Browning

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Browning

  • enzymatic browning
  • maillard browning

  • Terms modified by Browning

  • browning index
  • browning inhibitor
  • browning reaction

  • Selected Abstracts


    The Psychological Basis of Historical Explanation: Reenactment, Simulation, and the Fusion of Horizons

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 1 2002
    Karsten R. Stueber
    In this article I will challenge a received orthodoxy in the philosophy of social science by showing that Collingwood was right in insisting that reenactment is epistemically central for historical explanations of individual agency. Situating Collingwood within the context of the debate between simulation theory and what has come to be called "theory theory" in contemporary philosophy of mind and psychology, I will develop two systematic arguments that attempt to show the essential importance of reenactment for our understanding of rational agency. I will furthermore show that Gadamer's influential critique of the reenactment model distinguishes insufficiently between the interpretation of certain types of texts and the explanation of individual actions. In providing an account of individual agency, we are committed to a realistic understanding of our ordinary scheme of action-explanations and have thus to recognize the centrality of reenactment. Nevertheless, Collingwood's emphasis on reenactment is certainly one-sided. I will demonstrate its limitations even for accounting for individual agency, and show how it has to be supplemented by various theoretical considerations, by analyzing the different explanatory strategies that Christopher Browning and Daniel Goldhagen use to explain the behavior of the ordinary men in Reserve Battalion 101 during World War II. [source]


    The use of packaging techniques to maintain freshness in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: a review

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    M Alejandra Rojas-Gra
    Summary Browning and other discolourations, softening, surface dehydration, water loss, translucency, off-flavour and off-odour development, as well as microbial spoilage are some of the most frequent causes of quality loss in fresh-cut products. Nowadays, the use of innovative modified atmospheres and edible coatings stands out among other techniques in the struggle for maintaining freshness and safety of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. A few studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these techniques when applied to different fresh-cut commodities. However, treatment and storage conditions for fresh-cut fruits are still being largely explored to better keep their fresh-like quality attributes. This review discusses the recent advances in the use of innovative modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems to maintain freshness of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, special attention is devoted to the development of coatings that can be used as a complement or alternative to MAP. [source]


    Prevention of enzymatic browning of apple cylinders using different solutions

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Charles Tortoe
    Summary Inhibition of enzymatic browning and decay on cut surfaces of Golden Delicious apple using ascorbic acid, cysteine, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, citric acid and sodium ascorbate alone or in combinations was investigated at 4 and 10 C for a storage period of 0, 7 and 14 days, in an attempt to find the most effective treatment. Apple segments immersed in ascorbic acid and citric acid alone showed visual traces of browning after 7 days storage at 4 C. After 14 days storage, only ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid plus sodium chloride had moderate browning, while all other treatments were severely affected. However, at 10 C, only ascorbic acid was effective in reducing the level of browning, although its effect was minimal after 14 days storage. Browning was more severe at 10 C than 4 C in all solutions. The browning measurement (a* value) became increasingly positive from 7- to 14-day storage. Microbial decay was absent in all treatments within 7 days at 4 and 10 C. However, three test solutions showed microbial decay after 14 days storage at 10 C in addition to the control solution, which showed decay at both 4 and 10 C storage temperatures. [source]


    EFFICACY OF SOUR WHEY AS A SHELF-LIFE ENHANCER: USE IN ANTIOXIDATIVE EDIBLE COATINGS OF CUT VEGETABLES AND FRUIT,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 5 2007
    JINHAN SHON
    ABSTRACT The effectiveness of edible coatings containing sour whey powder (SWP), compared with soy protein isolate (SPI) and calcium caseinate (CC), in reducing oxidative browning and moisture loss during storage (4C) of cut apples, potatoes, carrots, and onions was investigated. Oxidative discoloration, as determined by the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage L*a*b* color scale, was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by treatments over a storage time of 120 min. Loss of lightness was reduced by CC, SPI and SWP coatings. These respectively showed 2.7, 3.3 and 1.5% change of L* value in coated apples as compared with 7.4% in the control. Browning in cut potatoes was significantly reduced from a 145.1% increase in the a* value of the control to 45.9, 37.0 and 30.3% increase for CC, SPI and SWP treatments, respectively. The b* values also reflected the effectiveness of SWP. The moisture barrier effect, tested over a period of 5 days at 4C, was significantly better for the treatments than control. SWP was the best and significantly reduced moisture loss in potatoes and carrots by 40 and 59%, respectively, over control. Cut onions did not show any treatment effect both in terms of off-color development and moisture loss. The reasons for the excellent moisture barrier and antioxidative property of SWP were discussed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Oxidative degradation of fresh fruits and vegetables is a major problem faced by the industry today. Most of the fresh produce is grown in the southwestern part of the country, requiring days of transportation to retail outlets. As the educated consumer is highly health conscious, any effort in extending the shelf life will have to be nonchemical, and preferably natural. Because of small profit margins, the intervention must also be inexpensive. Millions of MT of sour whey, a by-product of cottage whey manufacture, is wasted because of the lack of appropriate food applications. It is natural, nutritious and presently very inexpensive. Our research investigated the possibility of using this by-product as a final wash to enhance the so-called window of freshness of fresh produce and fruit. [source]


    Relationship between Postmortem Changes and Browning of Boiled, Dried, and Seasoned Product Made from Japanese Common Squid (Tedarodes pacificus) Mantle Muscle

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
    Yuji Omura
    ABSTRACT:, To clarify the process that possibly causes discoloration in boiled, dried, and seasoned squid products ("sakiika" or "ikakun" in Japanese), we investigated the relationship of squid freshness with the rate of browning using the boiled, freeze-dried, and ground squid product model. ATP and its related compounds in Japanese common squid (Tedarodes pacificus) decomposed gradually during storage, yielding hypoxanthine and ribose at 24 h postmortem. The browning rate of the model during preservation as revealed by the increase of the b* value showed a high coefficient in the linear regression against ribose content (R2= 0.767). Only the model made from the squid stored for 24 h postmortem turned brown. These results strongly suggest that ribose produced during storage plays a major role in the browning of dried and seasoned squid products. [source]


    Kinetics of Potato Color and Texture Development during Baking, Frying, and Microwaving with the Addition of Liquid Smoke

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2006
    M. Yost
    ABSTRACT:, The rate of color and texture development in par-fried French fries coated with liquid smoke and thermally processed was determined. Liquid smoke containing 8% to 11% carbonyls was diluted to 30% and applied to 1 side of French fries at 0%, 1%, 3%, or 5% by weight. The fries were immersion fried at 190.6 C for 4 min, microwaved (900 watts) for 4 min, or baked at 190.6 C for 20 min. Color and texture measurements were recorded at intervals during processing. Liquid smoke increased the rate of browning in French fries. Browning followed pseudo zero-order kinetics, with the a value, Browning index, and total change in color (,E) showing the best fit. When liquid smoke was added in high concentrations the reaction rate did not increase as more liquid smoke was added because the carbonyls were no longer limiting the rate of Maillard browning. The rate of color development in French fries was also affected by the thermal processing method. Frying developed color at the fastest rate, followed by microwaving and baking. Although liquid smoke increased the rate of color development in French fries, it did not affect French fry texture. Through sensory testing, it was determined that liquid smoke can be used to improve the color of microwaveable French fries without affecting French fry flavor or texture. [source]


    Inhibition of Browning on Fresh-cut Pear Wedges by Natural Compounds

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2006
    Gemma Oms-Oliu
    ABSTRACT: Mechanical operations such as peeling and cutting during minimal processing involve enzymatic browning of fruit tissue. The objective of this work was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, and 4-hexylresorcinol to control pear browning. Browning of fresh-cut pears was prevented by a minimum concentration of 0.75% N-acetyl-L-cysteine up to 28 d at 4C. Reduced glutathione treatments were also effective along the storage time although browning was observed after 21 d of storage with a dip of 0.75% reduced glutathione. However, ascorbic acid or 4-hexylresorcinol treatments did not seem to completely prevent browning of pear wedges throughout the storage period. An enhanced antibrowning effect was observed when combining both N-acetyl-L-cysteine and reduced glutathione, considering hue angle as color change index. Thus, hue angle reached maximum levels at 1.5% N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or 1.5% glutathione (GSH) and 1% NAC with 1% GSH for 28 d. Besides, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, reduced glutathione and 4-hexylresorcinol completely inhibited polyphenol oxidase activity as well as browning inhibitors slightly reduced firmness of fresh-cut pears. [source]


    Internal Premature Browning in Cooked Steaks from Enhanced Beef Round Muscles Packaged in High-oxygen and Ultra-low Oxygen Modified Atmospheres

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
    M. SEYFERT
    ABSTRACT: Beef round muscles were injection-enhanced to 6%, packaged in high-oxygen (HiOx) or ultra-low oxygen (LoOx) modified atmospheres, stored 7 d and displayed 2 d (HiOx) or stored 16 d and displayed 1 d (LoOx) at 0 C, and cooked to 71.1 C. Raw internal color for steaks in HiOx was lighter, redder, more yellow and saturated, and had more oxymyoglobin and less deoxymyoglobin than steaks in LoOx (P < 0.0001). Cooked internal color of steaks from HiOx appeared prematurely brown and was darker, less red, yellow, and saturated, and had more denatured myoglobin than steaks from LoOx (P < 0.0001). This study presents conclusive evidence that modified-atmosphere packaging influences internal cooked color development of beef steaks. [source]


    Handmade Guns in Trabzon, Turkey

    JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 4 2009
    Riza Yilmaz M.D.
    Abstract:, A wide variety of handmade firearms have been involved in criminal cases in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Although they are often very similar to commercially manufactured firearms in terms of design, loading and locking mechanisms, and cocking and firing arrangements, these guns are constructed from cheap materials and are not safe for firing. Handmade firearms manufactured in the Black Sea region of Turkey, particularly in the city of Trabzon, are similar to pistols manufactured by Browning, Luger, Star, Smith and Wesson, Berretta, and MAB. A total of 201 handmade guns referred to the Criminal Police Laboratories for examination from 2003 to 2005 were evaluated with respect to type, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, operability, legality, and similarity to commercial models. We found that most of these handmade guns resembled commercial models in several aspects. [source]


    Inhibition of browning by antibrowning agents and phenolic acids or cinnamic acid in the glucose,lysine model

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 8 2005
    Eun-Jung Kwak
    Abstract The effects of antibrowning agents and phenolic acids or cinnamic acid on the inhibition of browning were investigated with a glucose,lysine model. Six antibrowning agents (cysteine, glutathione, sodium sulfite, pentasodium tripolyphosphate, citric acid and oxalic acid) and four phenolic acids (ferulic, hydroxybenzoic, syringic and vanillic acids) were used. In order to investigate the antibrowning capacity of these agents, model solutions containing glucose, lysine and an antibrowning agent were heated at 50 C in the presence of FeCl2, before being stored in nitrogen or air at 4 C or 30 C. Browning was accelerated to some degree during storage in air at 30 C. In the case of storage at 4 C, however, no browning was detected in nitrogen after four weeks. Citric acid was the most efficient antibrowning agent during storage in air at 30 C and inhibited browning to 36% after four weeks. However, its antibrowning capacity was increased by 8,15% in the presence of any of the phenolic acids or cinnamic acid, essentially independently of concentration in the range 10 M to 10 mM or the type of phenolic acid. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    REVISITING BLACK ELECTORAL SUCCESS: OAKLAND (CA), 40 YEARS LATER

    JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2009
    FRDRICK DOUZET
    ABSTRACT:,The city of Oakland, California, was one of the case studies Browning, Marshall and Tabb picked in their book,Protest Is not Enough,(1984) as a significant example of successful liberal black-and-white coalitions, leading to strong black incorporation. Yet over the past 40 years, the balance of power has dramatically changed in the city of Oakland. After several decades of experience with African-American mayors and changing demographics, we need to reflect on the adequacy of this paradigm in light of the contemporary situation. The city once governed by a black mayor with a majority black city council in a traditional white progressive-black coalition has now become intrinsically multicultural, leading to the election of former Governor Jerry Brown as a Mayor in 1998. Despite Ron Dellums's election in 2006, the black hold and control over the city seems to be more tenuous and fragile than it was 15 years ago. This article raises the question of the future of black urban political power in cities undergoing demographic and political changes. Our main findings are that black urban power in Oakland is still predominantly coalition-based but involves new coalition partners with the demographic growth and the electoral mobilization of Hispanics and Asians. While the black-led coalition still relies on white progressive support, this support has weakened, mostly because of the broadening of the progressives' agenda. Finally, the black community seems less likely to vote on pure identity grounds and seems increasingly inclined to vote along issues and interests. [source]


    John Wiley & Sons: 200th anniversary!

    LASER TECHNIK JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
    Andreas Tho Dr.
    This year, the publisher John Wiley & Sons celebrates its 200th anniversary. When Charles Wiley first opened his print shop in lower Manhattan in 1807, America was a young nation, full of potential and seeking its cultural identity on the global stage. Wiley was there, contributing to the emerging American literary tradition by publishing such great 19th century American writers as James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, and Edgar Allan Poe. Later on, Wiley published the works of outstanding European writers such as Hans Christian Andersen, Charles Dickens, John Ruskin, and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Yet, during the second industrial revolution , and its resulting knowledge revolution , Wiley abandoned its literary programme to pursue knowledge publishing for a global community. Today Wiley publishes a broad variety of journals, encyclopedias, books, and online products. The spectrum reaches from medicine to astronomy, from trade journals to consumer books and it includes educational materials for students as well as for lifelong learners. Since 1807, the world has seen 41 U.S. Presidents, but there have only been ten Wiley Presidents. Today, Wiley is a publicly held, independently managed family business. That is the formula of success that has sustained the company for two centuries. In 2007 Wiley is one of the major global publishers with more than one billion dollar revenue and about 3.900 employees. This will increase even more, when the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing will be completed in 2007. Aged only three years, the Laser Technik Journal is one of the youngest among the Wiley Journals. But it fits well in the history of Wiley. Thomas Alva Edison, the "Wizard of Menlo Park", held William H. Wiley in high regard, and so there is a long tradition of close contacts between the publishing house and the engineering community. The purpose of the journals has changed little: Our mission is to provide the community with up to date information on the latest in technology, reports and discussions on trends and markets, and finally the journal serves as a forum for key people from science and business to share their visions and experiences. 2007 will be a great year not only for Wiley, but for the laser community as well. Company reports from Coherent, Trumpf or Rofin Sinar show two-digit growths and excellent earnings. Record numbers are expected also at conferences and trade shows. At Photonics West in San Jose, CA, 1.000 exhibitors and more than 15.000 visitors are expected. The Laser. World of Photonics 2007 in Munich (June) will be even bigger. It is a "can't miss" event particularly for those visitors interested in Laser material processing. The Laser Technik Journal will be on both shows. Please stop by at the Wiley booth, for a chat or to see the latest from the Wiley book program! [source]


    Teaching & Learning Guide for: Victorian Life Writing

    LITERATURE COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2007
    Valerie Sanders
    Author's Introduction The Victorian period was one of the great ages for life-writing. Though traditionally renowned for its monumental ,lives and letters', mainly of great men, this was also a time of self-conscious anxiety about the genre. Critics and practitioners alike were unsure who should be writing autobiography, and whether its inherent assertiveness ruled out all but public men as appropriate subjects. It was also a period of experimentation in the different genres of life-writing , whether autobiography, journals, letters, autobiographical novels, and narratives of lives combined with extracts from correspondence and diaries. Victorian life-writing therefore provides rich and complex insights into the relationship between narrative, identity, and the definition of the self. Recent advances in criticism have highlighted the more radical and non-canonical aspects of life-writing. Already a latecomer to the literary-critical tradition (life-writing was for a long time the ,poor relation' of critical theory), auto/biography stresses the hidden and silent as much as the mainstream and vocal. For that reason, study of Victorian life-writing appeals to those with an interest in gender issues, postcolonialism, ethnicity, working-class culture, the history of religion, and family and childhood studies , to name but a few of the fields with which the genre has a natural connection. Author Recommends A good place to start is the two canonical texts for Victorian life-writing: George P. Landow's edited collection, Approaches to Victorian Autobiography (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1979) and Avrom Fleishman's Figures of Autobiography: The Language of Self-Writing in Victorian and Modern England (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1983). These two re-ignited interest in Victorian life-writing and in effect opened the debate about extending the canon, though both focus on the firmly canonical Ruskin and Newman, among others. By contrast, David Amigoni's recently edited collection of essays, Life-Writing and Victorian Culture (Aldershot: Ashgate 2006) shows how far the canon has exploded and expanded: it begins with a useful overview of the relationship between lives, life-writing, and literary genres, while subsequent chapters by different authors focus on a particular individual or family and their cultural interaction with the tensions of life-writing. As this volume is fairly male-dominated, readers with an interest in women's life-writing might prefer to start with Linda Peterson's chapter, ,Women Writers and Self-Writing' in Women and Literature in Britain 1800,1900, ed. Joanne Shattock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 209,230. This examines the shift from the eighteenth-century tradition of the chroniques scandaleuses to the professional artist's life, domestic memoir, and spiritual autobiography. Mary Jean Corbett's Representing Femininity: Middle-Class Subjectivity in Victorian and Edwardian Women's Autobiographies (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992) begins with material on Wordsworth and Carlyle, but ,aims to contest the boundaries of genre, gender, and the autobiographical tradition by piecing together a partial history of middle-class women's subjectivities in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries' (3). Corbett is particularly interested in the life-writing of actresses and suffragettes as well as Martineau and Oliphant, the first two women autobiographers to be welcomed into the canon in the 1980s and 90s. Laura Marcus's Auto/biographical Discourses, Theory, Criticism, Practice (Manchester and New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 1994) revises and updates the theoretical approaches to the study of life-writing, stressing both the genre's hybrid qualities, and its inherent instability: in her view, it ,comes into being as a category to be questioned' (37). Another of her fruitful suggestions is that autobiography functions as a ,site of struggle' (9), an idea that can be applied to aesthetic or ideological issues. Her book is divided between specific textual examples (such as the debate about autobiography in Victorian periodicals), and an overview of developments in critical approaches to life-writing. Her second chapter includes material on Leslie Stephen, who is also the first subject of Trev Lynn Broughton's Men of Letters, Writing Lives: Masculinity and Literary Auto/biography in the Late Victorian Period (London: Routledge, 1999) , her other being Froude's controversial Life of Carlyle. With the advent of gender studies and masculinities, there is now a return to male forms of life-writing, of which Martin A. Danahay's A Community of One: Masculine Autobiography and Autonomy in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993) is a good example. Danahay argues that nineteenth-century male autobiographers present themselves as ,autonomous individuals' free of the constraints of social and familial contexts, thus emphasizing the autonomy of the self at the expense of family and community. Online Materials My impression is that Victorian life-writing is currently better served by books than by online resources. There seem to be few general Web sites other than University module outlines and reading lists; for specific authors, on the other hand, there are too many to list here. So the only site I'd recommend is The Victorian Web: http://.victorianweb.org/genre/autobioov.html This Web site has a section called ,Autobiography Overview', which begins with an essay, ,Autobiography, Autobiographicality and Self-Representation', by George P. Landow. There are sections on other aspects of Victorian autobiography, including ,Childhood as a Personal Myth', autobiography in Dickens and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and a list of ,Suggested Readings'. Each section is quite short, but summarizes the core issues succinctly. Sample Syllabus This sample syllabus takes students through the landmarks of Victorian life-writing, and demonstrates the development of a counter-culture away from the mainstream ,classic male life' (if there ever was such a thing) , culminating in the paired diaries of Arthur Munby (civil servant) and Hannah Cullwick (servant). Numerous other examples could have been chosen, but for those new to the genre, this is a fairly classic syllabus. One week only could be spent on the ,classic male texts' if students are more interested in pursuing other areas. Opening Session Open debate about the definition of Victorian ,life-writing' and its many varieties; differences between autobiography, autobiographical fiction, diary, letters, biography, collective biography, and memoir; the class could discuss samples of selected types, such as David Copperfield, Father and Son, Ruskin's Praeterita, and Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Bront. Alternatively, why not just begin with Stave Two of Dickens's A Christmas Carol (1843), in which the First Spirit takes Scrooge back through his childhood and youth? This is a pretty unique type of life-writing, with Scrooge ,laughing and crying' as his childhood and youth are revealed to him in a series of flashbacks (a Victorian version of ,This is Your Life?'). The dual emotions are important to note at this stage and will prompt subsequent discussions of sentimentality and writing for comic effect later in the course. Week 2 Critical landmarks: discussion of important stages in the evolution of critical approaches to life-writing, including classics such as Georges Gusdorf's ,Conditions and Limits of Autobiography', in Autobiography: Essays Theoretical and Critical, ed. James Olney (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980), 28,47; Philippe Lejeune's ,The Autobiographical Pact', in On Autobiography, ed. Paul John Eakin, trans. Katherine Leary (original essay 1973; Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989), 3,30; and Paul De Man's ,Autobiography as De-Facement', Modern Language Notes 94 (1979): 919,30. This will provide a critical framework for the rest of the course. Weeks 3,4 Extracts from the ,male classics' of Victorian life-writing: J. S. Mill's Autobiography (1873), Ruskin's Praeterita (1885,89), and Newman's Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864). What do they think is important and what do they miss out? How open or otherwise are they about their family and personal lives? Are these essentially ,lives of the mind'? How self-aware are they of autobiographical structures? Are there already signs that the ,classic male life' is fissured and unconventional? An option here would be to spend the first week focusing on male childhoods, and the second on career trajectories. Perhaps use Martin Danahay's theory of the ,autonomous individual' (see above) to provide a critical framework here: how is the ,Other' (parents, Harriet Taylor) treated in these texts? Weeks 5,6 Victorian women's autobiography: Harriet Martineau's Autobiography (1877) and Margaret Oliphant's Autobiography (1899): in many ways these are completely unalike, Martineau's being ordered around the idea of steady mental growth and public recognition, while Oliphant's is deeply emotional and disordered. Can we therefore generalize about ,women's autobiography'? What impact did they have on Victorian theories of life-writing? Students might like to reconsider Jane Eyre as an ,autobiography' alongside these and compare scenes of outright rebellion. The way each text handles time and chronology is also fascinating: Martineau's arranged to highlight stages of philosophical development, while Oliphant's switches back and forth in a series of ,flashbacks' to her happier youth as her surviving two sons die ,in the text', interrupting her story. Week 7 Black women's autobiography: how does Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands (1857) differ from the Martineau and Oliphant autobiographies? What new issues and genre influences are introduced by a Caribbean/travelogue perspective? Another key text would be Harriet Jacobs's Incidents in the Life of a Slave-Girl (1861). How representative and how individual are these texts? Do these authors see themselves as representing their race as well as their class and sex? Week 8 Working-class autobiography: Possible texts here could be John Burnett's Useful Toil (Allen Lane, 1974, Penguin reprint); Carolyn Steedman's edition of John Pearman's The Radical Soldier's Tale (Routledge, 1988) and the mini oral biographies in Henry Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor (1861,62) (e.g., the Water-Cress Seller). There is also a new Broadview edition of Factory Lives (2007) edited by James R. Simmons, with an introduction by Janice Carlisle. This contains four substantial autobiographical texts (three male, one female) from the mid-nineteenth century, with supportive materials. Samuel Bamford's Passages in the Life of a Radical (1839,42; 1844) and Early Days (1847,48) are further options. Students should also read Regenia Gagnier's Subjectivities: A History of Self-Representation in Britain 1832,1910 (Oxford University Press, 1991). Week 9 Biography: Victorian Scandal: focus on two scandals emerging from Victorian life-writing: Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Bront (1857) (the Branwell Bront/Lady Scott adultery scandal), and Froude's allegations of impotence in his Life of Carlyle (1884). See Trev Broughton's ,Impotence, Biography, and the Froude-Carlyle Controversy: ,Revelations on Ticklish Topics', Journal of the History of Sexuality, 7.4 (Apr. 1997): 502,36 (in addition to her Men of Letters cited above). The biographies of the Benson family written about and by each other, especially E. F. Benson's Our Family Affairs 1867,1896 (London: Cassell, 1920) reveal the domestic unhappiness of the family of Gladstone's Archbishop of Canterbury, Edward White Benson, whose children and wife were all to some extent homosexual or lesbian. Another option would be Edmund Gosse's Father and Son (1907) in which the son's critical stance towards his father is uneasy and complex in its mixture of comedy, pity, shame, and resentment. Week 10 Diaries: Arthur Munby's and Hannah Cullwick's relationship (they were secretly married, but lived as master and servant) and diaries, Munby: Man of Two Worlds: The Life and Diaries of Arthur Munby, ed. Derek Hudson (John Murray, 1972), and The Diaries of Hannah Cullwick: Victorian Maidservant, ed. Liz Stanley (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984): issues of gender and class identity; the idealization of the working woman; the two diaries compared. Half the class could read one diary and half the other and engage in a debate about the social and sexual fantasies adopted by each diarist. It would also be sensible to leave time for an overview debate about the key issues of Victorian life-writing which have emerged from this module, future directions for research, and current critical developments. Focus Questions 1To what extent does Victorian autobiography tell an individual success story? Discuss with reference to two or three contrasting examples. 2,All life writing is time writing' (Jens Brockmeier). Examine the way in which Victorian life-writers handle the interplay of narrative, memory, and time. 3To what extent do you agree with the view that Victorian life-writing was ,a form of communication that appeared intimate and confessional, but which was in fact distant and controlled' (Donna Loftus)? 4,Bamford was an autobiographer who did not write an autobiography' (Martin Hewitt). If autobiography is unshaped and uninterpreted, what alternative purposes does it have in narrating a life to the reader? 5,Victorian life-writing is essentially experimental, unstable, and unpredictable.' How helpful is this comment in helping you to understand the genre? [source]


    Comments on ,Cloud-resolving model simulations of multiply-banded frontal clouds' by M. Pizzamei, S. L. Gray and K. A. Browning (October A, 2005, 131, 2617,2637)

    THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, Issue 619 2006
    David M. Schultz
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Magnetic reconnection in the solar atmosphere: from proposal to paradigm

    ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS, Issue 3 2010
    Peter Cargill
    Meeting report On 13 November 2009, the RAS hosted a discussion meeting to commemorate the formal retirement of Prof. Eric Priest. Here Peter Cargill, Clare Parnell, Philippa Browning, Ineke de Moortel and Alan Hood examine how magnetic reconnection has evolved over the past 50 years from an important but controversial proposal, to a general paradigm. [source]


    Debating the greening vs. browning of the North American boreal forest: differences between satellite datasets

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    DOMINGO ALCARAZ-SEGURA
    Abstract A number of remote sensing studies have evaluated the temporal trends of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI or vegetation greenness) in the North American boreal forest during the last two decades, often getting quite different results. To examine the effect that the use of different datasets might be having on the estimated trends, we compared the temporal trends of recently burned and unburned sites of boreal forest in central Canada calculated from two datasets: the Global Inventory, Monitoring, and Modeling Studies (GIMMS), which is the most commonly used 8 km dataset, and a new 1 km dataset developed by the Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). We compared the NDVI trends of both datasets along a fire severity gradient in order to evaluate the variance in regeneration rates. Temporal trends were calculated using the seasonal Mann,Kendall trend test, a rank-based, nonparametric test, which is robust against seasonality, nonnormality, heteroscedasticity, missing values, and serial dependence. The results showed contrasting NDVI trends between the CCRS and the GIMMS datasets. The CCRS dataset showed NDVI increases in all recently burned sites and in 50% of the unburned sites. Surprisingly, the GIMMS dataset did not capture the NDVI recovery in most burned sites and even showed NDVI declines in some burned sites one decade after fire. Between 50% and 75% of GIMMS pixels showed NDVI decreases in the unburned forest compared with <1% of CCRS pixels. Being the most broadly used dataset for monitoring ecosystem and carbon balance changes, the bias towards negative trends in the GIMMS dataset in the North American boreal forest has broad implications for the evaluation of vegetation and carbon dynamics in this region and globally. [source]


    The greening and browning of Alaska based on 1982,2003 satellite data

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    David Verbyla
    Abstract Aim To examine the trends of 1982,2003 satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values at several spatial scales within tundra and boreal forest areas of Alaska. Location Arctic and subarctic Alaska. Methods Annual maximum NDVI data from the twice monthly Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) NDVI 1982,2003 data set with 64-km2 pixels were extracted from a spatial hierarchy including three large regions: ecoregion polygons within regions, ecozone polygons within boreal ecoregions and 100-km climate station buffers. The 1982,2003 trends of mean annual maximum NDVI values within each area, and within individual pixels, were computed using simple linear regression. The relationship between NDVI and temperature and precipitation was investigated within climate station buffers. Results, At the largest spatial scale of polar, boreal and maritime regions, the strongest trend was a negative trend in NDVI within the boreal region. At a finer scale of ecoregion polygons, there was a strong positive NDVI trend in cold arctic tundra areas, and a strong negative trend in interior boreal forest areas. Within boreal ecozone polygons, the weakest negative trends were from areas with a maritime climate or colder mountainous ecozones, while the strongest negative trends were from warmer basin ecozones. The trends from climate station buffers were similar to ecoregion trends, with no significant trends from Bering tundra buffers, significant increasing trends among arctic tundra buffers and significant decreasing trends among interior boreal forest buffers. The interannual variability of NDVI among the arctic tundra buffers was related to the previous summer warmth index. The spatial pattern of increasing tundra NDVI at the pixel level was related to the west-to-east spatial pattern in changing climate across arctic Alaska. There was no significant relationship between interannual NDVI and precipitation or temperature among the boreal forest buffers. The decreasing NDVI trend in interior boreal forests may be due to several factors including increased insect/disease infestations, reduced photosynthesis and a change in root/leaf carbon allocation in response to warmer and drier growing season climate. Main conclusions There was a contrast in trends of 1982,2003 annual maximum NDVI, with cold arctic tundra significantly increasing in NDVI and relatively warm and dry interior boreal forest areas consistently decreasing in NDVI. The annual maximum NDVI from arctic tundra areas was strongly related to a summer warmth index, while there were no significant relationships in boreal areas between annual maximum NDVI and precipitation or temperature. Annual maximum NDVI was not related to spring NDVI in either arctic tundra or boreal buffers. [source]


    Reassessment of treatments to retard browning of fresh-cut Russet potato with emphasis on controlled atmospheres and low concentrations of bisulphite

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    Yurong Ma
    Summary The cultivar Pacific Russet with high browning susceptibility was used for most testing. Controlled atmospheres (0.3%, 3% and 21% O2 in combination with 0%, 6% or 12% CO2) and anti-browning chemicals were studied in relation to quality retention and wound-induced phenolic metabolism of fresh-cut slices for up to 16 days at 5 C. The 3% O2+ 12% CO2 atmosphere was most effective among those tested, and retarded increases in phenolics and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, but had only slight benefit on visual quality. A 1.25% ascorbic acid +1.25% citric acid treatment was ineffective, but when combined with 3% O2+ 12% CO2, it was comparable with 0.025% sodium bisulphite. Bisulphite concentrations from 0.05% to 0.25% provided similar effective control of discolouration. Bisulphite as low as 0.025% with 3% O2+ 12% CO2 resulted in a visual quality score at the limit of marketability after 8 days at 5 C. Chemical treatments did not retard increases in phenolic concentrations or phenolic enzyme activities. [source]


    Distribution of degradative enzymatic activities in the mesocarp of two melon groups

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Marco Chisari
    Summary The differences in polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase activities as well as the main physical and chemical attributes of nine different slice portions (from the inner to the outer end and from the blossom to the stem end) of two groups of melon (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis,Galia' cv. and inodorus,Piel de sapo' cv.) at commercial maturity were studied. Moving from the inner to the outer end of the pulp, physico-chemical properties, such as pH, total soluble solids and phenolics increased whereas titratable acidity, firmness and Chroma decreased in both types, reflecting different degrees of maturity within the same fruit. As for physico-chemical attributes, the enzymatic activities responsible for browning and softening phenomena showed an increasing trend moving from the inner to the outer end of mesocarp in both cv., except for polygalacturonase in cantalupensis type. [source]


    Effect of gamma irradiation and sulphitation treatments on keeping quality of white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge)

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Ali M. Wani
    Summary Gamma irradiation, alone and in combination with sulphitation, was tested for preventing the browning and maintaining the quality attributes of the white button mushrooms. Mushrooms were subjected to treatment of gamma irradiation in the dose range of 0.5,2.0 kGy and to combination treatments of sulphitation at a concentration of 0.1% potassium metabisulphite (KMS) and gamma irradiation (dose range 0.5,2.0 kGy) followed by storage at 10 2 C (RH 85%). A dose of 2.0 kGy significantly reduced the weight loss, prevented browning and mould growth. Cap and veil opening of mushrooms was delayed by 9 days and shelf life was extended by 12 days at a dose level of 2.0 kGy. Sulphitation alone at a concentration of 0.1% KMS was effective in controlling browning only upto 3 days, beyond which both browning and cap opening increased significantly (P , 0.05) and the samples were unacceptable after 6 days of storage. No synergistic effect of sulphitation and irradiation was observed with respect to the shelf-life extension of mushroom. [source]


    Inhibition kinetic and mechanism of polyphenol oxidase from various sources by diethyldithiocarbamic acid

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2008
    Serap Do
    Summary Inhibition kinetics and mechanism of polyphenol oxidases (PPO) partially purified from various sources such as Thymbra spicata L. var. spicata and Ocimum basilicum L., and of mushroom PPO bought from Sigma by diethyldithiocarbamic acid have been described using catechol, 4-methylcatechol and pyrogallol as substrates. The inhibition type was competitive for O. basilicum L. PPO using catechol and 4-methylcatechol as substrates, for mushroom PPO using catechol, 4-methylcatechol and pyrogallol as substrates, and for T. spicata L. var. spicata PPO using 4-methylcatechol as a substrate; uncompetitive inhibition for T. spicata L. var. spicata PPO using pyrogallol as a substrate; and non-competitive inhibition for O. basilicum L. and T. spicata L. var. spicata PPO using pyrogallol and catechol as substrates, respectively. The inhibition effect of diethyldithiocarbamic acid on enzymatic browning varied greatly from one phenol to another and from one enzyme to another. Hence, no general rule can easily be established with regard to the type of inhibition observed. [source]


    Physiological and biochemical changes of different fresh-cut mango cultivars stored at 5 C

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Gustavo A. Gonzalez-Aguilar
    Summary Treatments to inhibit browning, decay and to extend shelf life of ,Keitt', ,Kent' and ,Ataulfo' mango cultivars as a fresh-cut produce were investigated. Combinations of calcium chloride (CaCl2), antioxidants [ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA)] and two commercial film coatings resulted in a reduction of browning and deterioration of fresh-cut mangoes stored at 5 C, especially for the Ataulfo cultivar. The use of CaCl2 + AA + CA significantly reduced colour deterioration, loss of firmness and did not affect sensory characteristics of fresh-cut mango, with a larger effect in the Ataulfo cultivar. In general, these treatments prevented loss of sugar and vitamin C of cubes during storage at 5 C. Shelf life of this cultivar was 21 days, while that of Keitt and Kent was only 9 and 12 days, respectively. There is a correlation between carotene and vitamin C content of Ataulfo mango and its longer shelf life compared with the other cultivars. [source]


    Some properties of polyphenol oxidase from lily

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Ying Yang
    Summary A study of crude polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from lily bulbs was carried out to provide information useful for guiding food processing operations. Optimum pH for the enzyme activity in the presence of catechol, were 4.0 and 7.0 at room temperature(approximately 20 C) and the enzyme was stable in the pH range from 5.0 to 6.5 at 4 C for 10 h. Its optimum temperature was 40 C and the heat inactivation of the enzyme followed first-order kinetics. Lily PPO possessed a diphenolase activity toward catechol, catechin and gallic acid; catechin was the best substrate for the enzyme considering the Vmax/Km ratio. The most effective enzyme inhibitor was sodium sulphite, although ascorbic acid, l -cysteine and thiourea were also effective inhibitors at high concentration. But NaCl and citric acid were poor inhibitors of the enzyme. Data generated by this study might help to better prevent lily bulbs browning. [source]


    Prevention of enzymatic browning of apple cylinders using different solutions

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Charles Tortoe
    Summary Inhibition of enzymatic browning and decay on cut surfaces of Golden Delicious apple using ascorbic acid, cysteine, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, citric acid and sodium ascorbate alone or in combinations was investigated at 4 and 10 C for a storage period of 0, 7 and 14 days, in an attempt to find the most effective treatment. Apple segments immersed in ascorbic acid and citric acid alone showed visual traces of browning after 7 days storage at 4 C. After 14 days storage, only ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid plus sodium chloride had moderate browning, while all other treatments were severely affected. However, at 10 C, only ascorbic acid was effective in reducing the level of browning, although its effect was minimal after 14 days storage. Browning was more severe at 10 C than 4 C in all solutions. The browning measurement (a* value) became increasingly positive from 7- to 14-day storage. Microbial decay was absent in all treatments within 7 days at 4 and 10 C. However, three test solutions showed microbial decay after 14 days storage at 10 C in addition to the control solution, which showed decay at both 4 and 10 C storage temperatures. [source]


    Biochemical aspects in two minimally processed lettuces upon storage

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Silvia Tavarini
    Summary The browning process was studied in two cultivars of minimally processed lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata cv. Verpia and Lactuca sativa var. acephala cv. Lollo Rossa). The analyses were carried out upon storage at 4 C in the dark. The first interesting result was the resistance to browning of excised leaves of Lollo Rossa, that did not present the typical symptoms of browning. Another important characteristic of Lollo Rossa lettuce was the higher antioxidant ability before storage. The results of biochemical characteristics obtained in this experiment did not show clear evidence supporting the biochemical model of tissue browning involving the sequential synthesis of phenolics and quinones that are regulated, respectively, by phenyl alanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and/or peroxidase. [source]


    The glass transition approach to determination of drying protocols for colour stability in dehydrated pear slices

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 9 2005
    Hang-Ing Ling
    Summary Colour stability in dehydrated fruit is often attained by use of sulphite treatment to inhibit browning during processing and storage. However, colour stability may be able to be conferred on products by ensuring that the molecular mobility is restricted in dried fruit by drying to sufficiently low moisture to raise the glass transition temperature (under mild conditions). Pear slices were dehydrated at a low temperature (40 C) to a low final moisture content (below 5%) after it was shown that, for a moisture content of 22% (which is the moisture content of commercial dehydrated pears) pretreatment with sulphite would be necessary to stabilise the colour. The use of longer drying regimes resulted in a moisture content where the food matrix would be closer to the glassy state and conferred colour stability on the dehydrated product compared to a product containing more moisture. For these low-moisture products, pretreatment with sulphite would not be necessary to preserve colour stability. [source]


    Hot air dehydration of figs (Ficus carica L.): drying kinetics and quality loss

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2004
    Antonio Piga
    Summary The dehydration of fruit from fig trees is normally achieved by sun drying. There is concern about the safety of the end product, mainly because there is a risk of the development of aflatoxins. These concerns can be overcome by artificial drying (oven dehydration). Fig fruits of a local cultivar, which were either pre-treated by blanching or blanching plus sulphuring or not treated at all, underwent hot air dehydration under mild processing conditions in a pilot airflow cabinet dryer. Sampling was carried out at regular intervals to calculate the rate of dehydration and assess quality changes. Microbiological counts and nonenzymatic browning were also monitored. Pretreatments resulted in a shorter processing time, compared with control fruits. In general, a falling dehydration rate period was observed. A dramatic loss of ascorbic acid was recorded, while an informal sensorial assay of the dried fruits gave a positive assessment. [source]


    Effects of heat treatment on the quality of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Litao Peng
    Summary A heat treatment to inhibit browning and maintain the quality of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut was developed. Slices of Chinese water chestnut, cv. Guilin, were immersed in boiling water for 30 s, placed into film-wrapped trays and then stored at 4 C for up to 12 days. Changes in browning, eating quality and disease incidence were measured. The effect of heat treatment on the content of total phenolics and activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) was also evaluated. The heat treatment effectively prevented browning associated with PAL, PPO and POD activities and total phenolic content and delayed the decrease in eating quality, which is associated with reduced total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid, compared with fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut. Inhibition of browning by heat treatment without microbial growth was achieved for 12 days of storage at 4 C. These results showed that heat treatment effectively maintained the quality of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut. [source]


    A review on microwave baking of foods

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Glm Sumnu
    Summary Microwaves interact with polar molecules and charged particles of food to generate heat. There are differences between the heating mechanisms of microwave and conventional heating. The use of microwave heating has the advantage of saving energy and time, improving both nutritional quality and acceptability of some foods by consumers. Microwave ovens are successfully used both in homes and in the food service industry. However, there are still problems in perfecting microwave baking, therefore it is a popular research area. The main problems found to occur in microwave-baked food products are low volume, tough or firm texture, lack of browning and flavour development. Recent studies aim to improve the quality of microwave-baked products. This article reviews the basic principles of microwave baking, problems commonly occurring in microwave-baked products and finally studies published concerning microwave-baked products. [source]


    Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Shigella in acidic fruit and vegetable juices by peroxidase systems

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    I. Van Opstal
    Abstract Aims:, To study the bactericidal properties of the lactoperoxidase (LPER)-thiocyanate and soybean peroxidase (SBP)-thiocyanate systems at low pH, their efficiency for inactivation of Escherichia coli and Shigella in acidic fruit and vegetable juices, their effect on colour stability of the juices and interaction with ascorbic acid. Methods and Results:, Three-strain cocktails of E. coli and Shigella spp. in selected juices were supplemented with the LPER or SBP system. Within 24 h at 20C, the LPER system inactivated both cocktails by ,5 log10 units in apple, 2,5 log10 units in orange and ,1 log10 unit in tomato juices. In the presence of SBP, browning was significant in apple juice and white grape juice, slight in pink grape juice and absent in orange or tomato juice. Ascorbic acid protected E. coli and Shigella against inactivation by the LPER system, and peroxidase systems significantly reduced the ascorbic acid content of juices. Conclusions:, Our results suggest a different specificity of LPER and SBP for SCN,, phenolic substrates of browning and ascorbic acid in acidic juices. The LPER system appeared a more appropriate candidate than the SBP system for biopreservation of juices. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This work may open perspectives towards the development of LPER or other peroxidases as biopreservatives in acidic foods. [source]