Bromodeoxyuridine Incorporation (bromodeoxyuridine + incorporation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Cytosolic calcium regulates liver regeneration in the rat,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Laura Lagoudakis
Liver regeneration is regulated by growth factors, cytokines, and other endocrine and metabolic factors. Calcium is important for cell division, but its role in liver regeneration is not known. The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of cytosolic calcium signals in liver growth after partial hepatectomy (PH). The gene encoding the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) targeted to the cytosol using a nuclear export sequence (NES), and using a discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsR) marker, was transfected into rat livers by injecting it, in recombinant adenovirus (Ad), into the portal vein. We performed two-thirds PH 4 days after Ad-PV-NES-DsR or Ad-DsR injection, and liver regeneration was analyzed. Calcium signals were analyzed with fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester in hepatocytes isolated from Ad-infected rats and in Ad-infected Hela cells. Also, isolated hepatocytes were infected with Ad-DsR or Ad-PV-NES-DsR and assayed for bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Ad-PV-NES-DsR injection resulted in PV expression in the hepatocyte cytosol. Agonist-induced cytosolic calcium oscillations were attenuated in both PV-NES,expressing Hela cells and hepatocytes, as compared to DsR-expressing cells. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation (S phase), phosphorylated histone 3 immunostaining (mitosis), and liver mass restoration after PH were all significantly delayed in PV-NES rats. Reduced cyclin expression and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation confirmed this observation. PV-NES rats exhibited reduced c-fos induction and delayed extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation after PH. Finally, primary PV-NES,expressing hepatocytes exhibited less proliferation and agonist-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element binding and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, as compared with control cells. Conclusion: Cytosolic calcium signals promote liver regeneration by enhancing progression of hepatocytes through the cell cycle. (HEPATOLOGY 2010;) [source]


RNA interference targeting the platelet-derived growth factor receptor , subunit ameliorates experimental hepatic fibrosis in rats

LIVER INTERNATIONAL, Issue 10 2008
Si-Wen Chen
Abstract Background/Aims: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is the strongest stimulator of the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). PDGF receptor , subunit (PDGFR-,) is acquired on HSCs proliferation induced by PDGF. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of PDGFR-, small interference RNA (siRNA) on experimental hepatic fibrosis. Methods: We constructed a PDGFR-, siRNA expression plasmid and investigated its effect on the activation of HSCs. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was performed to investigate the effect of PDGFR-, siRNA on HSCs proliferation. A hydrodynamics-based transfection method was used to deliver PDGFR-, siRNA to rats with hepatic fibrosis. The distribution of transgenes in the liver was observed by immunofluorescence. The antifibrogenic effect of PDGFR-, siRNA was investigated pathologically. Results: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-, subunit siRNA could significantly downregulate PDGFR-, expression, suppress HSCs activation, block the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway and inhibit HSCs proliferation in vitro. PDGFR-, siRNA expression plasmid could be delivered into activated HSCs by the hydrodynamics-based transfection method, and remarkably improve the liver function of the rat model induced by dimethylnitrosamine and bile duct ligation. Furthermore, the progression of fibrosis in the liver was significantly suppressed by PDGFR-, siRNA in both animal models. Conclusions: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-, subunit siRNA may be presented as an effective antifibrogenic gene therapeutic method for hepatic fibrosis. [source]


Enhanced survival of vascular smooth muscle cells accounts for heightened elastin deposition in arteries of neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rats

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Silvia M. Arribas
Abnormal stiffening and narrowing of arteries are characteristic features of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this strain, we have previously demonstrated an increased elastin content and abnormal organization of lamellae in conduit and resistance arteries from neonatal rats that preceded the impending inward remodelling, increased vascular stiffness and development of hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanism responsible for such excessive and aberrant elastin deposition in SHR vessels during perinatal development. We compared elastin, collagen and fibronectin production (inmunocytochemistry and quantitative assay of metabolically labelled insoluble elastin), DNA content as well as cell proliferation (proliferative cellular nuclear antigen, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) and death rates (propidium iodide exclusion test, terminal transferase nick and labeling (TUNEL) assay) in cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) derived from neonatal SHR and Wistar,Kyoto (WKY) control rats. Cultures of VSMC derived from neonatal SHR exhibited hypertrophy, produced more elastin, collagen and fibronectin and contained more DNA than equally plated WKY counterparts. Further analysis revealed that the higher net DNA content in SHR-derived cultures was due to increased diploidy, but not to a heightened cell multiplication. The SHR-derived VSMC also exhibited lower rates of cell death and apoptosis, which were associated with increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, survivin. We therefore conclude that the peculiar heightened survival of matrix-producing VSMC in neonatal SHR is responsible for accumulation of hard-wearing elastin and other extracellular matrix elements in the growing arteries, thereby contributing to the subsequent development of systemic hypertension. [source]


Diverting a protein from its cellular location by intracellular antibodies

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 4 2000
The case of p21Ras
We describe the use of phage libraries to derive new antibodies against p21Ras to be used for intracellular expression in mammalian cells. A panel of single-chain antibody fragments, binding to Ras, were analyzed and characterized for their capacity to interfere in vitro with (a) the intrinsic GTPase activity of Ras and (b) the binding of Ras to its effector Raf, and were found not to neutralize its function, according to these biochemical criteria. When expressed intracellularly in mouse 3T3 K-Ras transformed cells all the anti-Ras single-chain variable fragments (scFv) tested inhibited cell proliferation, as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Double immunofluorescence analysis of transfected cells using confocal microscopy confirmed that anti-Ras antibody fragments colocalize with endogenous Ras, at subcellular locations where the protein Ras is not normally found. These data suggest that the ability of phage-derived anti-Ras scFv fragments to inhibit the function of Ras in vivo is a rather general and frequent property and that the range of antibodies that can be successfully used for intracellular inhibition studies is much greater than anticipated, exploiting the mode of action of diverting protein traffic. [source]


Cytosolic calcium regulates liver regeneration in the rat,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Laura Lagoudakis
Liver regeneration is regulated by growth factors, cytokines, and other endocrine and metabolic factors. Calcium is important for cell division, but its role in liver regeneration is not known. The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of cytosolic calcium signals in liver growth after partial hepatectomy (PH). The gene encoding the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) targeted to the cytosol using a nuclear export sequence (NES), and using a discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsR) marker, was transfected into rat livers by injecting it, in recombinant adenovirus (Ad), into the portal vein. We performed two-thirds PH 4 days after Ad-PV-NES-DsR or Ad-DsR injection, and liver regeneration was analyzed. Calcium signals were analyzed with fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester in hepatocytes isolated from Ad-infected rats and in Ad-infected Hela cells. Also, isolated hepatocytes were infected with Ad-DsR or Ad-PV-NES-DsR and assayed for bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Ad-PV-NES-DsR injection resulted in PV expression in the hepatocyte cytosol. Agonist-induced cytosolic calcium oscillations were attenuated in both PV-NES,expressing Hela cells and hepatocytes, as compared to DsR-expressing cells. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation (S phase), phosphorylated histone 3 immunostaining (mitosis), and liver mass restoration after PH were all significantly delayed in PV-NES rats. Reduced cyclin expression and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation confirmed this observation. PV-NES rats exhibited reduced c-fos induction and delayed extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation after PH. Finally, primary PV-NES,expressing hepatocytes exhibited less proliferation and agonist-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element binding and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, as compared with control cells. Conclusion: Cytosolic calcium signals promote liver regeneration by enhancing progression of hepatocytes through the cell cycle. (HEPATOLOGY 2010;) [source]


Inhibition of poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase decreases hepatocellular carcinoma growth by modulation of tumor-related gene expression,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Rosa Quiles-Perez
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with a poor prognosis due to a lack of effective treatment options. In HCC a significant role is played by DNA damage and the inflammatory response. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an important protein that regulates both these mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of pharmacology PARP-1 inhibition on the reduction of tumor volume of HCC xenograft and on the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN). Pharmacologic PARP-1 inhibition with DPQ greatly reduces tumor xenograft volume with regard to a nontreated xenograft (394 mm3 versus 2,942 mm3, P < 0.05). This observation was paralleled by reductions in xenograft mitosis (P = 0.02) and tumor vasculogenesis (P = 0.007, confirmed by in vitro angiogenesis study), as well as by an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in DPQ-treated mice (P = 0.04). A substantial difference in key tumor-related gene expression (transformed 3T3 cell double minute 2 [MDM2], FLT1 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, VEGFR1], epidermal growth factor receptor [EPAS1]/hypoxia-inducible factor 2 [HIF2A], EGLN1 [PHD2], epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], MYC, JUND, SPP1 [OPN], hepatocyte growth factor [HGF]) was found between the control tumor xenografts and the PARP inhibitor-treated xenografts (data confirmed in HCC cell lines using PARP inhibitors and PARP-1 small interfering RNA [siRNA]). Furthermore, the results obtained in mice treated with DEN to induce hepatocarcinogenesis showed, after treatment with a PARP inhibitor (DPQ), a significant reduction both in preneoplastic foci and in the expression of preneoplastic markers and proinflammatory genes (Gstm3, Vegf, Spp1 [Opn], IL6, IL1b, and Tnf), bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and NF-,B activation in the initial steps of carcinogenesis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that PARP inhibition is capable of controlling HCC growth and preventing tumor vasculogenesis by regulating the activation of different genes involved in tumor progression. (HEPATOLOGY 2010;51:255,266.) [source]


A novel CD4+ T-helper lymphocyte epitope in the VP3 protein of hepatitis A virus

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 4 2004
Glňria Sánchez
Abstract Prediction analysis of TH -cell epitopes in the VP3 capsid protein of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) revealed the occurrence of a putative TH epitope in the 102,121 region complying with all the algorithms tested. To confirm these predictions, spleen T lymphocytes obtained from BALB/c mice previously immunised with HAV, were stimulated in vitro with different concentrations of synthetic peptides 102,121 and 110,121 of VP3. The ability of these peptides to stimulate CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes proliferation was evaluated by an immunological flow cytometry detection of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Using this method, it is concluded that the amino terminal part of the VP3 102,121 sequence contains a T cell epitope. J. Med. Virol. 72:525,532, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Toxic effect of blood components on perinatal rat subventricular zone cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in culture

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2009
Packiasamy A. R. Juliet
Abstract The germinal matrix of human brain gives rise to oligodendrocytes and astrocytes after mid-gestation. Hemorrhage in the germinal matrix of premature infants is associated with suppressed cell proliferation. We hypothesize that soluble blood constituents have an adverse effect on the proliferation of cultured rat subventricular zone (SVZ) cells and the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC). Using caspase 3 activation and lactate dehydrogenase release assays, rat plasma, serum, thrombin, and kallikrein killed SVZ cells when grown in the presence (but not absence) of platelet derived growth factor. Plasma and serum killed OPC at 1 : 1 to 1 : 100 dilutions. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay OPC proliferation was reduced by plasma, serum, thrombin and plasmin. Blood proteins also suppressed OPC migration in a concentration dependent manner. However, differentiation of OPC into myelin basic protein expressing cells was suppressed only by thrombin. We conclude that soluble blood components, particularly thrombin, have an adverse effect on maturing SVZ cells and OPC derived from newborn rat brain. [source]


Sema4D deficiency results in an increase in the number of oligodendrocytes in healthy and injured mouse brains

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 13 2009
Yoshitaka Taniguchi
Abstract Semaphorins, a family of secreted and membrane-bound proteins, are known to function as repulsive axon guidance molecules. Sema4D, a class 4 transmembrane-type semaphorin, is expressed by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, but its role is unknown. In this study, the effects of Sema4D deficiency on oligodendrocytes were studied in intact and ischemic brains of adult mice. As observed in previous studies, Sema4D marked by ,-galactosidase in Sema4D mutant mice was localized exclusively on myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG)-positive oligodendrocytes but not on NG2-positive oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Although there was no difference in the number of the latter cells between Sema4D-deficient and wild-type mice, the number of MAG-positive cells was significantly increased in the cerebral cortex of both nonischemic and postischemic brains of Sema4D-deficient mice. Cell proliferation, observed by using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was evident in the MAG-positive cells that developed after cerebral ischemia. These data indicate that Sema4D is involved in oligodendrogenesis during development and during recovery from ischemic injury. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Fibroblast growth factor-9 inhibits astrocyte differentiation of adult mouse neural progenitor cells

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2009
Maggie Lum
Abstract Fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9) is expressed in the CNS and is reported to be a mitogen for glial cells, to promote neuronal survival, and to retard oligodendrocyte differentiation. Here we examined the effects of FGF9 on the differentiation, survival, and proliferation of adult neural progenitor cells derived from the adult mouse subventricular zone. FGF9 by itself induced neurosphere proliferation, but its effects were modest compared with those of epidermal growth factor and FGF2. When neurospheres were dissociated and plated for differentiation, FGF9 increased total cell number over time in a dose-dependent manner. Ki67 immunostaining and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation indicated that this was at least partially due to the continued presence of proliferative nestin-positive neural progenitor cells and ,III tubulin-positive neuronal precursors. FGF9 also promoted cell survival as indicated by a decreased number of TUNEL-positive cells over time. Assessment of differentiation showed that FGF9 increased neuron generation that reflected the increase in total cell number; however, the percentage of progenitor cells differentiating into neurons was slightly decreased. FGF9 had a modest effect on oligodendrocyte generation, although it appeared to slow the maturation of oligodenrocytes at higher concentrations. The most marked effect on differentiation was an almost total lack of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes up to 7 days following FGF9 addition, indicating that astrocyte differentiation was strongly inhibited. Total inhibition required prolonged treatment, although a 1-hr pulse was sufficient for partial inhibition, and bone morphogenic protein-4 could partially overcome the FGF9 inhibition of astrocyte differentiation. FGF9 therefore has multiple effects on adult neural precursor cell function, enhancing neuronal precursor proliferation and specifically inhibiting GFAP expression. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Kainic acid triggers oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation from striatal neural stem cells

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 6 2007
Carolina Redondo
Abstract Glutamate is an excitatory amino acid that serves important functions in mammalian brain development through ,-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)/ kainate receptor stimulation. Neural stem cells with self-renewal and multilineage potential are a useful tool to study the signals involved in the regulation of brain development. We have investigated the role played by AMPA/kainate receptors during the differentiation of neural stem cells derived from fetal rat striatum. The application of 1 and 10 ,M kainic acid increased significantly the phosphorylation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), raised bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in O4-positive oligodendrocyte precursors, and increased the number of O1-positive cells in the cultures. Increased CREB phosphorylation and proliferation were prevented by the AMPA receptor antagonist 4-4(4-aminophenyl)-1,2-dihydro-1-methyl-2-propylcarbamoyl-6,7-methylenedioxyphthalazine (SYM 2206) and by protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors. Cultures treated with 100 ,M kainic acid showed decreased proliferation, a lower proportion of O1-positive cells, and apoptosis of O4-positive cells. None of these effects were prevented by SYM 2206, suggesting that kainate receptors take part in these events. We conclude that AMPA receptor stimulation by kainic acid promotes the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors derived from neural stem cells through a mechanism that requires the activation of CREB by protein kinase A and C. In the neurons derived from these cells, either AMPA or kainate receptor stimulation produces neuritic growth and larger cell bodies. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


c - fos and estrogen receptor gene expression pattern in the rat uterine epithelium during the estrous cycle

MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2003
C. Adriana Mendoza-Rodríguez
Abstract Different studies in ovariectomized estrogen treated animals support the idea that c - fos plays a role in the proliferation of uterine epithelial cells. However, these studies invite us to reassess the role played by c - fos in epithelial cell types of the endometrium during the estrous cycle. The present study was undertaken to determine the c - fos and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression pattern in the rat uterine epithelium during the estrous cycle in which natural and cyclic changes of steroid hormones occur, and correlate these changes with the proliferation status of this cellular types. Proliferation was assessed during the estrous cycle using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation to DNA. ER, and , proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The regulation of c - fos gene expression in the uterus of intact animals during the estrous cycle was evaluated using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) plasma levels were assessed by radioimmunoassay. The results indicated that luminal (LE) and glandular epithelia (GE) presented maximal proliferation during the metestrus (M) and the diestrus (D) days. However, during the proestrus (P) day only LE presented proliferation, and during the estrus (E) day only the stromal cells proliferated. A marked immunostaining for ER, was detected in both LE and GE cells during the early phases of the cycle but diminished on the P and the E day. In contrast, ER, was undetectable in both epithelia during all stages of the cycle. The highest c - fos mRNA level was detected in both epithelia on the M day, followed by a significant reduction during the other days of the cycle. The highest protein content was observed on the M and D days, and the minimal value was detected on the E day. The c-Fos protein level in LE was increased during M and D days, presenting a high correlation with the cellular proliferation pattern of this cell type. In conclusion, the overall results indicate that c-Fos protein presented a good correlation with uterine epithelial cell proliferation of LE. In the case of GE, the same tendency was observed, although no significant correlation was found. Both in LE and GE, c - fos mRNA did not strictly correlate with its protein levels. c - fos seems to have a postranscriptional regulation in uterine epithelial cells during the rat's estrous cycle. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 64: 379,388, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Reactivity of ,/, T cells to human 60-kd heat-shock protein and their cytotoxicity to aortic endothelial cells in Takayasu arteritis

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2007
Sunil Kumar Chauhan
Objective Increased numbers of circulating ,/, T cells with a restricted T cell receptor repertoire, as well as colocalization of the expression of heat-shock protein Hsp60/65 and ,/, T cells in the arterial lesions of patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA), indicate that ,/, T cells may react to Hsp60 and cause damage to the arterial endothelium. In this study we investigated the proliferative responses of ,/, T cells to human Hsp60 and their cytotoxicity to human aortic endothelial cells (ECs) in patients with TA. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 12 patients with TA, 8 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (as disease controls), and 10 healthy control subjects. Proliferative responses of circulating ,/, T cells to human Hsp60 were detected by flow cytometry,based bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay. Cytotoxicity of the ,/, T cells to human aortic ECs was analyzed by colorimetric lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Results The ,/, T cells of 11 of 12 patients with TA exhibited reactivity to Hsp60, whereas none of the ,/, T cells from patients with SLE or healthy controls showed reactivity (both P < 0.001). The mean ± SD proliferative response of ,/, T cells in patients with TA was 21.4 ± 11.3%, compared with 4.2 ± 1.2% in patients with SLE and 4.01 ± 1.82% in healthy controls (both P < 0.001). In addition, compared with the control groups, the ,/, T cells of patients with TA had increased spontaneous cytotoxicity to aortic ECs (22.1 ± 15.0% versus 9.6 ± 2.13% in SLE patients and 8.1 ± 4.7% in healthy controls; both P < 0.005), which was further enhanced following stimulation of ,/, T cells with Hsp60. The cytotoxicity of the ,/, T cells was significantly inhibited by treatment of these cells with concanamycin A and anti,Fas ligand,blocking antibodies. Conclusion The results show that ,/, T cells in patients with TA are reactive to Hsp60 and exhibit cytotoxicity to aortic ECs, suggesting a key role of Hsp60 and ,/, T cells in the pathogenesis of TA. [source]


Differential cell division history between neutrophils and macrophages in their development from granulocyte,macrophage progenitors

BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
Yuka Sugimoto
Summary The appearance of monocytes before neutrophils in the blood during haematopoietic recovery in myelosuppressive patients is commonly observed, thus suggesting a difference in the cell division history between these two lineages in the differentiation from granulocyte,macrophage (GM) progenitors. We investigated the cell division histories of murine GM progenitors. When analysed by the dye dilution method, GM progenitors gave rise to Gr-1+Fms+ and Gr-1+Fms, cells that passed through similar rounds of cell division during initial 5 d of culture. The Gr-1+Fms+ cells showed morphological features of monocytes, while Gr-1+Fms, cells exhibited an immature morphology of neutrophils. In the subsequent culture, a decline in the number of Gr-1+Fms+ cells was observed, while Gr-1+Fms, cells increased. The proliferation of Gr-1+Fms, cells and no cell division of Gr-1+Fms+ cells were confirmed by DNA staining, Ki-67 expression, membrane dye staining and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. These Gr-1+Fms, cells acquired mature neutrophil morphology, whereas Gr-1+Fms+ cells became macrophages. These results demonstrate that GM progenitors generate postmitotic monocytes earlier than mature neutrophils. Our data may also offer one explanation for the rapid recovery of monocytes in comparison with neutrophils in the early phase of haematopoietic regeneration. [source]


Microsatellite and chromosomal stable colorectal cancers demonstrate poor immunogenicity and early disease recurrence

COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 6 2009
A. Banerjea
Abstract Objective, Colorectal cancers may demonstrate chromosomal instability (CSI) or microsatellite instability (MSI-H). A third group of microsatellite and chromosome stable (MACS) colorectal cancer has been described more recently. Patients with MSI-H colorectal cancers demonstrate improved outcome and a pronounced inflammatory infiltrate. Enhanced host immune response and increased immunogenicity might explain these observations. This study aims to further characterize colorectal cancer immunogenicity. Method, Microsatellite stability status was determined in resected tumour samples. Microsatellite stable (MSS) tumour samples were stratified by DNA ploidy status, as determined by flow cytometry into aneuploid MSS (CSI) and diploid MSS (MACS) cancers. Lymphocyte proliferation, quantified by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays assessed tumour protein immunogenicity and ELISA assays quantified inflammatory cytokine release. Kaplan,Meier survival curves and multivariate analyses were used to determine prognostic value. Results, Patients with MSI-H colorectal cancer had improved outcome but those with MACS cancers undergoing curative surgery had significantly poorer disease-free survival (P = 0.002). The MACS phenotype was an independent predictor of poor outcome (HR = 2.44, 1.33,4.47, P = 0.004). Lymphocyte proliferation assays confirmed enhanced immunogenicity of MSI-H proteins and reduced immunogenicity of MACS proteins (P < 0.0001). In vitro levels of IFN-, (P = 0.004) and IL-18 (P < 0.0001) mirrored these differences in lymphocyte activity. Conclusions, Stratification of colorectal cancer by MSI and ploidy status may have prognostic value in patients undergoing curative surgery. MSI-H cancers display enhanced immunogenic properties but the immune response to MACS cancers appears to be absent and this may contribute to their poor prognosis. [source]