Brook Experimental Forest (brook + experimental_forest)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Brook Experimental Forest

  • hubbard brook experimental forest

  • Selected Abstracts

    Forest age, wood and nutrient dynamics in headwater streams of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH

    Dana R. Warren
    Abstract Instream processing may substantially alter nutrient export from forested watersheds. This study tested how instream uptake of N and P were affected by successional differences in the accumulation of large wood and debris dams in a 66-year chronosequence formed by five watersheds within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH. Nutrient enrichment releases in summer 1998 were used to measure the uptake velocities of phosphate, nitrate and ammonium for five streams within HBEF, and results indicated that uptake of PO43, was closely associated with forest age. In 2004, we quantified volume and abundance of large wood in each stream to test whether large wood abundance could be linked to nitrate uptake as well as phosphate. The volume of instream wood increased with forest age, at an apparent rate of 003 m3 (100 m),1 per year for these early to mid-successional forests (r2 = 0.95); however, debris dam frequency did not. Instead, debris dam frequency, when controlled for stream size, followed a U-shaped distribution, with high dam frequency in very young forests, low frequency in forests around 20,30 years of age and increasing dam frequency again as forests matured. Phosphate uptake velocity increased strongly with both forest age and large wood volume (r2 = 099; p < 0001 in both cases); however, nitrate and ammonium uptake were not related to either factor. We attribute the positive relationship between phosphate uptake velocity and forest age/large wood volume to increased abiotic adsorption of phosphate by the inorganic sediments retained by wood. Nitrogen uptake in these streams is primarily biologically driven and did not vary predictably with these structural features of channels. We expect wood abundance to increase in HBEF streams as the forest matures, with a subsequent increase in stream phosphate uptake capacity. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Contradictory results from different methods for measuring direction of insect flight

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2004
    Kate H. Macneale
    Summary 1. Stream ecologists have been puzzled by the apparent paradox that invertebrate populations persist in headwater streams despite the high frequency with which individuals drift downstream. To resolve this ,drift paradox', directions and distances of both larval and adult movement must be identified. Using over 50 interception traps in combination with results from several mark,capture experiments using 15N as a label, we tested the assumption that interception traps accurately represent the ultimate direction of adult insect flight. 2. In several streams in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 76% of 15N-labelled stoneflies (Leuctra ferruginea) had flown upstream from where they emerged to where they were captured. In contrast, over 60% of stoneflies were flying downstream when captured, i.e. on the upstream side of an interception trap. 3. The instantaneous direction, as indicated by the side of the interception trap on which they were captured, indicated the ultimate flight direction for fewer than 1/3 of the individuals captured. Thus, such traps did not accurately reflect the ultimate flight patterns of individuals, as indicated by mark,capture data. 4. Conclusions drawn from interception trap counts regarding the direction of movement and the distribution and persistence of populations may need to be re-evaluated. We suggest that better tracking methods, including mass mark,capture studies using stable isotopes, be used to evaluate the potentially complex patterns of adult insect movement and the consequences of that movement for individuals and populations. [source]

    Patterns of rhizosphere carbon flux in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis) saplings

    Richard P. Phillips
    Abstract Despite its importance in the terrestrial C cycle rhizosphere carbon flux (RCF) has rarely been measured for intact root,soil systems. We measured RCF for 8-year-old saplings of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis) collected from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH and transplanted into pots with native soil horizons intact. Five saplings of each species were pulse labeled with 13CO2 at ambient CO2 concentrations for 4,6 h, and the 13C label was chased through rhizosphere and bulk soil pools in organic and mineral horizons for 7 days. We hypothesized yellow birch roots would supply more labile C to the rhizosphere than sugar maple roots based on the presumed greater C requirements of ectomycorrhizal roots. We observed appearance of the label in rhizosphere soil of both species within the first 24 h, and a striking difference between species in the timing of 13C release to soil. In sugar maple, peak concentration of the label appeared 1 day after labeling and declined over time whereas in birch the label increased in concentration over the 7-day chase period. The sum of root and rhizomicrobial respiration in the pots was 19% and 26% of total soil respiration in sugar maple and yellow birch, respectively. Our estimate of the total amount of RCF released by roots was 6.9,7.1% of assimilated C in sugar maple and 11.2,13.0% of assimilated C in yellow birch. These fluxes extrapolate to 55,57 and 90,104 g C m,2 yr,1 from sugar maple and yellow birch roots, respectively. These results suggest RCF from both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal roots represents a substantial flux of C to soil in northern hardwood forests with important implications for soil microbial activity, nutrient availability and C storage. [source]

    Radon (222Rn) in Ground Water of Fractured Rocks: A Diffusion/Ion Exchange Model

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2004
    Warren W. Wood
    Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion-exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (4256,N, 7143,W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model. [source]

    Buffering an Acidic Stream in New Hampshire with a Silicate Mineral

    Gene E. Likens
    Abstract Ground and pelletized Wollastonite (Wo; CaSiO3) was added to a 50-m reach of an anthropogenically acidified stream within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, to evaluate its buffering and restoration potential. The Wo was highly effective in raising the pH, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and Ca2+ concentrations of the stream water, but during the short duration of the experiment had no discernable effect on the stream biota. After initial, spike-like fluctuations in pH and concentrations of ANC, DIC, and Ca2+, the relatively slow dissolution rates of the Wo dampened extreme concentrations and contributed to relatively long-lasting (4 months) amelioration of streamwater acidity. Changes in concentrations of Ca2+, dissolved Si, ANC, and DIC were inversely related to streamflow. After several high, stream-discharge events, concentrations quickly and consistently returned to pre-event conditions. [source]