Bromination Reaction (bromination + reaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An Efficient Vanadium-Catalyzed Bromination Reaction.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 29 2007
Toshiyuki Moriuchi
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

Partial Oxidation of 4- tert -Butyltoluene Catalyzed by Homogeneous Cobalt and Cerium Acetate Catalysts in the Br,/H2O2/Acetic Acid System: Insights into Selectivity and Mechanism


Abstract The partial oxidation of 4- tert -butyltoluene to 4- tert -butylbenzaldehyde by hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid, catalyzed by bromide ions in combination with cobalt(II) acetate or cerium(III) acetate, has been studied in detail. Based on the observed differences in reaction rates and product distributions for the different catalysts, a reaction mechanism involving two independent pathways is proposed. After the initial formation of a benzylic radical species, either oxidation of this intermediate by the metal catalyst or reaction with bromine generated in situ occurs, depending on which catalyst is used. The first pathway leads to the exclusive formation of 4- tert -butylbenzaldehyde, whereas reaction of the radical intermediate with bromine leads to formation of the observed side products 4- tert -butylbenzyl bromide and its hydrolysis and solvolysis products 4- tert -butylbenzyl alcohol and 4- tert -butylbenzyl acetate, respectively. The cobalt(II) catalysts Co(OAc)2 and Co(acac)2 are able to quickly oxidize the radical intermediate, thereby largely preventing the bromination reaction (i.e., side-product formation) from occurring, and yield the aldehyde product with 75,80,% selectivity. In contrast, the cerium catalyst studied here exhibits an aldehyde selectivity of around 50,% due to the competing bromination reaction. Addition of extra hydrogen peroxide leads to an increased product yield of 72,% (cerium(III) acetate) or 58,% (cobalt(II) acetate). Product inhibition and the presence of increasing amounts of water in the reaction mixture do not play a role in the observed low incremental yields. [source]

Preparation of halogenated derivatives of thiazolo[5,4- d]thiazole via direct electrophilic aromatic substitution

Vladimir Benin
Chlorination and bromination reactions of thiazolo[5,4- d]thiazole led to the generation of its mono- and dihalogenated derivatives. These are the first instances of successful direct electrophilic aromatic substitution in the thiazolo[5,4- d]thiazole ring system. X-ray analysis demonstrates that both 2-bromothiazolo[5,4- d]-thiazole and 2,5-dibromothiazolo[5,4- d]thiazole are planar structures, with strongly manifested ,-stacking in the solid state. Theoretical analysis of the pyridine-catalyzed halogenation (MP2/6-31+G(d) and B3LYP/6-31+G(d) calculations) reveals that introduction of one halogen actually leads to a slightly enhanced reactivity towards further halogenation. Several halogenation mechanisms have been investigated: 1) The direct C-halogenation with N-halopyridine as electrophile; 2) C-halogenation via intermediate N-halogenation, and 3) C-halogenation following an addition - elimination pathway, with intermediate formation of a cyclic halonium ion. The theoretical studies suggest that the direct C-halogenation is the favored mechanism. [source]