Bronchial Smooth Muscle (bronchial + smooth_muscle)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Mast cell adhesion to bronchial smooth muscle in asthma specifically depends on CD51 and CD44 variant 6

ALLERGY, Issue 8 2010
P.-O. Girodet
To cite this article: Girodet P-O, Ozier A, Trian T, Begueret H, Ousova O, Vernejoux J-M, Chanez P, Marthan R, Berger P, Tunon de Lara JM. Mast cell adhesion to bronchial smooth muscle in asthma specifically depends on CD51 and CD44 variant 6. Allergy 2010; 65: 1004,1012. Abstract Background:, Mast cells infiltrate the bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) in asthmatic patients, but the mechanism of mast cell adhesion is still unknown. The adhesion molecules CD44 (i.e. hyaluronate receptor) and CD51 (i.e. vitronectin receptor) are widely expressed and bind to many extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The aims of the study are (i) to identify the role of ECM in mast cell adhesion to BSM and (ii) to examine the role of CD51 and CD44 in this adhesion. Methods:, Human lung mast cells, human mast cell line (HMC-1), and BSM cells from control donors or asthmatic patients were cultured in the presence/absence of various cytokines. Mast cell,BSM interaction was assessed using 3H-thymidine-pulsed mast cells, confocal immunofluorescence, or electron microscopy. Adhesion molecules expression and collagen production on both cell types were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, western blot, and flow cytometry. Results:, Mast cell adhesion to BSM cells mostly involved type I collagen of the ECM. Such an adhesion was increased in normal BSM cells under inflammatory condition, whereas it was maximal in asthmatic BSM cells. Blockade of either CD51 or CD44 significantly decreased mast cell adhesion to BSM. At the molecular level, protein and the transcriptional expression of type I collagen, CD51 or CD44 remained unchanged in asthmatic BSM cells or in mast cells/BSM cells under inflammatory conditions, whereas that of CD44 variant isoform 6 (v6) was increased. Conclusions:, Mast cell,BSM cell adhesion involved collagen, CD44, and CD51, particularly under inflammatory conditions. CD44v6 expression is increased in asthmatic BSM cells. [source]

Inflammation and remodeling in the adult and child with asthma

Peter Jeffery MSc
Abstract Inflammation and remodeling are characteristic features of the conducting airways in asthma, but the relationships between inflammation, inappropriate remodeling, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reduced pulmonary function are still unclear. In both adults and children with asthma, there are structural changes of the conducting airways that include injury and loss of the surface epithelium, thickening of the reticular basement membrane, increases of underlying collagen, blood vessels, and airway smooth muscle, and plugging of the airways by exudate. Bronchial biopsies obtained from persons with mild stable asthma already demonstrate the presence of inflammation. Many of the inflammatory and structural changes begin early in childhood. Whereas corticosteroids markedly reduce many aspects of inflammation, it is not known whether and how they affect the changes associated with airway wall remodeling. Leukotriene receptor antagonists appear to be antiinflammatory and able to reduce the proliferation of bronchial smooth muscle. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2001; Supplement 21:3,16. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ibudilast: A Non-selective PDE Inhibitor with Multiple Actions on Blood Cells and the Vascular Wall

Yukio Kishi
ABSTRACT Ibudilast (3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine) is a nonselective inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE). It is widely used in Japan for improving prognosis and relieving symptoms in patients suffering from ischemic stroke or bronchial asthma. These clinical applications are based on the properties of ibudilast that inhibit platelet aggregation, improve cerebral blood flow and attenuate allergic reactions. The inhibition of platelet aggregation and vasodilatation by ibudilast may be due to synergistic elevation of intracellular cyclic nucleotides and release of nitric oxide (NO) or prostacyclin from endothelium, rather than direct inhibition of PDE5 or PDE3. Another important property of ibudilast is its antiinflammatory activity possibly associated with potent inhibition of PDE4. Combined with its relaxing effects on bronchial smooth muscle, antiinflammatory actvity of ibudilast could favorably influence pathophysiology of asthma by antagonizing chemical mediators triggering asthmatic attacks. Ibudilast was also reported to significantly attenuate inflammatory cell infiltration in the lumbar spinal cord in an animal model of encephalomyelitis. Future investigations should include effects of ibudilast on inflammatory reactions between endothelium and blood cells, which may initiate the development of atherosclerosis. [source]