Bronchodilator Treatment (bronchodilator + treatment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of equine respiratory mechanics by impulse oscillometry

Summary Reasons for performing study: The long- established conventional reference technique (CRT) for measuring respiratory mechanics in horses lacks sensitivity and there is a need for further refinement in new technology, such as the impulse oscillometry system (IOS). Objectives: To evaluate the potential use of the IOS as a clinical respiratory function test and compare it to the current CRT in horses suffering from common upper and lower airway dysfunctions. Methods: Six healthy horses were tested before and after induction of a unilateral nasal obstruction (UNO) or transient left laryngeal hemiplegia (LLH). Six heaves-affected horses were tested in clinical remission and during a heaves crisis, before and after nebulisation of cumulative doses of a bronchodilator therapy (ipratropium bromide; IPB). Results: As opposed to the CRT, the IOS was able to detect partial upper airway obstruction (UAO) caused by UNO or LLH in resting horses, without differentiating both conditions. Upper airway obstruction caused an upward shift of resistance (Rrs) from 5 to 35 Hz without altering reactance (Xrs). As for the CRT, IOS respiratory parameters measured in heaves-affected horses in crisis differed significantly from values measured during remission. The difference in frequency-dependent behaviour of Rrs and Xrs allowed discrimination between upper and lower airway obstructions. Bronchodilator treatment induced significant dose-dependent changes in Xrs at 5 and 10 Hz, from the first dose. Total pulmonary resistance (RL) and Rrs at 5 Hz were affected from the second dose and displayed similar sensitivity. Although post treatment RL values were comparable to remission, Rrs and Xrs remained significantly different, characterising persistent peripheral obstruction. Conclusions: The IOS was more sensitive than the CRT in detecting partial UAO in resting horses and persistent post treatment peripheral dysfunction in heaves-affected horses. The IOS is a sensitive test that provides graded quantitative and qualitative information on disease-induced respiratory dysfunctions as well as on treatment efficiency in horses. Potential relevance: The IOS could represent a practical and sensitive alternative respiratory function test for routine clinical investigations of common airway obstructive diseases and therapy in horses. [source]

Anaphylaxis: Clinical concepts and research priorities

Simon GA Brown
Abstract Anaphylaxis is a severe immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction characterized by life-threatening upper airway obstruction bronchospasm and hypotension. Although many episodes are easy to diagnose by the combination of characteristic skin features with other organ effects, this is not always the case and a workable clinical definition of anaphylaxis and useful biomarkers of the condition have been elusive. A recently proposed consensus definition is ready for prospective validation. The cornerstones of management are the supine position, adrenaline and volume resuscitation. An intramuscular dose of adrenaline is generally recommended to initiate treatment. If additional adrenaline is required, then a controlled intravenous infusion might be more efficacious and safer than intravenous bolus administration. Additional bronchodilator treatment with continuous salbutamol and corticosteroids are used for severe and/or refractory bronchospasm. Aggressive volume resuscitation, selective vasopressors, atropine (for bradycardia), inotropes that bypass the ,-adrenoreceptor and bedside echocardiographic assessment should be considered for hypotension that is refractory to treatment. Management guidelines continue to be opinion- and consensus-based, with retrospective studies accounting for the vast majority of clinical research papers on the topic. The clinical spectrum of anaphylaxis including major disease subgroups requires clarification, and validated scoring systems and outcome measures are needed to enable good-quality prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials. A systematic approach with multicentre collaboration is required to improve our understanding and management of this disease. [source]

Assessing Treatment Effects of Inhaled Corticosteroids on Medical Expenses and Exacerbations among COPD Patients: Longitudinal Analysis of Managed Care Claims

Manabu Akazawa
Objective. To assess costs, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) augmenting bronchodilator treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data Sources. Claims between 1997 and 2005 from a large managed care database. Study Design. Individual-level, fixed-effects regression models estimated the effects of initiating ICS on medical expenses and likelihood of severe exacerbation. Bootstrapping provided estimates of the incremental cost per severe exacerbation avoided. Data Extraction Methods. COPD patients aged 40 or older with ,15 months of continuous eligibility were identified. Monthly observations for 1 year before and up to 2 years following initiation of bronchodilators were constructed. Principal Findings. ICS treatment reduced monthly risk of severe exacerbation by 25 percent. Total costs with ICS increased for 16 months, but declined thereafter. ICS use was cost saving 46 percent of the time, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $2,973 per exacerbation avoided; for patients ,50 years old, ICS was cost saving 57 percent of time. Conclusions. ICS treatment reduces exacerbations, with an increase in total costs initially for the full sample. Compared with younger patients with COPD, patients aged 50 or older have reduced costs and improved outcomes. The estimated cost per severe exacerbation avoided, however, may be high for either group because of uncertainty as reflected by the large standard errors of the parameter estimates. [source]

Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the impact of bronchodilator treatment

R. Wood-Baker
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a substantial health burden. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death, frequently coexists with COPD, an effect attributed to high individual disease prevalences and shared risk factors. It has long been recognized that COPD, whether stable or during acute exacerbations, is associated with an excess of cardiac arrhythmias. Bronchodilator medications have been implicated in the excess CVD seen in COPD, either as an intrinsic medication effect or related to side-effects. Despite the theory behind increased pro-arrhythmic effects in COPD, the reported results of trials investigating this for inhaled formulations at therapeutic doses are few. Methodological flaws, retrospective analysis and inadequate adjustment for concomitant medications, including short-acting ,relief' bronchodilators and non-respiratory medications with known arrhythmia propensity, mar many of these studies. For most bronchodilators at therapeutic levels in stable COPD, we can be reassured of their safety from current studies. The exception to this is ipratropium bromide, where the current data indicate an association with increased cardiovascular adverse effects. Moreover, there is no proven benefit from combining short-acting beta-agonists with short-acting anticholinergics at high doses in the acute setting, and although this practice is widespread, it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. [source]

Lung function tests in neonates and infants with chronic lung disease: Lung and chest-wall mechanics

Monika Gappa MD
This is the fifth paper in a review series that summarizes available data and critically discusses the potential role of lung function testing in infants and young children with acute neonatal respiratory disorders and chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI). This review focuses on respiratory mechanics, including chest-wall and tissue mechanics, obtained in the intensive care setting and in infants during unassisted breathing. Following orientation of the reader to the subject area, we focused comments on areas of enquiry proposed in the introductory paper to this series. The quality of the published literature is reviewed critically with respect to relevant methods, equipment and study design, limitations and strengths of different techniques, and availability and appropriateness of reference data. Recommendations to guide future investigations in this field are provided. Numerous different methods have been used to assess respiratory mechanics with the aims of describing pulmonary status in preterm infants and assessing the effect of therapeutic interventions such as surfactant treatment, antenatal or postnatal steroids, or bronchodilator treatment. Interpretation of many of these studies is limited because lung volume was not measured simultaneously. In addition, populations are not comparable, and the number of infants studied has generally been small. Nevertheless, results appear to support the pathophysiological concept that immaturity of the lung leads to impaired lung function, which may improve with growth and development, irrespective of the diagnosis of chronic lung disease. To fully understand the impact of immaturity on the developing lung, it is unlikely that a single parameter such as respiratory compliance or resistance will accurately describe underlying changes. Assessment of respiratory mechanics will have to be supplemented by assessment of lung volume and airway function. New methods such as the low-frequency forced oscillation technique, which differentiate the tissue and airway components of respiratory mechanics, are likely to require further development before they can be of clinical significance. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]