Bronchial Tree (bronchial + tree)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Assessment of bronchial wall thickness and lumen diameter in human adults using multi-detector computed tomography: comparison with theoretical models

M. Montaudon
Abstract A thickened bronchial wall is the morphological substratum of most diseases of the airway. Theoretical and clinical models of bronchial morphometry have so far focused on bronchial lumen diameter, and bronchial length and angles, mainly assessed from bronchial casts. However, these models do not provide information on bronchial wall thickness. This paper reports in vivo values of cross-sectional wall area, lumen area, wall thickness and lumen diameter in ten healthy subjects as assessed by multi-detector computed tomography. A validated dedicated software package was used to measure these morphometric parameters up to the 14th bronchial generation, with respect to Weibel's model of bronchial morphometry, and up to the 12th according to Boyden's classification. Measured lumen diameters and homothety ratios were compared with theoretical values obtained from previously published studies, and no difference was found when considering dichotomic division of the bronchial tree. Mean wall area, lumen area, wall thickness and lumen diameter were then provided according to bronchial generation order, and mean homothety ratios were computed for wall area, lumen area and wall thickness as well as equations giving the mean value of each parameter for a given bronchial generation with respect to its value in generation 0 (trachea). Multi-detector computed tomography measurements of bronchial morphometric parameters may help to improve our knowledge of bronchial anatomy in vivo, our understanding of the pathophysiology of bronchial diseases and the evaluation of pharmacological effects on the bronchial wall. [source]

Foreign body aspiration in children

Fabio Midulla
AbstractBackground:,The aim was to investigate the role of physical and radiological findings before bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of foreign body aspiration (FBA). Methods:,We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records for 82 patients (mean age 26.4 21.4 months, range 9 months to 13.5 years; 49 males) with a history suggestive of foreign body aspiration. Results:,The presence of a foreign body in the airways was confirmed in 70 children (85.4%) (mean age 25 14.1 months, 45 boys). Of the 70 children, 63 patients (90%) were under 3 years of age, with a peak incidence during the second year. Of the 70 foreign bodies retrieved, 46 (60%) were vegetable and 35 (76%) of these were nuts. In 42% of the patients the foreign body was located in the right bronchial tree. The most frequent physical findings observed in our patients were persistent cough (75%), localized decreased breath sound (62.8%) and localized wheezing (30%). The clinical triad (concomitant cough, localized wheezing and decreased breath sound) was present in 11 patients (15.7%). All clinical findings had a high positive predictive value with poor sensitivity. In 11 patients (20%) chest X-rays were normal. Five foreign bodies (9.1%) were radiopaque. The most frequent radiological findings observed were localized air trapping (43.6%), followed by atelectasis (40%). The diagnostic sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 33% for the presence of a single positive radiological finding. Conclusions:,Our study confirmed that clinical symptoms and radiological findings before bronchoscopy have a low diagnostic value in children with a history of FBA. [source]

Endobronchial foreign bodies in Vietnamese adults are related to eating habits

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
ABSTRACT Background and objective: A high percentage of bronchoscopically extracted foreign bodies in Ho Chi Minh City were pits of the sapote fruit, a finding previously unreported. This paper presents a review of foreign body extractions, which identifies the substances found, documents the diagnostic pathway and draws attention to the specific aspiration risk of the sapote pit. Methods: The records of 100 consecutive adults who were found to have a bronchial foreign body during flexible bronchoscopy were reviewed. Results: In 83% of patients, the foreign body extraction was performed more than 2 weeks after the aspiration had occurred. In only 34% of patients was the diagnosis of an aspirated foreign body considered early in the patient's clinical course. The most frequent foreign bodies found were sapote pits (41%), followed by small bones (38%). Foreign bodies were lodged more frequently in the right bronchial tree (64%). In 98% of patients, the foreign bodies were successfully removed with the flexible scope. There was one postoperative death, which was not ascribed to the procedure. Conclusions: Physicians need to consider foreign body aspirations when evaluating patients with recurrent pneumonia, unexplained cough or atelectasis. Awareness of this problem might lead to public health measures that could reduce the incidence of these aspirations. [source]

Computed Tomography (CT) of the Lungs of the Dog Using a Helical CT Scanner, Intravenous Iodine Contrast Medium and Different CT Windows

L. Cardoso
Summary The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of helical computed tomography (CT) for visualizing pulmonary parenchyma and associated formations in normal dogs. CT scan was performed by using intravenous contrast medium and by applying different types of CT windows: soft tissue and lung windows, and high-resolution computed tomography of the lung. This technique allowed, especially with lung window types, a good view of the parenchyma, bronchial tree, vascular structures and pleural cavity. The selected images, with high anatomical quality and tissue contrast, may be a reference for future clinical studies of this organ. Thus, helical CT is a promising non-invasive method of diagnosing a wide variety of pulmonary diseases in dogs. [source]