Broad Concepts (broad + concept)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Do we agree about when patients are psychotic?

ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 4 2008
J. Nielsen
Objective:, To investigate into the use of the term ,psychotic' as defined by ICD-10 or by the concept of impaired reality testing, among psychiatric staff members. Method:, Questionnaire investigation using 11 short case vignettes. Results:, Responses were received from 266 psychiatric staff members: psychiatrists, nursing staff and psychologists. When using ICD-10, patients were identified as psychotic with a sensitivity ranging from 90% to 55%. Specificity ranged from 60% to 75%. According to the concept of impaired reality testing, all three groups showed a sensitivity of about 60%, whereas specificity ranged from 65% to 50%. The combined use of the terms correlated significantly with responses regarding indication for legal detention for psychiatrists and nursing staff. Conclusion:, In identifying a patient as ,psychotic' a broad concept of impaired reality testing was widely used particularly in cases with legal issues. Psychotic symptoms, however, were identified with high sensitivity and specificity. [source]


Statistical issues in the assessment of health outcomes in children: a methodological review

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES A (STATISTICS IN SOCIETY), Issue 4 2009
Gillian A. Lancaster
Summary., The lack of outcome measures that are validated for use on children limits the effectiveness and generalizability of paediatric health care interventions. Statistical epidemiology is a broad concept encompassing a wide range of useful techniques for use in child health outcome assessment and development. However, the range of techniques that are available is often confusing and prohibits their adoption. In the paper an overview of methodology is provided within the paediatric context. It is demonstrated that in many cases assessment can be performed relatively straightforwardly by using standard statistical techniques, although sometimes more sophisticated techniques are required. Examples of both physiological and questionnaire-based outcomes are given. The usefulness of these techniques is highlighted for achieving specific objectives and ultimately for achieving methodological rigour in clinical outcome studies that are performed in the paediatric population. [source]


Getting the Scale Right: A Comparison of Analytical Methods for Vulnerability Assessment and Household-level Targeting

DISASTERS, Issue 2 2001
Linda Stephen
This paper introduces broad concepts of vulnerability, food security and famine. It argues that the concepts and theories driving development and implementation of vulnerability assessment tools are related to their utility. The review concludes that socio-geographic scale is a key issue, and challenge. It analyses three vulnerability assessment (VA) methods, using Ethiopia as a case study. Facing the challenges of vulnerability assessment and early warning requires providing accurate information at the required scale, useful for multiple decision-makers within realistic institutional capacities. [source]


ALGONQUIN NOTIONS OF JURISDICTION: INSERTING INDIGENOUS VOICES INTO LEGAL SPACES

GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2006
Bettina Koschade
ABSTRACT. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal notions of geography, nature and space sometimes compete, and these differences can create barriers to joint environmental problem-solving. This paper examines the Ardoch Algonquin First Nation and Allies (AAFNA) and the strategies they used in juridical and legislative settings to make their voices heard. In the Tay River Ontario Environmental Review Tribunal (2000,2002), AAFNA attempted to introduced their knowledge of the environmental deterioration which would be caused by a Permit To Take Water issued to a multinational corporation by the Ontario Ministry of Environment. The paper is divided into two parts: first, it describes the concepts of Algonquin knowledge, jurisdiction and responsibility; second, it explores the strategies used to integrate their perspective into legal proceedings constructed by the Canadian government. This case reveals how some Algonquin people conceive of space and responsibility in deeply ecological, rather than narrowly juridical, terms. It establishes that their broad concepts of knowledge, land and jurisdiction are incompatible with existing Euro-Canadian divisions of legal responsibility and ecological knowledge, but at the same time can serve as the means by which they challenge the current structure of Aboriginal and Canadian relations. [source]


Stretching the Effectiveness of Analogical Training in Negotiations: Teaching Diverse Principles for Creating Value

NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT RESEARCH, Issue 2 2008
Simone Moran
Abstract The present research adapts analogical training to teach negotiators broad concepts of creating value. Recent research has shown specific analogical training, wherein negotiators draw analogies between different cases involving the same strategy, to be effective for learning and transferring specific value-creating strategies. The current results endorse the approach that analogical training can be a valuable tool for teaching negotiation, but argue that it can be enhanced by considering the breadth of the negotiation concepts that are learned. Diverse analogical training, wherein negotiators compare several different value-creating strategies, was shown to be more effective for learning broad underlying value-creating principles. This method facilitated transfer to a distinctive task and improved performance on a variety of value-creating strategies, including some that were not previously trained. The improved performance was also accompanied by enhanced understanding of the potential to create value. [source]


EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON NEUROIMAGING , A CRUCIAL PREREQUISITE FOR NEUROETHICS

BIOETHICS, Issue 6 2009
CHRISTIAN G. HUBER
ABSTRACT Purpose: Whereas ethical considerations on imaging techniques and interpretations of neuroimaging results flourish, there is not much work on their preconditions. In this paper, therefore, we discuss epistemological considerations on neuroimaging and their implications for neuroethics. Results: Neuroimaging uses indirect methods to generate data about surrogate parameters for mental processes, and there are many determinants influencing the results, including current hypotheses and the state of knowledge. This leads to an interdependence between hypotheses and data. Additionally, different levels of description are involved, especially when experiments are designed to answer questions pertaining to broad concepts like the self, empathy or moral intentions. Interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks are needed to integrate findings from the life sciences and the humanities and to translate between them. While these epistemological issues are not specific for neuroimaging, there are some reasons why they are of special importance in this context: Due to their inferential proximity, ,neuro-images' seem to be self-evident, suggesting directness of observation and objectivity. This has to be critically discussed to prevent overinterpretation. Additionally, there is a high level of attention to neuroimaging, leading to a high frequency of presentation of neuroimaging data and making the critical examination of their epistemological properties even more pressing. Conclusions: Epistemological considerations are an important prerequisite for neuroethics. The presentation and communication of the results of neuroimaging studies, the potential generation of new phenomena and new ,dysfunctions' through neuroimaging, and the influence on central concepts at the foundations of ethics will be important future topics for this discipline. [source]