Brown

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Brown

  • dark brown

  • Terms modified by Brown

  • brown adipocyte
  • brown adipose tissue
  • brown alga
  • brown bat
  • brown bear
  • brown coal
  • brown color
  • brown dwarf
  • brown dwarf companion
  • brown et al.
  • brown hare
  • brown macroalgae
  • brown macule
  • brown norway
  • brown norway rat
  • brown obsessive
  • brown rice
  • brown seaweed
  • brown spot
  • brown trout
  • brown trout population
  • brown trout salmo trutta
  • brown trout salmo trutta l.
  • brown tumor
  • brown v. board

  • Selected Abstracts


    GORDON BROWN COUNTS DEAD CHILDREN: THE TRUE IMPACT OF INHERITANCE TAX

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2006
    Cliff Pratten
    In the Budget and the supporting documents Gordon Brown and the Treasury reported that only 6% of estates pay Inheritance Tax and that the tax is a fair and targeted system. This article shows that for several reasons the tax affects far more than 6% of the community, is iniquitous and poorly targeted. [source]


    Teaching Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Heritage Language Students: Curriculum Needs, Materials, and Assessment edited by KONDO,BROWN, KIMI, & JAMES DEAN BROWN

    MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
    DANIELLE OOYOUNG PYUN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Heritage Language Development: Focus on East Asian Immigrants Edited by KONDO,BROWN, KIMI

    MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    SCOTT McGINNIS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies: Bright and dark sides

    CONGENITAL ANOMALIES, Issue 3 2001
    Kaoru Suzumori
    ABSTRACT, Infertility is defined as a couples failure to conceive following 2 years of unprotected sexual intercourse, affects 10% of reproductive age couples in Japan. There are 3 main causes: (1) ovarian failure-anovulation (29%); (2) tubal factor-anatomic defects of the female genital tract (36%); (3) male factor-abnormal spermatogenesis (31%). The goal of the infertility evaluation are to determine the probable cause of infertility regarding prognosis and to provide guidance regarding options for treatment In the event an obstruction of the fallopian tubes is discovered or spermatogenesis cannot be improved, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) and in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer (IVF-ET) are recommended. Since the successful birth of Louise Brown by this IVF-ET, an explosion of ART has occurred all over the world in the last decade. In this review we discuss the revolution brought about by ART focusing on results in Japan, and clarify ethical issues that must be resolved. [source]


    Writing as Inquiry: Storying the Teaching Self in Writing Workshops

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 4 2002
    Freema Elbaz, Luwisch
    Recent research demonstrates that the process of telling and writing personal stories is a powerful means of fostering teachers' professional growth (Connelly & Clandinin, 1995; Conle, 1996; Diamond, 1994; Heikkinen, 1998; Kelchtermans, 1993). This article aims to further understanding of writing in the development of teachers' narratives of practice, and to critically examine the potential of the writing workshop as a space where diverse voices can find expression. I take up a narrative perspective, seeing the practice of teaching as constructed when teachers tell and live out particular stories. I examine the autobiographic writing of teachers who participated in a graduate course on autobiography and professional development, drawing on phenomenological (Van Manen, 1990) and narrative methods (Mishler, 1986) and attending to issues of voice (Raymond, Butt, & Townsend, 1992, Brown & Gilligan, 1992) and "restorying" (Clandinin & Connelly, 1996, 1998). The main questions addressed are how do teachers narratively construct their own development and how does the university context, usually construed as a locus of knowledge transmission, function as a framework for the processes of storytelling, reflection, and restorying of experience and for the elaboration by teachers of an internally persuasive discourse (Bakhtin, 1981)? The article describes the experience of the course and the various uses to which participants put autobiographic writing; the range of voices used in the writing is indicated. Three "moments" in the writing process are discussed: describing, storying, and questioning, moments that, taken together, are seen to make up the restorying process. The conclusions point to limitations and possibilities of writing in the academic setting, in particular the place of theory in helping to draw out teachers' voices. [source]


    Activity alters muscle reinnervation and terminal sprouting by reducing the number of schwann cell pathways that grow to link synaptic sites

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Flora M. Love
    Abstract In partially denervated rodent muscle, terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) located at denervated end plates grow processes, some of which contact neighboring innervated end plates. Those processes that contact neighboring synapses (termed "bridges") appear to initiate nerve terminal sprouting and to guide the growth of the sprouts so that they reach and reinnervate denervated end plates. Studies conducted prior to knowledge of this potential involvement of Schwann cells showed that direct muscle stimulation inhibits terminal sprouting following partial denervation (Brown and Holland, 1979). We have investigated the possibility this inhibition results from an alteration in the growth of TSC processes. We find that stimulation of partially denervated rat soleus muscle does not alter the length or number of TSC processes but does reduce the number of TSC bridges. Stimulation also reduces the number of TSC bridges that form between end plates during reinnervation of a completely denervated muscle. The nerve processes ("escaped fibers") that normally grow onto TSC processes during reinnervation are also reduced in length. Therefore, stimulation alters at least two responses to denervation in muscles: (1) the ability of TSC processes to form or maintain bridges with innervated synaptic sites, and (2) the growth of axons along processes extended by TSCs. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 54: 566,576, 2003 [source]


    Origins of a stereotype: categorization of facial attractiveness by 6-month-old infants

    DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
    Jennifer L. Ramsey
    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois, Kalakanis, Rubenstein, Larson, Hallam & Smooth, 2000). How do preferences for attractive faces develop into stereotypes? Several theories of stereotyping posit that categorization of groups is necessary before positive and negative traits can become linked to the groups (e.g. Tajfel, Billig, Bundy & Flament, 1971; Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1982). We investigated whether or not 6-month-old infants can categorize faces as attractive or unattractive. In Experiment 1, we familiarized infants to unattractive female faces; in Experiment 2, we familiarized infants to attractive female faces and tested both groups of infants on novel faces from the familiar or novel attractiveness category. Results showed that 6-month-olds categorized attractive and unattractive female faces into two different groups of faces. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that infants could discriminate among the faces used in Experiments 1 and 2, and therefore categorized the faces based on their similarities in attractiveness rather than because they could not differentiate among the faces. These findings suggest that categorization of facial attractiveness may underlie the development of the ,beauty is good' stereotype. [source]


    GORDON BROWN COUNTS DEAD CHILDREN: THE TRUE IMPACT OF INHERITANCE TAX

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2006
    Cliff Pratten
    In the Budget and the supporting documents Gordon Brown and the Treasury reported that only 6% of estates pay Inheritance Tax and that the tax is a fair and targeted system. This article shows that for several reasons the tax affects far more than 6% of the community, is iniquitous and poorly targeted. [source]


    Repeated withdrawal from ethanol impairs acquisition but not expression of conditioned fear

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 2 2003
    T. L. Ripley
    Abstract Repeated withdrawal from ethanol impairs acquisition of conditioned fear [Stephens, D.N., Brown, G., Duka, T. & Ripley, T.L. (2001) Eur. J. Neurosci., 14, 2023,2031]. This study further examined the effect of repeated withdrawal from ethanol on the expression and acquisition of fear conditioning. Following training, presentation of a cue associated with footshock (CS+) resulted in a suppression of operant responding for food reinforcement. In different groups, shock thresholds were manipulated to give weak or severe behavioural suppression. Rats were subsequently chronically treated with ethanol-containing liquid diet either continuously (single withdrawal) or with three withdrawal periods (repeated withdrawal). Ethanol treatment and withdrawal had no effect on conditioned suppression of responding tested 2 weeks after the final withdrawal, at either shock intensity. Nevertheless, extinction of conditioned fear was impaired in the repeated withdrawal group exposed to the higher shock intensity. In the high intensity group, the stimulus,shock association was then reversed, so that the previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS,) became the CS+. Acquisition of suppression to the new CS+ was significantly less in the animals previously given repeated experience of withdrawal, confirming our previous finding. Thus, repeated withdrawal from ethanol lead to disruption in the acquisition of fear conditioning but had no effect on retrieval of an association formed prior to the ethanol-withdrawal experiences. [source]


    Analytical and experimental studies on fatigue crack path under complex multi-axial loading

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 4 2006
    L. REIS
    ABSTRACT In real engineering components and structures, many accidental failures are due to unexpected or additional loadings, such as additional bending or torsion, etc. Fractographical analyses of the failure surface and the crack orientation are helpful for identifying the effects of the non-proportional multi-axial loading. There are many factors that influence fatigue crack paths. This paper studies the effects of multi-axial loading path on the crack path. Two kinds of materials were studied and compared in this paper: AISI 303 stainless steel and 42CrMo4 steel. Experiments were conducted in a biaxial testing machine INSTRON 8800. Six different biaxial loading paths were selected and applied in the tests to observe the effects of multi-axial loading paths on the additional hardening, fatigue life and the crack propagation orientation. Fractographic analyses of the plane orientations of crack initiation and propagation were carried out by optical microscope and SEM approaches. It was shown that the two materials studied had different crack orientations under the same loading path, due to their different cyclic plasticity behaviour and different sensitivity to non-proportional loading. Theoretical predictions of the damage plane were made using the critical plane approaches such as the Brown,Miller, the Findley, the Wang,Brown, the Fatemi,Socie, the Smith,Watson,Topper and the Liu's criteria. Comparisons of the predicted orientation of the damage plane with the experimental observations show that the critical plane models give satisfactory predictions for the orientations of early crack growth of the 42CrMo4 steel, but less accurate predictions were obtained for the AISI 303 stainless steel. This observation appears to show that the applicability of the fatigue models is dependent on the material type and multi-axial microstructure characteristics. [source]


    Low-cycle fatigue of 1Cr,18Ni,9Ti stainless steel and related weld metal under axial, torsional and 90° out-of-phase loading

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2004
    X. CHEN
    ABSTRACT The fatigue behaviour of base metal and weld joints of 1Cr,18Ni,9Ti stainless steel has been studied under uniaxial, torsional and 90° out-of-phase loading. A significant degree of additional hardening is found for both base metal and weld metal under 90° out-of-phase loading. Both base metal and weld metal have the same cyclic stable stress,strain relationship under torsional cyclic loading and 90° out-of-phase cyclic loading. Base metal exhibits higher cyclic stress than weld metal under uniaxial loading, and Young's modulus and yield stress of weld metal are smaller than those of base metal. Weld metal exhibited lower fatigue resistance than base metal under uniaxial and torsional loading, but no significant difference was found between the two materials under 90° out-of-phase loading. A large scatter of fatigue life is observed for weld metal, perhaps because of heterogeneity of the microstructure. The Wang,Brown (WB) damage parameter and the Fatemi,Socie (FS) damage parameter, both based on the shear critical plane approach, were evaluated relative to the fatigue data obtained. [source]


    The polypeptide chain release factor eRF1 specifically contacts the s4UGA stop codon located in the A site of eukaryotic ribosomes

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 10 2001
    Laurent Chavatte
    It has been shown previously [Brown, C.M. & Tate, W.P. (1994) J. Biol. Chem.269, 33164,33170.] that the polypeptide chain release factor RF2 involved in translation termination in prokaryotes was able to photocrossreact with mini-messenger RNAs containing stop signals in which U was replaced by 4-thiouridine (s4U). Here, using the same strategy we have monitored photocrosslinking to eukaryotic ribosomal components of 14-mer mRNA in the presence of , and 42-mer mRNA in the presence of tRNAAsp (tRNAAsp gene transcript). We show that: (a) both 14-mer and 42-mer mRNAs crossreact with ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. The patterns of the crosslinked ribosomal proteins are similar with both mRNAs and sensitive to ionic conditions; (b) the crosslinking patterns obtained with 42-mer mRNAs show characteristic modification upon addition of tRNAAsp providing evidence for appropriate mRNA phasing onto the ribosome. Similar changes are not detected with the 14-mer pairs; (c) when eukaryotic polypeptide chain release factor 1 (eRF1) is added to the ribosome·tRNAAsp complex it crossreacts with the 42-mer mRNA containing the s4UGA stop codon located in the A site, but not with the s4UCA sense codon; this crosslink involves the N-terminal and middle domains of eRF1 but not the C domain which interacts with eukaryotic polypeptide chain release factor 3 (eRF3); (d) addition of eRF3 has no effect on the yield of eRF1,42-mer mRNA crosslinking and eRF3 does not crossreact with 42-mer mRNA. These experiments delineate the in vitro conditions allowing optimal phasing of mRNA on the eukaryotic ribosome and demonstrate a direct and specific contact of ,core' eRF1 and s4UGA stop codon within the ribosomal A site. [source]


    THE COMBINED EFFECT OF DONATION PRICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE INEFFICIENCY ON DONATIONS TO US NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2009
    Fred A. Jacobs
    We examine the effects that two accounting measures of nonprofit organization (NPO) inefficiency, administrative inefficiency and donation price, have on donations to US NPOs using a better-specified model and industry-specific samples. Although numerous studies examine the effect that donation price has on donations (e.g., Marudas and Jacobs, 2006; Marudas, 2004; Khanna and Sandler, 2000; and Tinkelman, 1999), only three studies examine the effect of administrative inefficiency on donations (Tinkelman and Mankaney, 2007; Frumkin and Kim, 2001; and Greenlee and Brown, 1999). However, none of these studies tests donation price and administrative inefficiency in one model and only two test industry-specific samples of NPOs. We find that misspecifying the model by including only one of these two inefficiency measures creates substantial bias and the effect of administrative inefficiency on donations varies substantially across industries. Administrative inefficiency has a significantly negative effect on donations to NPOs in the full sample and the philanthropy sample, but no significant effect on donations to NPOs in the arts, education, health, or human services samples. Furthermore, donation price has a significantly negative effect on donations to NPOs in the full sample and the education, health and human services samples, but not in the arts or philanthropy samples. Results are also reported for the other variables in the model , government support, program service revenue, fundraising and organizational age, wealth and size. [source]


    Biochemical universality of living matter and its metabolic implications

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    A. M. MAKARIEVA
    Summary 1Recent discussions of metabolic scaling laws focus on the model of West, Brown & Enquist (WBE). The core assumptions of the WBE model are the size-invariance of terminal units at which energy is consumed by living matter and the size-invariance of the rate of energy supply to these units. Both assumptions are direct consequences of the biochemical universality of living matter. However, the second assumption contradicts the central prediction of the WBE model that mass-specific metabolic rate q should decrease with body mass with a scaling exponent µ = ,1/4, thus making the model logically inconsistent. 2Examination of evidence interpreted by WBE and colleagues in favour of a universal µ = ,1/4 across 15 and more orders of magnitude range in body mass reveals that this value resulted from methodological errors in data assortment and analysis. 3Instead, the available evidence is shown to be consistent with the existence of a size-independent mean value of mass-specific metabolic rate common to most taxa. Plotted together, q -values of non-growing unicells, insects and mammals in the basal state yield µ , 0. Estimated field metabolic rates of bacteria and vertebrates are also size-independent. 4Standard mass-specific metabolic rates of most unicells, insects and mammals studied are confined between 1 and 10 W kg,1. Plant leaves respire at similar rates. This suggests the existence of a metabolic optimum for living matter. With growing body size and diminishing surface-to-volume ratio organisms have to change their physiology and perfect their distribution networks to keep their q in the vicinity of the optimum. [source]


    Women and Portraits in Early Modern Europe: Gender, Agency and Identity edited by Andrea Pearson Women, Gender and Radical Religion in Early Modern Europe edited by Sylvia Brown

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2009
    FIONA WILLIAMSON
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Beyond ,Gender Differences': A Canadian Study of Women's and Men's Careers in Engineering

    GENDER, WORK & ORGANISATION, Issue 1 2003
    Gillian Ranson
    This article explores the relationship between gender and career paths for a group of women and men who graduated as engineers during a period of labour market turbulence in western Canada during the 1980s. Using a model adapted from Brown (1982), the article uses ,career path' as a device to organize data drawn primarily from telephone and face-to-face interviews with 317 graduates. Three career paths provide the focus for the study: the ,organizational', characterized by stable employment with one employer; the ,occupational', characterized by mobility between employers; and the entrepreneurial, characterized by self-employment. The use of the career path framework moves the study beyond global comparisons (of the dichotomized ,gender differences' kind) between ,the women' and ,the men'. As well as allowing for comparison between the paths, it allows more refined and contextualized comparisons within each path. Such comparisons produce patterns of similarity and difference that sometimes transcend gender. [source]


    The Historiography of a Construct: "Feudalism" and the Medieval Historian

    HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2009
    Richard Abels
    Between 1974 and 1994, two influential critiques of feudalism were published, an article in 1974 by Elizabeth A. R. Brown and a book by Susan Reynolds in 1994, that crystallized doubts about the construct of feudalism harbored by many historians of the Middle Ages. Over the last few years textbooks have begun to reflect the new consensus. Medieval historians responsible for chapters on the Middle Ages in Western Civilization and World Civilization textbooks now shy away from the term ,feudalism'. This reticence is less evident in civilization textbooks lacking a medievalist among the collaborators. In several of these we still find the ,feudal Middle Ages' presented without apology, as well as comparisons drawn between Japanese, Chinese, and medieval Western feudalisms. Whether or not the assigned textbook mentions ,feudalism', most Western civilization instructors probably continue to use the term because it is familiar to them and to their students. This article presents an overview of the historiography of one of the key concepts for the study of the Middle Ages, and an assessment of where the state of the question now stands. The author concludes that, although the critique of feudalism is powerful and necessary, the pendulum is threatening to swing too far in the other direction, away from the vertical ties and power relations that once dominated discussions of medieval politics and society, and toward a new paradigm of horizontal bonds, consensus making, and community. [source]


    The Displacement of Black Educators Post -Brown: An Overview and Analysis

    HISTORY OF EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2004
    Michael Fultz
    First page of article [source]


    Brown -ing the American Textbook: History, Psychology, and the Origins of Modem Multiculturalism

    HISTORY OF EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2004
    Jonathan Zimmerman
    First page of article [source]


    The impact of politeness and relationship on perceived quality of advice about a problem

    HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, Issue 2 2000
    DJ Goldsmith
    Advice is a common but potentially problematic way to respond to someone who is distressed. Politeness theory (Brown & Levinson, 1987) suggests advice threatens a hearer's face and predicts that the speaker-hearer relationship and the use of politeness strategies can mitigate face threat and enhance the effectiveness of advice messages. Students (N=384) read 1 of 16 hypothetical situations that varied in speaker power and closeness of the speaker-hearer relationship. Students then read 1 of 48 advice messages representing different politeness strategies and rated the message for regard shown for face and for effectiveness. However, neither speaker-hearer relationship nor politeness strategies was consistently associated with perceived threat to face or perceived advice effectiveness. We suggest revisions to politeness theory and additional factors that may affect judgments of face sensitivity and advice effectiveness. [source]


    A note on transaction costs and the interpretation of dividend drop-off ratios

    ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 3 2001
    Graham Partington
    In a recent edition of this Journal, Bartholdy and Brown (1999) presented an analysis of the ex-dividend share price behaviour of shares listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange. The authors conclude that their results are consistent with the tax clientele effect (driven by long-term investors) and that there is little or no support for the short-term trading hypothesis. Our purpose is to highlight the importance of transaction costs in analyses such as Bartholdy and Brown's. We argue that their results have an alternative interpretation because their analysis excludes the impact of transaction costs. We extend their model to include transaction costs and show that their results are not necessarily inconsistent with the short-term trading hypothesis. A critical point of our analysis is that, in the presence of transaction costs, the equilibrium drop-off ratio for dividend strip traders will be less than one, and, in some cases, can be less than the equilibrium drop-off ratio for long-term investors. [source]


    Closing science-practice knowledge gaps: Contributions of psychological research to human resource management

    HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2004
    Michael J. Burke
    Evidence of science-practice knowledge gaps among managers (Rynes, Colbert, & Brown, 2002), coupled with major changes occurring in the workplace over the last ten years, suggest the need for human resources practitioners to become as current as possible on how research findings can assist in improving the management of HR. Nine articles in this special issue provide rich information for understanding the contributions of psychological theories and research findings to HR management and, consequently, for closing science-practice knowledge gaps. More specifically, the articles bring together pairs of scientists and practitioners to address science-practice knowledge gaps in the areas of recruiting and selecting workers, managing performance, training and developing individuals, managing groups and teams, compensating employees, leading others, assessing employee attitudes, managing diversity, and managing downsizing. We hope these articles will stimulate and promote a broader perspective concerning the relevance and value of psychological research for improving HR practices and organizational functioning. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    The effect of ultrasonically activated irrigation on reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in experimentally infected root canals

    INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 11 2010
    A. J. Harrison
    Harrison AJ, Chivatxaranukul P, Parashos P, Messer HH. The effect of ultrasonically activated irrigation on reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in experimentally infected root canals. International Endodontic Journal, 43, 968,977, 2010. Abstract Aim, To investigate the ability of an ultrasonically activated irrigating system to eliminate bacteria from the canal wall and dentinal tubules of extracted teeth. Methodology, One hundred and thirty roots of intact human teeth were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 4 weeks. The straight roots were randomly allocated to a baseline group (n = 25) or subjected to routine cleaning and shaping procedures (n = 105). Two sub-groups of prepared canals were then additionally exposed either to ultrasonic irrigation with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 1 min (n = 35) or to 1 week of intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] (n = 35). All roots were processed for light microscopy (Brown and Brenn stain) (n = 28) or scanning electron microscopy (n = 7). Triplicate histological sections from each of the apical, middle and coronal thirds were scored for bacterial presence using pre-defined criteria. Results, Baseline bacterial penetration resulted in an average depth of tubule invasion of 151 ,m. Routine canal preparation failed to eliminate bacteria consistently from either the canal wall or within tubules. Ultrasonic irrigation and medication with Ca(OH)2 consistently eliminated bacteria from the canal wall (P < 0.001) compared with baseline and routine treatment, and more frequently from dentinal tubules than routine canal preparation alone (P < 0.01). Ultrasonic irrigation was as effective in bacterial reduction as 1 week of intracanal medication with Ca(OH)2, but neither led to complete bacterial elimination in all roots. Conclusions, Ultrasonically activated irrigation for 1 min with 1% NaOCl after canal preparation in straight root canals is potentially an effective supplementary step in microbial control. [source]


    Residual bacteria in root apices removed by a diagonal root-end resection: a histopathological evaluation

    INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 6 2008
    S. Lin
    Abstract Aim, To assess bacteria in the apical portion of the root end after 45° root-end resection in teeth with persistent periapical lesions. Methodology, The study included 27 apical root segments from patients with persistent periapical lesions. Histological sections of the coronal part of the amputated root segment were stained with Brown and Brenn to detect the presence of bacteria in the main root canal and/or in irregular root spaces and dentinal tubules. The quality of each root canal filling was evaluated using preoperative radiographs of filling, length of root filling as assessed from the distance between its apical end and the radiographic apex, diameter of apical preparation, and presence of apical perforations or deviations from the root canal. Two endodontists, blinded to the bacteriological results, independently evaluated the radiographs. Results, Bacteria were present in 23 (85.2%) specimens: five in only the main canal (21.7%), 10 in only the dentinal tubules and irregular spaces (43.5%), and eight in both irregular spaces and dentinal tubules and in the main root canal (34.8%). No correlation was found between the technical quality of the root filling assessed radiographically and bacterial presence in the central canal or irregular areas. Conclusions, Infected irregular areas were found in the root tips of teeth with persistent periapical lesions. This was found regardless of the radiographic quality of the root filling. Diagonal, 45° root-end resection may expose such contaminated irregularities to the periapical tissue. [source]


    Hemin nutritional stress inhibits bacterial invasion of radicular dentine by two endodontic anaerobes

    INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 2 2007
    R. M. Love
    Abstract Aim, To determine if anaerobic bacteria routinely found in infected dentine and root canals require the presence of heme in the environment in order for them to invade dentinal tubules. Methodology, Noncarious, unrestored human teeth with single root canals were prepared for invasion experiments and soaked in either TSB-M supplemented with hemin (5 ,g mL,1) (n = 12 roots), TSB-M media (n = 12 roots) or TSB-M media followed by hemin soak (n = 12 roots) for 2 days, then inoculated with either Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611 or Peptostreptococcus micros ATCC 33270 and incubated anaerobically for 14 days. Roots were prepared for light microscopy, stained with Brown and Brenn or antisera raised to the bacteria, and invasion within tubules assessed using a tubule invasion index (TI). Data were analysed using Student's t -test and Mann,Whitney U -test. Results,Prevotella intermedia (TI = 0.7 ± 0.04) and P. micros (TI = 0.96 ± 0.08) showed low invasion when grown in the presence of hemin with cells generally restricted to the superficial 20 ,m of the tubules, whilst neither bacteria invaded tubules (TI = 0) when hemin was absent from the growth media (P < 0.01). Conclusions, Hemin was required in the growth medium for P. intermedia and P. micros to invade dentinal tubules. [source]


    Productivity in "Top-Ten" Academic Accounting Journals by Researchers at Canadian Universities,

    ACCOUNTING PERSPECTIVES, Issue 1 2003
    ROBERT MATHIEU
    ABSTRACT We examine the research productivity of academic accountants at Canadian universities for the 11-year period 1990-2000. Our analysis is based on the "top-ten" ranked refereed journals in accounting, auditing, and taxation, as documented by Brown and Huefner (1994). We first provide an overview of the importance of publishing in highly ranked accounting journals for individual academics, departments, and business faculties. We then provide details of the proportion of articles published in each of these journals by academics from Canadian universities; the type of research published in each journal (auditing, financial accounting, managerial accounting, and taxation); and details of editorial board service. Our results indicate that even at the most productive Canadian university (in terms of "top-ten" publications), faculty members publish (on average) approximately one article every seven years. Six Canadian universities have faculty members with, on average, more than one article in "top-ten" journals every 10 years. We also provide results of analyses that rank each Canadian university, after controlling for the relative quality of each journal, using impact factors published by the Social Science Citation Index. In addition, statistics are provided with regard to the 15 most productive researchers, in terms of "top-ten" publications, in the 11-year period. Finally, in conjunction with the 25th anniversary of the Canadian Academic Accounting Association, we examine the productivity of academic accountants at Canadian universities over the past 25 years by combining our results with those reported by Richardson and Williams (1990). [source]


    The Yale,Brown,Cornell eating disorder scale in women with anorexia nervosa: What is it measuring?

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2009
    Jennifer Jordan PhD
    Abstract Objective: The Yale,Brown,Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS) assesses eating disorder preoccupations, rituals, and symptom severity. This study examines the YBC-EDS in relation to eating disorder psychopathology, obsessionality, and impul-sivityvariables in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and sensitivity of the YBC-EDS to change after psychotherapy. Method: Participants were 56 women with "spectrum" AN (14.5 < BMI < 19). Variables examined in relation to the YBC-EDS were as follows: eating pathology, obsessionality (obsessive compulsive disorder and personality diagnoses, perfectionism), and impulsivity (borderline personality, impulsive traits, and behaviors). YBC-EDS scores were examined pre- and post-treatment. Results: Eating Disorder Examination scores most strongly predicted the YBC-EDS. As expected, perfectionism was significantly associated, but so was impulsivity. YBC-EDS scores were significantly different in those with good versus poor global outcome after therapy. Unexpectedly, maximum lifetime BMI was correlated with the YBC-EDS. Discussion: The YBC-EDS most strongly measured eating disorder severity and reflected change after psychotherapy for AN. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]


    Britain's Historic Ships: a complete guide to the ships that have shaped the nation , By Paul Brown

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    JOHN ROBINSON
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Creative marketing and the art organisation: what can the artist offer?

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NONPROFIT & VOLUNTARY SECTOR MARKETING, Issue 2 2002
    Ian Fillis
    The poem ,My Paintings', written in a deliberate, uncorrected dyslexic style offers an insight into the mind of a present day avant garde bad boy of British art, Billy Childish. Constantly challenging the art establishment through public demonstrations of distaste against the annual Turner Prize,[Button, V. (1999) ,The Turner Prize', Tate Gallery Publishing, London.] Childish and his cohorts launched an alternative, Stuck-ist, art manifesto,[Alberge, D. (1999) ,Rebels Get Stuck into the Brit Artists', The Times, Thursday 26th August, p. 7.] in the belief that it would assist in a shift in public perception of what good art is, as well as influence the creative practice of those artists concerned with more traditional, authentic forms of art. Childish's ex-girlfriend Tracey Emin, however, has had other ideas. She has revelled in mass media exposure and now dismisses the concept of traditional painting as a valid art from.[Brown, N. (1998) ,Tracey Emin', Art Data, UK.] These are two examples of contrasting creative, artistic behaviour. Their creativity has resulted in varying levels of commercial success. By examining the role that creativity plays in determining how the idea for a creative product is first identified, through to its commercial exploitation, there are valuable lessons contained in such a process for both profit-oriented and nonprofit art organisations alike. Instead of constantly fighting the conflicting philosophies of art for art's sake versus art for business sake, following the market and consumer demand, there is a much more effective method for establishing longer-term success, which mirrors the creative practice of the artist. The existing literature on arts marketing is examined. A critique of the usefulness of current thinking is presented, with the recommendation that the formal models of marketing offered in arts marketing literatures can only ever hope to offer general advice on marketing. What is called for is a much more in-depth analysis of how creative entrepreneurial marketers as artists can offer alternative visualisations of more appropriate models of marketing for the industry. This in turn should result in the stimulation of creative research methodologies that can inform both theory and practice within arts marketing in particular, and the wider remit of marketing in general. The use of the metaphor and the examination of published biographies of creative individuals are used to construct a manifesto of marketing artistry. Copyright © 2002 Henry Stewart Publications [source]


    Bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules beneath apparently intact but hypomineralized enamel in molar teeth with molar incisor hypomineralization

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, Issue 5 2008
    TOBIAS G. FAGRELL
    Background., The most common problems for a patient with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) are the collapse of enamel and cavitations, loss of fillings, and secondary caries, but most of all, severe hypersensitivity. Objective., The aim of this paper was therefore to histologically study possible bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules beneath apparently intact, but hypomineralized enamel in permanent molars with MIH. Material and methods., Five extracted permanent first molars diagnosed with MIH were fixated, demineralized, and sagittally serially sectioned in a bucco-lingual direction in a microtome with a thickness of 4,5 µm. Sections were stained with a modified Brown and Benn staining for bacteria, unstained sections were analysed in field emission SEM. Results., Stained sections from the cuspal areas, below the hypomineralized enamel, the staining indicated the presence of bacteria in the dentinal tubules. The HTX staining showed that the pulp in sections without any findings was normal and free from bacteria or infiltrates from inflammatory cells. In sections where bacteria were found in the cuspal areas or deeper in the dentin, a zone of reparative dentin was found, and in sections from one tooth, the coronal pulp showed an inflammatory reaction with inflammatory cells. In sections adjacent to those without any bacterial staining, the SEM analyses revealed empty dentinal tubules without any odontoblast processes or signs of bacteria. When odontoblast processes were found, the dentinal tubules were filled with bacteria located on the surface of the odontoblast processes. In some areas, a large number of tubules were found with bacteria. No bacteria were found close to the pulp. The odontoblast processes appeared larger in areas where bacteria were found. Conclusions., The presence of bacteria in the dentinal tubules and inflammatory reactions in the pulp indicate that oral bacteria may penetrate through the hypomineralized enamel into the dentin, thus possibly contribute to hypersensitivity of teeth with MIH. [source]