Bronchial Reactivity (bronchial + reactivity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The allergen specificity of the late asthmatic reaction

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2010
M. Hatzivlassiou
To cite this article: Hatzivlassiou M, Grainge C, Kehagia V, Lau L, Howarth PH. The allergen specificity of the late asthmatic reaction. Allergy 2010; 65: 355,358. Abstract Background:, Allergen inhalation challenge in asthma may induce both early (EAR) and late (LAR) asthmatic reactions. The EAR is IgE and mast cell dependent. The mechanism of the LAR is less well defined and we have hypothesized may be allergen dependent. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergen specificity of the LAR to allergen inhalation in asthma. Methods:, In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design six asthmatic volunteers with dual sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) allergen and grass pollen (GP) allergen underwent inhalation allergen challenge with these separate allergens on two occasions separated by 14 days. Lung function changes were followed for 8-h postchallenge. Bronchial reactivity (histamine PC20) and airway inflammation, assessed by induced sputum differential cell count, were measured 24-h pre and postallergen challenge. The allergen inhalation challenges were matched to achieve the same magnitude of EAR. Results:, Despite comparable group mean EAR percent falls in FEV1 (25.8% following GP and 28.0% following HDM (P = 0.917), the LAR was statistically greater on the HDM challenge day (13.0%vs 22.8% [P = 0.046]) and was associated with a significant airway eosinophil recruitment (mean (SD) of 5.4 (4.8)% to 22.1 (18.2)% (P = 0.028) that was not evident on the GP allergen challenge day. Conclusions:, These findings identify the allergen specificity of the LAR and indicate that factors independent of IgE contribute to the LAR. Such findings have relevance both to the understanding of the allergen-induced airway responses in asthma and the need for homogeneity in inhaled-allergen challenge studies in asthma. [source]

Sputum eosinophilia: an early marker of bronchial response to occupational agents

ALLERGY, Issue 5 2009
O. Vandenplas
Background:, False-negative responses to specific inhalation challenge (SIC) with occupational agents may occur. We explored whether assessing changes in sputum cell counts would help improve the identification of bronchial reactivity to occupational agents during SICs. Methods:, The predictive value of the changes in sputum cell counts after a negative FEV1 response to a first challenge exposure to an occupational agent was determined using the changes in airway calibre observed during repeated challenges as the ,gold standard'. The study included 68 subjects investigated for work-related asthma in a tertiary centre. After a control day, the subjects were challenged with the suspected occupational agent(s) for up to 2 h. All subjects who did not show an asthmatic reaction were re-challenged on the following day. Additional challenges were proposed to those who demonstrated a , 2% increase in sputum eosinophils or an increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine after the second challenge day. Results:, Six of the 35 subjects without changes in FEV1 on the first challenge developed an asthmatic reaction on subsequent challenges. ROC analysis revealed that a >3% increase in sputum eosinophils at the end of the first challenge day was the most accurate parameter for predicting the development of an asthmatic response on subsequent challenges with a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 97%. Conclusions:, An increase in sputum eosinophils is an early marker of specific bronchial reactivity to occupational agents, which may help to identify subjects who will develop an asthmatic reaction only after repeated exposure. [source]

Effects of deep inhalations on bronchial reactivity in pediatric asthma

Urs Frey MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Adult asthma after non-respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy: Subgroup analysis of the 20-year prospective follow-up study

Abstract Background: Recent studies have stressed the influence of other viruses than respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the development of asthma in later childhood after bronchiolitis in infancy. However, the virus-specific prognosis until adulthood has remained obscure, due to lack of sufficiently long follow-up studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate adult respiratory morbidity after bronchiolitis in infancy, focused on cases not caused by RSV. Methods: A total of 54 children hospitalized for bronchiolitis at age <2 years were re-studied at median age 19 years; 22 with RSV bronchiolitis and 22 with non-RSV bronchiolitis outside RSV epidemic were included. RSV etiology was studied by antigen and antibody assays on admission. Adult asthma was defined by two ways, based on written questionnaire, clinical examination and home peak expiratory flow monitoring. Lung function was evaluated by flow-volume spirometry (FVS), bronchial reactivity by methacholine inhalation challenge (MIC), and atopy by skin prick tests (SPT). Results: In the non-RSV group, asthma by two definitions was present in 41,50% (vs 18,27% in RSV group). In logistic regression, adjusted for gender, age on admission, current atopy and smoking, non-RSV etiology of bronchiolitis, compared with RSV etiology, increased asthma risk by both strict (odds ratio [OR], 8.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18,58.69) and less strict (OR, 7.93; 95% CI, 1.14,55.41) criteria. An abnormal result in FVS was present in 32,41% and in MIC in 48,52% of cases in non-RSV and RSV groups, respectively. Conclusions: Infants with non-RSV bronchiolitis requiring treatment in hospital are at an increased risk for subsequent asthma in adulthood. [source]

Changes in the highest frequency of breath sounds without wheezing during methacholine inhalation challenge in children

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
ABSTRACT A breath sound analyser was used to detect bronchoconstriction without wheezing during methacholine inhalation challenge in children. The highest frequency of inspiratory breath sounds increased significantly during bronchoconstriction and decreased after inhalation of a bronchodilator. The highest frequency of inspiratory breaths sounds was correlated with bronchial reactivity. Background and objective: It is difficult for clinicians to identify changes in breath sounds caused by bronchoconstriction when wheezing is not audible. A breath sound analyser can identify changes in the frequency of breath sounds caused by bronchoconstriction. The present study aimed to identify the changes in the frequency of breath sounds during bronchoconstriction and bronchodilatation using a breath sound analyser. Methods: Thirty-six children (8.2 3.7 years; males : females, 22 : 14) underwent spirometry, methacholine inhalation challenge and breath sound analysis. Methacholine inhalation challenge was performed and baseline respiratory resistance, minimum dose of methacholine (bronchial sensitivity) and speed of bronchoconstriction in response to methacholine (Sm: bronchial reactivity) were calculated. The highest frequency of inspiratory breath sounds (HFI), the highest frequency of expiratory breath sounds (HFE) and the percentage change in HFI and HFE were determined. The HFI and HFE were compared before methacholine inhalation (pre-HFI and pre-HFE), when respiratory resistance reached double the baseline value (max HFI and max HFE), and after bronchodilator inhalation (post-HFI and post-HFE). Results: Breath sounds increased during methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Max HFI was significantly greater than pre-HFI (P < 0.001), and decreased to the basal level after bronchodilator inhalation. Post-HFI was significantly lower than max HFI (P < 0.001). HFI and HFE were also significantly changed (P < 0.001). The percentage change in HFI showed a significant correlation with the speed of bronchoconstriction in response to methacholine (P = 0.007). Conclusions: Methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction significantly increased HFI, and the increase in HFI was correlated with bronchial reactivity. [source]

Serum metalloproteinase leukolysin (MMP-25/MT-6): a potential metabolic marker for atopy-associated inflammation

M. N. Blumenthal
Summary Background Leukolysin is a novel matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-25/MT-6) released mainly by granulocytic cells, primarily neutrophils, which are implicated in chronic airways inflammation. Objective To determine if leukolysin might be a serum marker for atopic asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Three study populations were evaluated: (1) nuclear families with medical history of atopic asthma (N=337), (2) married-in individuals from an independent study of asthma genetics (N=122) and (3) randomly selected males with diagnosis of COPD (N=100). Each person was screened for asthma or COPD symptoms, respiratory function by standardized spirometry and serum total IgE and leukolysin and anti-IL1 levels by immunoassay. Study groups (1 and 2) were also screened by skin prick test using a battery of 14 common aeroallergens. Heritability estimates for leukolysin and total IgE were made by variance components analysis. Results For those without asthma or who had asthma defined as having symptoms, a physician's diagnosis and bronchial hyper-reactivity as demonstrated by reversibility in response to albuteral and/or bronchial reactivity as measured by a methacholine challenge, serum leukolysin levels were found to be higher for those with any positive skin test result. This paralleled trends for serum total IgE. In the nuclear families and COPD patients, serum leukolysin levels were significantly elevated for those who also had elevated total IgE levels (log[IgE]>2.0) compared with those with lower IgE (log[IgE]<2.0). Serum IL-1 levels correlated with the leukolycin levels. In contrast to IgE, leukolysin showed no apparent inherited component. Conclusion Among individuals with history of chronic airways inflammation (asthma and COPD) serum leukolysin may be a metabolic marker associated with chronic atopy-associated respiratory inflammation. Common factors may stimulate increased production or release of both leukolysin from myeloid cells and IgE from lymphoid cells. [source]

Asthma induced by inhalation of flour in adults with food allergy to wheat

N. Salvatori
Summary Background Wheat is one of the major food allergens and it is also an inhalant allergen in workers exposed to flour dusts. Food allergy to wheat in adulthood seems to be rare and has never been reported to be associated with asthma induced by flour inhalation. Objective The study aimed at detecting adults with food allergy to wheat and screening them for the presence of specific bronchial reactivity to inhaled wheat proteins. Methods Adults with a history of adverse reactions to ingestion of wheat underwent skin prick test with commercial wheat extract and were assessed for the presence of specific wheat IgE in the sera. Food sensitivity to wheat was confirmed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Specific bronchial reactivity was investigated through a specific bronchial challenge with wheat proteins. Results In nine patients with evidence of specific IgE response to wheat, a diagnosis of food allergy was made by DBPCFC. Only two subjects had asthma as disease induced by ingestion of wheat. Seven subjects reported a history of respiratory symptoms when exposed to flour dusts. A significant reduction of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was detected in these seven patients when a specific bronchial challenge with flour proteins was performed. Only three out of seven subjects with asthma induced by flour could be considered occupationally exposed to flour dusts. Conclusion For the first time, it has been shown that specific bronchial reactivity to wheat proteins can be detected in patients with different disorders associated with food allergy to wheat. The presence of asthma induced by inhaled flour is not strictly related to occupational exposure and it may also occur in subjects not displaying asthma among symptoms induced by wheat ingestion. [source]

Nitric oxide evaluation in upper and lower respiratory tracts in nasal polyposis

C. Delclaux
Summary Background A decrease in nasal nitric oxide (NO) and an increase in exhaled NO have been demonstrated in patients with nasal polyposis (NP). Objectives The aims were to evaluate the flux of NO from the three compartments of the respiratory tract, namely, upper nasal, lower conducting and distal airways, and to search for relationships between NO parameters and indexes of upper and lower disease activity (bronchial reactivity and obstruction). The effect of medical treatment of polyposis was also evaluated. Methods Seventy patients with polyposis were recruited. At baseline, pulmonary function tests (spirometry, plethysmography, bronchomotor response to deep inspiration using forced oscillation measurement of resistance of respiratory system, methacholine challenge, multiple flow rates of exhaled NO and nasal NO measurements) were performed together with an assessment of polyposis [clinical, endoscopic and computed tomography (CT) scores]. Results Statistical relationships were demonstrated between nasal NO flux and severity scores (clinical: ,=,0.31, P=0.015; endoscopic: ,=,0.57, P<0.0001; CT: ,=,0.46, P=0.0005), and between alveolar NO concentration and distal airflow limitation (FEF25,75, ,=,0.32, P=0.011). Thirty-six patients were assessed after 11 [7,13] (median [interquartile]) months of medical treatment, demonstrating an improvement in clinical and endoscopic scores, an increase in nasal NO flux, a decrease in NO flux from conducting airways, an improvement in the mild airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEF25,75, even in non-asthmatic patients) and a decrease in the bronchoconstrictor effect of deep inspiration. Conclusions The medical treatment of NP improves both airway reactivity and obstruction, whatever the presence of asthma, suggesting a functional link between upper and lower airway functions. [source]