Brown Norway (brown + norway)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Brown Norway

  • brown norway rat

  • Selected Abstracts

    Polygenic Control of Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy Phenotypes in the Genetic Absence Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2004
    Gabrielle Rudolf
    Summary: Purpose: Generalized nonconvulsive absence seizures are characterized by the occurrence of synchronous and bilateral spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) on electroencephalographic recordings, concomitant with behavioral arrest. The GAERS (genetic absence rats from Strasbourg) strain, a well-characterized inbred model for idiopathic generalized epilepsy, spontaneously develops EEG paroxysms that resemble those of typical absence seizures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic control of SWD variables by using a combination of genetic analyses and electrophysiological measurements in an experimental cross derived from GAERS and Brown Norway (BN) rats. Methods: SWD subphenotypes were quantified on EEG recordings performed at both 3 and 6 months in a cohort of 118 GAERS BN F2 animals. A genome-wide scan of the F2 progenies was carried out with 146 microsatellite markers that were used to test each marker locus for evidence of genetic linkage to the SWD quantitative traits. Results: We identified three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in chromosomes 4, 7, and 8 controlling specific SWD variables in the cross, including frequency, amplitude, and severity of SWDs. Age was a major factor influencing the detection of genetic linkage to the various components of the SWDs. Conclusions: The identification of these QTLs demonstrates the polygenic control of SWDs in the GAERS strain. Genetic linkages to specific SWD features underline the complex mechanisms contributing to SWD development in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. [source]

    Cell cycle deregulation in liver lesions of rats with and without genetic predisposition to hepatocarcinogenesis

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
    Rosa M. Pascale
    Preneoplastic and neoplastic hepatocytes undergo c-Myc up-regulation and overgrowth in rats genetically susceptible to hepatocarcinogenesis, but not in resistant rats. Because c-Myc regulates the pRb-E2F pathway, we evaluated cell cycle gene expression in neoplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), induced by initiation/selection (IS) protocols 40 and 70 weeks after diethylnitrosamine treatment, in susceptible Fisher 344 (F344) rats, and resistant Wistar and Brown Norway (BN) rats. No interstrain differences in gene expression occurred in normal liver. Overexpression of c- myc, Cyclins D1, E, and A, and E2F1 genes, at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels, rise in Cyclin D1-CDK4, Cyclin E-CDK2, and E2F1-DP1 complexes, and pRb hyperphosphorylation occurred in nodules and HCCs of F344 rats. Expression of Cdk4, Cdk2, p16INK4A, and p27KIP1 did not change. In nodules and/or HCCs of Wistar and BN rats, low or no increases in c- myc, Cyclins D1, E, and A, and E2F1 expression, and Cyclin-CDKs complex formation were associated with p16INK4A overexpression and pRb hypophosphorylation. In conclusion, these results suggest deregulation of G1 and S phases in liver lesions of susceptible rats and block of G1-S transition in lesions of resistant strains, which explains their low progression capacity. [source]

    The degradation of cell cycle regulators by SKP2/CKS1 ubiquitin ligase is genetically controlled in rodent liver cancer and contributes to determine the susceptibility to the disease

    Diego F. Calvisi
    Abstract Previous work showed a genetic control of cell cycle deregulation during hepatocarcinogenesis. We now evaluated in preneoplastic lesions, dysplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), chemically induced in genetically susceptible F344 and resistant Brown Norway (BN) rats, the role of cell cycle regulating proteins in the determination of a phenotype susceptible to HCC development. p21WAF1, p27KIP1, p57KIP2 and p130 mRNA levels increased in fast growing lesions of F344 rats. Lower/no increases occurred in slowly growing lesions of BN rats. A similar behavior of RassF1A mRNA was previously found in the 2 rat strains. However, p21WAF1, p27KIP1, p57KIP, p130 and RassF1A proteins exhibited no change/low increase in the lesions of F344 rats and consistent rise in dysplastic nodules and HCC of BN rats. Increase in Cks1-Skp2 ligase and ubiquitination of cell cycle regulators occurred in F344 but not in BN rat lesions, indicating that posttranslational modifications of cell cycle regulators are under genetic control and contribute to determine a phenotype susceptible to HCC. Moreover, proliferation index of 60 human HCCs was inversely correlated with protein levels but not with mRNA levels of P21WAF1, P27KIP1, P57KIP2 and P130, indicating a control of human HCC proliferation by posttranslational modifications of cell cycle regulators. [source]

    Genetic susceptibility to carrageenan-induced innate inflammatory response in inbred strains of rats

    B. Joe
    Summary Rat models are useful for the genetic dissection of the biology of innate immunity. Inbred rat strains were evaluated for carrageenan-induced innate inflammatory responses. Results indicated that the genetic control of innate immune responses is polygenic and influenced by gender, and may not necessarily be consistent with the genetics of experimental arthritis. The newly identified susceptible strains, in order of decreasing susceptibility, include Dahl salt-sensitive (S), Dahl salt-resistant (R), Milan normotensive strain (MNS) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Similarly, the newly identified relatively resistant strains, in decreasing order of resistance, include DA rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Brown Norway (BN) rats. Linkage analyses using combinations of these susceptible and resistant strains are proposed. [source]

    Methods for the identi,cation of chemical respiratory allergens in rodents: comparisons of cytokine pro,ling with induced changes in serum IgE

    R. J. Dearman
    Abstract No validated or widely recognized test methods are currently available for the prospective identi,cation of chemicals with the potential to cause respiratory allergy. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in the induction of chemical sensitization of the respiratory tract are unclear, although there is evidence for the selective development of T helper 2 (Th2)-type responses and, in some cases, the production of IgE antibody. We have therefore examined the utility of cytokine pro,ling using BALB/c mice, together with the measurement of induced increases in the total serum concentration of IgE in the Brown Norway (BN) rat, as markers for the prospective identi,cation of chemical respiratory allergens. Responses provoked by the reference respiratory allergen trimellitic anhydride (TMA) have been compared with those stimulated by the respiratory sensitizing diisocyanates toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and by the acid anhydride hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA). Topical exposure of BN rats to TMA, TDI and HHPA each provoked marked immune activation (increases in lymph node cellularity and proliferation). However, only treatment with TMA stimulated vigorous increases in the total serum concentration of IgE. In contrast, exposure to HHPA, TDI or HDI failed to provoke signi,cant changes in serum IgE concentration or induced only transient and relatively weak increases in serum IgE levels. In parallel experiments using BALB/c strain mice, however, topical application of all four chemical respiratory allergens provoked a marked Th2-type cytokine secretion pro,le in draining lymph node cells. These data suggest that the measurement of induced changes in serum IgE is not suf,ciently sensitive for the robust identi,cation of chemical respiratory allergens. Furthermore, irrespective of the reasons for variations in TMA-induced IgE production among BN rats, doubts remain regarding the utility of these animals for the characterization of immune responses to chemical allergens. Cytokine pro,ling using the BALB/c strain mouse apparently provides a more robust method for the hazard assessment of chemical respiratory allergens. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Induced changes in total serum IgE concentration in the Brown Norway rat: potential for identification of chemical respiratory allergens

    E. V. Warbrick
    Abstract A variety of chemicals can cause sensitization of the respiratory tract and occupational asthma that may be associated with IgE antibody production. Topical exposure to chemical respiratory allergens such as trimellitic anhydride (TMA) has been shown previously to induce increases in the total serum concentration of IgE in BALB/c strain mice. Contact allergens such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), which apparently lack respiratory sensitizing potential, fail to provoke similar changes. However, it became apparent with time that there was some inter-animal variation in constitutive and inducible IgE levels. We have now examined the influence of topical exposure to TMA and DNCB on serum IgE levels in the Brown Norway (BN) rat. Such animals can be bled serially and thus it is possible to perform longitudinal analyses of changes in serum IgE concentration. The kinetics of IgE responses therefore can be followed on an individual animal basis, allowing discrimination between transient and sustained increases in serum IgE concentration. Rats (n = 5) were exposed on shaved flanks to 50% TMA, to 1% DNCB (concentrations that elicit comparable immune activation with respect to draining lymph node cellularity and proliferation) or to vehicle alone. Total IgE was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples taken prior to and 14,42 days following initial exposure. Those animals having high pre-existing IgE levels (>1.0 g ml,1) were excluded from subsequent analyses. The levels of serum IgE in the majority of rats exposed to DNCB or vehicle alone remained relatively stable throughout the duration of all the experiments conducted, although some animals displayed transient increases in serum IgE. Only TMA treatment was associated with a significant and sustained increase in the level of serum IgE in the majority of experiments. The elevated concentrations of IgE induced by topical exposure to TMA are persistent, the results reported here demonstrating that induced changes in IgE are maximal or near maximal at approximately 35 days, with a significant increase in IgE demonstrable for at least 42 days following the initiation of exposure. Interestingly, although TMA and DNCB at the test concentrations used were found to be of comparable overall immunogenicity with regard to lymph node activation and the induction of lymph node cell proliferation, there were apparent differences in humoral immune responses. Thus, not only did exposure to TMA stimulate increases in total serum IgE concentration and the production of specific IgE antibody, but also a more vigorous IgG antibody response was provoked by TMA compared with DNCB. These data suggest that the measurement of induced changes in serum IgE concentration in the BN strain of rat is able to differentiate between different classes of chemical allergen. Given the inter-animal variation in IgE production, it would be prudent to incorporate a concurrent assessment of responses induced by treatment with TMA as a positive control against which to assess the activity of other test materials. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Localization of the Gene Causing the Osteopetrotic Phenotype in the Incisors Absent (Ia) Rat on Chromosome 10q32.1,

    Liesbeth van Wesenbeeck
    Abstract The incisors absent rat is an osteopetrotic animal model. Segregation analysis in 37 affected animals from an outcross enabled us to assign the disease causing gene to a 4.7-cM interval on rat chromosome 10q32.1. Further analysis of the genes mapped in this region will provide more insight into the underlying pathogenesis. Introduction: Many of the insights into the factors that regulate the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts are gained from different spontaneous and genetically induced osteopetrotic animal models. The osteopetrotic incisors absent (ia) rat exhibits a generalized skeletal sclerosis and a delay of tooth eruption. Although the ia rat has well been studied phenotypically, the genetic defect still remains unknown. Material and Methods: To map the ia locus, we outcrossed the inbred ia strain with the inbred strain Brown Norway. Intercrossing F1 animals produced the F2 generation. Thirty-one mutant F2 animals and six mutant F4 animals were available for segregation analysis. Results: Segregation analysis enabled us to assign the disease causing gene to rat chromosome 10q32.1. Homozygosity for the ia allele was obtained for two of the markers analyzed (D10Rat18 and D10Rat84). Key recombinations delineate a candidate region of 4.7 cM flanked by the markers D10Rat99 and D10Rat17. Conclusion: We have delineated a 4.7-cM region on rat chromosome 10q32.1 in which the gene responsible for the osteopetrotic phenotype of the ia rat is located. Although the sequence of this chromosomal region is not complete, over 140 known or putative genes have already been assigned to this region. Among these, several candidate genes with a putative role in osteoclast functioning can be identified. However, at this point, it cannot be excluded that one of the genes with a currently unknown function is involved in the pathogenesis of the ia rat. Further analysis of the genes mapped in this region will provide us more insight into the pathogenesis of this osteopetrotic animal model. [source]

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields induce peripheral nerve regeneration and endplate enzymatic changes

    J.A. De Pedro
    Abstract An experimental study was carried out in rats with the purpose of demonstrating the capacity of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) to stimulate regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Wistar and Brown Norway (BN) rats were used. Direct sciatic nerve anastomoses were performed after section or allograft interposition. Treatment groups then received 4 weeks of PEMFs. Control groups received no stimulation. The evaluation of the results was carried out by quantitative morphometric analysis, demonstrating a statistically significant increase in regeneration indices (P,<,0.05) in the stimulated groups (9000,,5000 and 4000,,6000) compared to the non-stimulated groups (2000,,4000 and 700,,200). An increase of NAD specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) activity was found along with an increase in the activity of acetyl cholinesterase at the motor plate. The present study might lead to the search for new alternatives in the stimulation of axonal regenerative processes in the PNS and other possible clinical applications. Bioelectromagnetics 26:20,27, 2005. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]