinetics through human buccal and vaginal mucosa. Four clinically healthy vaginal mucosa specimens (mean patient age± standard deviation: 47±15 years; age range: 31,60 years) and 4 buccal mucosa specimens from 2 male patients and 2 female patients (mean patient age±standard deviation: 31±9 years; age range: 17,53 years) were obtained during surgery. In vitro flux rates of reduced arecoline and arecaidine (r-arecoline and r-arecaidine) were determined by use of a flow-through diffusion apparatus. Analysis of variance, a Duncan multiple range test, and an unpaired t -test were used to determine steady state kinetics and flux differences over time intervals. Although statistically significant differences were observed between flux values for both alkaloids and tissues at certain time points, these were not considered to be of biological (clinical) significance. However, the flux rates across both mucosa of r-arecoline were significantly higher statistically than those of r-arecaidine. The findings demonstrated the differences in the diffusion kinetics between r-arecoline and r-arecaidine across human buccal and vaginal mucosa, an observation that could be explained in terms of their ionisation characteristics. Additionally, the results obtained further support the hypothesis that human vaginal mucosa can be used as a model for buccal mucosa in studies of permeability to various chemical compounds. [source]

Interferon gamma (IFN-,) may reverse oral submucous fibrosis

M. F. Haque
Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic disease of the oral cavity and oropharyngx characterised by fibrosis in the submucosa leading to progressive limitation of the mouth opening. Interferon gamma (IFN-,) is a known anti-fibrotic cytokine. In this study we have investigated: a) the effect of IFN-, on collagen synthesis by arecoline-stimulated OSF fibroblasts in vitro (n=5), b) the effect of intra-lesional IFN-, on the fibrosis of OSF patients (n=29) and c) the immunohistochemical analysis of pre- and post-treatment inflammatory cell infiltrates and cytokine levels in the lesional tissue (n=29). The results show that the increased collagen synthesis in vitro in response to arecoline was inhibited in the presence of IFN-, (0.01,10.0 U/ml) in a dose-related way. In an open uncontrolled study intra-lesional IFN-, treatment showed improvement in the patients mouth opening from an inter-incisal distance before treatment of 21±7 mm, to 30±7 mm immediately after treatment and 30±8 mm 6-months later, giving a net gain of 8±4 mm (42%) (range 4,15 mm). Patients also reported reduced burning dysaesthesia and increased suppleness of the buccal mucosa. The post-treatment immunohistochemistry showed a decreased amount of inflammatory cell infiltrate and an altered level of cytokines compared with the pre-treatment lesional tissue. The effect of IFN-, on collagen synthesis appears to be a key to the treatment of these patients, and intra-lesional injections of the cytokine may have a significant therapeutic effect on OSF. [source]

Alterations of p16/MTS1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinomas from Taiwanese

Shu-Chun Lin
Abstract: To determine the alterations of the p16/MTS1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we examined in Taiwanese patients the mutation, deletion and methylation of p16/MTS1 in primary OSCCs associated mostly with betel quid (BQ)/tobacco use. Among 110 tumors undergoing mutational analyses, seven (6%) showed mutations in exon 2 or the intron 1/exon 2 splice site. All but one mutation disrupted the encoded proteins. Base transitions represented the vast majority (6/7) of the mutations identified in BQ/tobacco consuming subjects. It was noted that 15/56 (27%) tumors examined by restriction fragment methylation analysis revealed a significant level of methylation in different loci of exon 1 as compared with the respective non-cancerous tissue. Mutation of p16/MTS1 was exclusively identified in carcinomas of buccal mucosa, whereas methylation of the p16/MTS1 promoter region occurred preferentially in carcinomas of the tongue (54%) rather than at other sites (22%). Homozygous deletion was not found in 56 paired samples examined, nor was hemizygous deletion indicated in 12 informative cases. The results indicated aberrant methylation and mutation as the molecular abnormality of p16/MTS1 in the OSCC from Taiwanese. [source]

Evaluation of buccal methyl-,-cyclodextrin toxicity on human oral epithelial cell culture model

Laïla Boulmedarat
Abstract Cyclodextrins, especially methylated ,-cyclodextrins offer several advantages for drug delivery which include improved drug solubilization, protection against physicochemical and enzymatic degradation, as well as a potential for absorption improvement. However, little or no data are available for their use as drug penetration enhancer via the buccal route. This study focuses on the toxicity of randomly methylated ,-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) on buccal mucosa using a reconstituted human oral epithelium model composed of TR 146 cells. Toxicity of RAMEB on TR 146 cells was evaluated by measuring cell viability (MTT assay) and membrane damages followed by LDH release after single and repeated exposures to RAMEB solutions. Inflammatory effects of RAMEB are also considered by measuring expression of interleukin-1, and are supported by histological examination. The present results indicate that 10% RAMEB results in cytotoxic and inflammatory effects depending on time exposure, whereas 2% and 5% RAMEB do not induce tissue damages even after 5 days of repeated exposures. Therefore, the highly water-soluble RAMEB is thought to be a safe candidate as an excipient for buccal mucosal drug delivery. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 94:1300,1309, 2005 [source]

Biofilms in the Edentulous Oral Cavity

Amit Sachdeo BDS, DMSc
Abstract Purpose: The oral cavity presents numerous surfaces for microbial colonization. These surfaces produce biofilms of differing complexities unique to each individual. Several studies have looked at biofilms in dentate patients. There has been limited research regarding biofilms on dentures or soft tissues of edentulous patients. The purpose of the present investigation was to provide meaningful data describing microbial ecological relationships in the oral cavity of edentulous patients and to evaluate the microbiota on hard and soft tissue surfaces and saliva in edentulous patients wearing complete dentures. Materials and Methods: Sixty-one edentulous subjects with complete maxillary and mandibular dentures were recruited. "Supragingival" biofilm samples were taken from 28 denture teeth for each subject. Biofilm samples were also taken from the dorsal, lateral, and ventral surfaces of the tongue, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, hard palate, vestibule/lip, "attached gingiva," and saliva. Samples were individually analyzed for their content of 41 bacterial species using checkerboard DNA,DNA hybridization. Levels and proportions of each species were determined for every sample location. Results: Periodontal pathogens such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were clearly present in the samples from the edentulous subjects. Microbial profiles in samples from the soft tissue surfaces differed among site locations. Samples from the dorsum of the tongue exhibited the highest bacterial counts followed by the "attached gingiva" and the lateral surfaces of the tongue, while the lowest mean counts were found in samples from the buccal mucosa and labial vestibules. Using cluster analysis of the proportions of the test species, three clusters were formed. The first cluster comprised saliva, supragingival plaque, and the lateral and dorsal surfaces of the tongue. The second cluster comprised the other six soft tissue surfaces. Species on the denture palate formed a third cluster. Conclusions: One of the major findings in this study was the detection of periodontal pathogens, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, in the edentulous subjects, as these species were thought to disappear after removal of all natural teeth. This finding has implications regarding future dental treatment and the general health of individuals. Distinct patterns of microbial colonization were seen on the different soft tissue surfaces. Thus, this investigation provided the first step in defining the organisms that are associated with edentulous patients on both soft (mucosa) and hard surfaces (denture). The study also provided meaningful data that described microbial ecological relationships in the oral cavity of edentulous subjects. The authors believe that this study is the first comprehensive assessment of the microbiota in the complete denture-wearing subject. [source]

Successful treatment of severe recalcitrant erosive oral lichen planus with topical tacrolimus

R Shichinohe
Abstract Oral lichen planus (LP) is a severe, painful form of LP, and is often resistant to topical corticosteroid therapy. Recently, open trials demonstrated that topical tacrolimus therapy was effective for the treatment of chronic erosive oral LP. We report two cases with severe recalcitrant erosive oral LP, who dramatically benefited from topical tacrolimus therapy. In case 1, a 64-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of painful erosions on his entire lower lip and buccal mucosa. Physical and histological examination confirmed a diagnosis of LP. He experienced rapid relief from pain and a dramatic improvement was obtained within 5 weeks of topical tacrolimus treatment. No significant irritation was observed and blood tacrolimus level was kept within a safe level (2.5 ng/mL). In case 2, a 68-year-old man developed painful erosions on his right lower lip and buccal mucosa 2 months before his arrival at our hospital. Histopathological analysis confirmed a diagnosis of oral LP. He experienced a rapid dramatic improvement of both lesions within 4 weeks of the start of tacrolimus application. No significant irritation or recurrence was observed. Thus, topical tacrolimus is suggested as a well-tolerated, effective therapy for oral LP. [source]

Repair of buccal defects with anterolateral thigh flaps

MICROSURGERY, Issue 3 2006
Ömer Özkan M.D.
The ideal reconstructive method for the buccal mucosa should provide durable, stable coverage and a natural contour, while simultaneously minimizing morbidity of both the defect and donor sites. Since the first report of the anterolateral thigh flap in 1984, it has become one of the most commonly used flaps for the reconstruction of various soft-tissue defects. From March 2004,April 2005, 24 free anterolateral thigh flaps were used to reconstruct buccal defects, including the retromolar trigone and as far as the oral commissure, and in some cases with extension to the neighboring palatal region and tongue. The study comprised 1 female and 23 male patients, with ages ranging from 26,63 years (mean age, 45.8 years). Two flaps required reoperation due to vascular compromise, and both were salvaged with arterial and venous anastomosis revisions, giving an overall success rate of 100%. Primary thinning of the flap was performed in 10 cases. In 2 cases, additional vastus lateralis muscle was included in the flap to fill the large defect. In 2 cases, marginal necrosis with dehiscence of the flap was observed, one of these patients having a history of atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus (marginal skin necrosis and infection of the donor area were also observed in this patient). In 2 patients, seroma collection was observed in the neck at the dissection site. Chart reviews showed that most patients had a history of betel-nut chewing (95.8%) or a combination of smoking and betel-nut chewing (79.2%). During the follow-up period of 4,12 months, a sufficient level of mouth-opening with interincisal distances of 34 mm, 44 mm, and 48 mm was achieved in all 3 cases reconstructed after release of the trismus. Although it has some variations in the vascular pedicle, irregularity in derivation from the main vessels, and minimal morbidity of the donor site, the anterolateral thigh flap, with its evident functional, structural, and cosmetic advantages, can be considered an excellent and ideal flap option, and a first choice for most buccal defects. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2006. [source]

Attenuation of radiation- and chemoradiation-induced mucositis using gamma- d -glutamyl- l -tryptophan (SCV-07)

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 7 2010
B Watkins
Oral Diseases (2010) 16, 655,660 Objective:, To evaluate the efficacy of a novel immunomodulating peptide (SCV-07) in attenuating the course of radiation-induced mucositis in an established animal model of oral mucositis (OM). Material and Methods:, In three separate experiments, golden Syrian hamsters received either an acute radiation challenge to the buccal mucosa of eight fractionated doses of 7.5 Gy of radiation over a 2-week-period, or a combination of acute radiation and cisplatin. In each experiment, animals were treated with varying doses or schedules of SCV-07 or placebo. OM was scored in a blinded fashion using digital images obtained during the experimental period. Results:, We found that SCV-07 reduced the severity and duration of both acute and fractionated radiation-induced OM. Similarly, when radiation and chemotherapy were used to induce OM, treatment with SCV-07 significantly reduced the duration of ulcerative OM. The therapeutic benefit was dependent on both dose and schedule of administration. Conclusion:, Taken together, we found SCV-07 was able to modify the duration and severity of oral mucositis and was dependent on schedule and dose. [source]

Novel intraoral phenotypes in hyperimmunoglobulin-E syndrome

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 1 2008
DL Domingo
Aim:, Hyperimmunoglobulin-E syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, recurrent skin and lung infections with pneumatocoele formation, and extremely elevated serum immunoglobulin-E. The precise immunologic defect and genetic etiology remain unknown. Non-immunologic findings include characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, fleshy nasal tip, and increased interalar distance); skeletal involvement (pathological fractures, scoliosis, and craniosynostosis); and retention of primary teeth. This study aims to characterize intraoral soft tissue findings in HIES patients. Methods:, Sixty HIES patients (4,54 years, 27 males, 33 females) received intraoral and radiographic evaluations. Chronological dental development was also assessed. Results:, Lesions of the hard palate and dorsal tongue were found in 55% and 60% of patients, respectively. Palatal lesions ranged from a generalized surface keratosis to a midline sagittal fibrotic bridge. Tongue lesions consisted of multiple fissures and a midline cleft. On the lip and buccal mucosa, keratotic plaques and/or surface fissures were found in 8% and 23% of patients, respectively. Manifested in 76.7% of patients, the intraoral lesions were significantly more prevalent than the characteristic facial traits (P = 0.0013). Conclusions:, Alterations in oral mucosa and gingiva were present in the majority of HIES patients. These novel intraoral findings may facilitate the diagnosis of HIES. [source]

The distribution of oral mucosal pH values in healthy saliva secretors

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 4 2006
DJ Aframian
Objectives:, To establish the normal range of oral mucosal pH and to correlate these measurements to salivary flow rate in healthy individuals according to age and gender. Subjects and methods:, Measurements of pH levels using a flat pH meter and salivary secretion rates were established in eight mucosal sites from a total of 50 healthy individuals. Results:, The mean pH (±s.d.) of all sites was 6.78 ± 0.04 with significant differences between mean pH values in the palate (7.34 ± 0.38), the floor of the mouth (6.5 ± 0.3), the buccal mucosa (6.28 ± 0.36) and the tongue (6.8 ± 0.26). A significant correlation was found between age and pH at palatal and tongue sites but no gender effects were noted. Conclusions:, This method is easy and relatively quick to manipulate, and may offer many diagnostic possibilities for oral related diseases and disorders such as oral malodour, mouth breathing, dysgeusia, acidic diet consumption and gastrointestinal disorders affecting the mouth. [source]