Brown Spot (brown + spot)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Increased Susceptibility of Rice Following Insertion of Amylopullulanase Gene, to Brown Spot Caused by Bipolaris oryzae

M.-Y. Ting
Abstract Transgenic rice expressing an amylopullulanase (APU) from the bacterium Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E produces grains which are less expensive to process for production of sugar syrup and protein-enriched flour. During risk assessment of the transgenic line in a field test, brown spot disease caused by Bipolaris oryzae was found more severe on the transgenic line APU than on its parental line TNG67. When lines APU and TNG67 were inoculated at seedling, tillering or heading stage with B. oryzae isolated from line TNG67, the disease was more severe on line APU than on line TNG67 at heading stage, but not at the seedling or tillering stage. However, when B. oryzae isolated from line APU was used in the inoculation tests, the disease was more severe on line APU than on line TNG67 at seedling stage, but not at the tillering or heading stage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an unintended change in a transgenic plant to become more susceptible to a disease than the non-transgenic plant. [source]

Effects of Host-Selective SV-Toxin from Stemphylium vesicarium, the Cause of Brown Spot of European Pear Plants, on Ultrastructure of Leaf Cells

P. Singh

Molecular, ecological and evolutionary approaches to understanding Alternaria diseases of citrus

Kazuya Akimitsu
SUMMARY Alternaria fungi cause four different diseases of citrus: Alternaria brown spot of tangerines, Alternaria leaf spot of rough lemon, Alternaria black rot of several citrus fruits and Mancha foliar of Mexican lime. The first three diseases are caused by the small-spored species, Alternaria alternata and the causal agents can only be differentiated using pathogenicity tests, toxin assays or genetic markers. Mancha foliar is caused by the morphologically distinct, large-spored species A. limicola. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the biology, ecology, population biology, systematics, molecular biology and biochemistry of the interactions between these pathogens and citrus. Epidemiological studies have focused on brown spot of tangerines and their hybrids and have contributed to the development of a model of disease development which has improved control and reduced fungicide use. Studies of the population genetics, host specificity and ecology of A. alternata from different ecological niches on citrus have revealed host specific forms of the pathogen which cause disease on different citrus species, the existence of three phylogenetic lineages of the fungus which cause brown spot world-wide, and closely related non-pathogenic isolates which colonize healthy citrus tissue. The role of host-specific toxins in Alternaria diseases of citrus has been extensively studied for over 20 years, and these pathosystems have become model systems for host-pathogen interactions. Recent molecular research has started to unravel the genetic basis of toxin production and the host susceptibility to toxin, and the role of extracellular, degradative enzymes in disease. [source]

Influence of facial skin attributes on the perceived age of Caucasian women

A Nkengne
Abstract Background and objective, The facial appearance of a person does not always reflect the chronological age; some people look younger or older than they really are. Many studies have described the changes in skin properties (colour, wrinkles, sagging, micro relief, etc.) with age, but few of them have analysed their influence on the perceived age. The primary objective of this study was to assess the contribution of individual skin attributes of the face on the perceived age of Caucasian women. Secondary objectives were to assess the influence of age and gender of graders with regard to the age perception. Subjects and method, A random sample of 173 subjects of 20 to 74 years of age was taken from a database of more than 5000 healthy Caucasian women. A trained grader performed visual assessment of facial skin attributes (using a visual analogue scale), and a front face photograph was taken from each subject. Photographs were shown to 48 graders (20 men and 28 women, aged 22,64 years) who were asked to estimate the age of the subjects. Graders were classified as young (less than 35 years), middle age (35,50 years) and seniors (older than 50 years). Partial Least Square regression models were built to predict the chronological and the perceived age from the measured facial individual attributes. The contribution of each attribute within the regression model enabled to measure the relevance of this attribute with regards to age prediction. Results, The eye area and the skin colour uniformity were the main attributes related to perceived age. For age prediction, older graders' estimations were more driven by lips border definition shape and eyes opening, whereas younger graders' (older than 50 years) estimations were more driven by dark circles, nasolabial fold and brown spots. There were statistically significant differences in graders' age perception between gender and among age ranges. Our findings suggest that female graders are more accurate than male, and younger graders (under 35 years) are more accurate than older (over 50 years) to predict Caucasian women age from facial photographs. Conclusions, Different skin attributes influence the estimation of age. These attributes have a different weight in the evaluation of the perceived age, depending on the age and of the observer. The most important attributes to estimate age are eyes, lips and skin colour uniformity. [source]