Broad Agreement (broad + agreement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An exploration of corporate attitudes to the significance of environmental information for stakeholders

David Collison
This paper reports on a questionnaire survey sent to environmental managers in quoted UK firms from environmentally sensitive sectors. A total of 58 usable responses was received, with most but not all being returned by environmental managers. While contextual information regarding perceptions of their companies' environmental sensitivity and management systems was sought, the main focus of the questionnaire was on respondents' views about stakeholder concerns. There was broad agreement that external stakeholders attached importance to environmental communications. The results indicate that respondents' perceptions of these issues were associated with the formality of their internal management systems and with the role of the respondents within their firms. It was also found that shareholders were thought to be the least interested stakeholder group. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Retrieving geomagnetic secular variations from lava flows: evidence from Mounts Arso, Etna and Vesuvius (southern Italy)

Alberto Incoronato
Summary Mean directions of magnetization from Mounts Arso (Ischia Island, Gulf of Naples), Etna and Vesuvius lava flows have been determined based on very stringent linearity criteria. These indicate that, regardless of the source volcano, the lava flow mean directions of magnetization form a common path, the SISVC (Southern Italy Secular Variation Curve). This curve enables a reassessment of the age of eruption of several lavas. A date of AD 1169 is demonstrated to be the only possible time of emplacement for one Etna lava flow previously assigned an age of AD 812/1169. It is also demonstrated that two Etna lava flows, which, according to the literature, were emplaced in AD 1536 and 1595 respectively, were actually both emplaced around AD 1037. Three other Etna lava flows, one ascribed to AD 1566 and two to AD 1595, were actually emplaced between AD 1169 and 1284/85. The same time window also holds for a Vesuvius lava flow for which only an upper time threshold was previously available. Only one of the studied flows needs further sampling and analysis to verify whether this flow has been affected by a complete remagnetization or has an erroneous historical dating. The applied procedure seems to be the most appropriate one in carrying out palaeomagnetic surveys of lava flows, as also suggested by the broad agreement with some 17th and 19th century measurements of the geomagnetic field in Rome, relocated to Etna, and is likely to improve knowledge of past history of a volcano significantly. [source]

An assessment of temperature and precipitation change projections over Italy from recent global and regional climate model simulations

Erika Coppola
Abstract We present an assessment of climate change projections over the Italian peninsula for the 21st century from the CMIP3 global and PRUDENCE regional model experiments. We consider the A2, A1B, B2 and B1 emission scenarios. The climate change signal over Italy varies seasonally, with maximum warming in summer (up to several C) and minimum in winter, decreased precipitation over the entire peninsula in summer (locally up to ,40%) and a dipolar precipitation change pattern in winter (increase to the north and decrease to the south). Inter-annual variability increases in all seasons for precipitation and in summer for temperature, while it decreases for winter temperature. The seasonal temperature anomaly probability density functions (PDFs) show a shift as well as a broadening and flattening in future climate conditions, especially in summer. This implies larger increases for extreme hot seasons than mean summer temperatures. The seasonal precipitation anomaly PDFs are greatly affected in summer, with a strong increase of very dry seasons. Moreover, seasons with large precipitation amounts tend to increase in future climate conditions, i.e. we find an increase of very dry (drought prone) and very wet (flood prone) seasons. The magnitude of future climate change depends on the emission scenario and the temperature and precipitation change signals show substantial fine-scale structure in response to the topographical forcing of the Italian major mountain systems. In addition, the change signal is greater than the inter-model standard deviation for temperature in all seasons and for precipitation in the summer. Finally, the CMIP3 ensemble captures the observed 20th century trends of temperature and precipitation change over northern Italy. A broad agreement between the projections obtained with the CMIP3 and PRUDENCE ensembles is found, which adds robustness to the findings. Copyright 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

High temporal resolution SSFP cine MRI for estimation of left ventricular diastolic parameters

Ramkumar Krishnamurthy MS
Abstract Purpose: To obtain high temporal resolution (HTR) magnetic resonance (MR) steady-state free-precession (SSFP) cine cardiac images by using multichannel radiofrequency (RF) hardware and parallel imaging techniques; to study the effect of temporal resolution; and to compare the derived left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling parameters with echocardiographic results. Materials and Methods: HTR images were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers using a 1.5 T scanner with 32 RF channels and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) and k-t broad-use linear-acquisition speedup technique (k-t BLAST) imaging techniques. LV diastolic parameters were calculated and compared to conventional echocardiographic indices such as the isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) and E/A ratio. The need for HTR was assessed and the MR results were compared with echocardiographic results. Results: The HTR (,6-ms) images yielded higher peak filling rates, peak ejection rates, and peak atrial filling rates. A progressive decline in filling and ejection rates was observed with worsening temporal resolution. The IVRTs and E/A ratios measured with MR versus echocardiography were in broad agreement. Also, SENSE and k-t BLAST yielded similar diastolic functional parameters. Conclusion: With SENSE or k-t BLAST and modern hardware, HTR cine images can be obtained. The lower temporal resolutions (30,50 ms) used in clinical practice reduce LV filling rates by ,30% and may hinder characterization of transient phenomena such as the IVRT. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:872,880. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The impact of radio feedback from active galactic nuclei in cosmological simulations: formation of disc galaxies

Takashi Okamoto
ABSTRACT In this paper, we present a new implementation of feedback due to active galactic nuclei (AGN) in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. We assume that a fraction of jet energy, which is generated by an AGN, is transferred to the surrounding gas as thermal energy. Combining a theoretical model of mass accretion on to black holes with a multiphase description of star-forming gas, we self-consistently follow evolution of both galaxies and their central black holes. The novelty in our model is that we consider two distinct accretion modes: standard radiatively efficient thin accretion discs and radiatively inefficient accretion flows which we will generically refer to as RIAFs; motivated by theoretical models for jet production in accretion discs, we assume that only the RIAF is responsible for the AGN feedback. The focus of this paper is to investigate the interplay between galaxies and their central black holes during the formation of a disc galaxy. We find that, after an initial episode of bursting star formation, the accretion rate on to the central black hole drops so that the accretion disc switches to a RIAF structure. At this point, the feedback from the AGN becomes efficient and slightly suppresses star formation in the galactic disc and almost completely halts star formation in the bulge. This suppression of the star formation regulates mass accretion on to the black hole and associated AGN feedback. As a result, the nucleus becomes a stochastically fuelled low-luminosity AGN (Seyfert galaxy) with recurrent short-lived episodes of activity after the star bursts. During the ,on' events, the AGN produces reasonably powerful jets (radio-loud state) and is less luminous than the host galaxy, while in the ,off' phase, the nucleus is inactive and ,radio quiet'. Our model predicts several properties of the low-luminosity AGN including the bolometric luminosity, jet powers, the effect on kpc scale of the radio jet and the AGN lifetime, which are in broad agreement with observations of Seyfert galaxies and their radio activity. We also find that the ratios between the central black hole mass and the mass of the host spheroid at z= 0 are ,10,3 regardless of the strength of either supernova feedback or AGN feedback because the radiation drag model directly relates the star formation activity in the Galactic Centre and the mass accretion rate on to the central black hole. [source]

The SAURON project , IV.

The mass-to-light ratio, lenticular galaxies, the Fundamental Plane of elliptical, the virial mass estimator
ABSTRACT We investigate the well-known correlations between the dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and other global observables of elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies. We construct two-integral Jeans and three-integral Schwarzschild dynamical models for a sample of 25 E/S0 galaxies with SAURON integral-field stellar kinematics to about one effective (half-light) radius Re. They have well-calibrated I -band Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 and large-field ground-based photometry, accurate surface brightness fluctuation distances, and their observed kinematics is consistent with an axisymmetric intrinsic shape. All these factors result in an unprecedented accuracy in the M/L measurements. We find a tight correlation of the form (M/L) = (3.80 0.14) (,e/200 km s,1)0.840.07 between the M/L (in the I band) measured from the dynamical models and the luminosity-weighted second moment ,e of the LOSVD within Re. The observed rms scatter in M/L for our sample is 18 per cent, while the inferred intrinsic scatter is ,13 per cent. The (M/L),,e relation can be included in the remarkable series of tight correlations between ,e and other galaxy global observables. The comparison of the observed correlations with the predictions of the Fundamental Plane (FP), and with simple virial estimates, shows that the ,tilt' of the FP of early-type galaxies, describing the deviation of the FP from the virial relation, is almost exclusively due to a real M/L variation, while structural and orbital non-homology have a negligible effect. When the photometric parameters are determined in the ,classic' way, using growth curves, and the ,e is measured in a large aperture, the virial mass appears to be a reliable estimator of the mass in the central regions of galaxies, and can be safely used where more ,expensive' models are not feasible (e.g. in high-redshift studies). In this case the best-fitting virial relation has the form (M/L)vir= (5.0 0.1) Re,2e/(LG), in reasonable agreement with simple theoretical predictions. We find no difference between the M/L of the galaxies in clusters and in the field. The comparison of the dynamical M/L with the (M/L)pop inferred from the analysis of the stellar population, indicates a median dark matter fraction in early-type galaxies of ,30 per cent of the total mass inside one Re, in broad agreement with previous studies, and it also shows that the stellar initial mass function varies little among different galaxies. Our results suggest a variation in M/L at constant (M/L)pop, which seems to be linked to the galaxy dynamics. We speculate that fast-rotating galaxies have lower dark matter fractions than the slow-rotating and generally more-massive ones. If correct, this would suggest a connection between the galaxy assembly history and the dark matter halo structure. The tightness of our correlation provides some evidence against cuspy nuclear dark matter profiles in galaxies. [source]

Taking Constitutionalism Beyond the State

Neil Walker
In recent years, the idea that constitutional modes of government are exclusive to states has become the subject both of sustained challenge and of strong defence. This is due to the development at new regional and global sites of decision-making capacities of a scale and intensity often associated with the demand for constitutional governance at state level, to the supply at these same new sites of certain regulatory institutions and practices of a type capable of being viewed as meeting the demand for constitutional governance, as well as to a growing debate over whether and in what ways these developments in decision-making capacity and regulatory control should be coded and can be constructively engaged with in explicitly constitutional terms. The aim of the article is threefold. It asks why taking the idea and associated ethos and methods of constitutionalism ,beyond the state' might be viewed as a significant and controversial innovation, and so in need of explanation and justification , a question that requires us to engage with the definition of constitutionalism and with the contestation surrounding that definition. Secondly, taking account of the various arguments that lie behind these definitional concerns, it attempts to develop a scheme for understanding certain key features of constitutionalism and of its post-state development that is able to command broad agreement. Thirdly, and joining the concerns of the first two sections, it seeks to identify the key current tensions , or antinomies , surrounding the growth of post-state constitutionalism with a view to indicating what is at stake in the future career of that concept. [source]

Tuberculosis and leprosy in perspective

Anne C. Stone
Abstract Two of humankind's most socially and psychologically devastating diseases, tuberculosis and leprosy, have been the subject of intensive paleopathological research due to their antiquity, a presumed association with human settlement and subsistence patterns, and their propensity to leave characteristic lesions on skeletal and mummified remains. Despite a long history of medical research and the development of effective chemotherapy, these diseases remain global health threats even in the 21st century, and as such, their causative agents Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae, respectively, have recently been the subject of molecular genetics research. The new genome-level data for several mycobacterial species have informed extensive phylogenetic analyses that call into question previously accepted theories concerning the origins and antiquity of these diseases. Of special note is the fact that all new models are in broad agreement that human TB predated that in other animals, including cattle and other domesticates, and that this disease originated at least 35,000 years ago and probably closer to 2.6 million years ago. In this work, we review current phylogenetic and biogeographic models derived from molecular biology and explore their implications for the global development of TB and leprosy, past and present. In so doing, we also briefly review the skeletal evidence for TB and leprosy, explore the current status of these pathogens, critically consider current methods for identifying ancient mycobacterial DNA, and evaluate coevolutionary models. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 52:66,94, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Molecular mass ranges of coal tar pitch fractions by mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography

F. Karaca
A coal tar pitch was fractionated by solvent solubility into heptane-solubles, heptane-insoluble/toluene-solubles (asphaltenes), and toluene-insolubles (preasphaltenes). The aim of the work was to compare the mass ranges of the different fractions by several different techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy showed distinct differences between the three fractions in terms of volatility, molecular size ranges and the aromatic chromophore sizes present. The mass spectrometric methods used were gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), pyrolysis/GC/MS, electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICRMS) and laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOFMS). The first three techniques gave good mass spectra only for the heptane-soluble fraction. Only LDMS gave signals from the toluene-insolubles, indicating that the molecules were too involatile for GC and too complex to pyrolyze into small molecules during pyrolysis/GC/MS. ESI-FTICRMS gave no signal for toluene-insolubles probably because the fraction was insoluble in the methanol or acetonitrile, water and formic acid mixture used as solvent to the ESI source. LDMS was able to generate ions from each of the fractions. Fractionation of complex samples is necessary to separate smaller molecules to allow the use of higher laser fluences for the larger molecules and suppress the formation of ionized molecular clusters. The upper mass limit of the pitch was determined as between 5000 and 10,000,u. The pitch asphaltenes showed a peak of maximum intensity in the LDMS spectra at around m/z 400, in broad agreement with the estimate from SEC. The mass ranges of the toluene-insoluble fraction found by LDMS and SEC (400,10,000,u with maximum intensity around 2000,u by LDMS and 100,9320,u with maximum intensity around 740,u by SEC) are higher than those for the asphaltene fraction (200,4000,u with maximum intensity around 400,u by LDMS and 100,2680,u with maximum intensity around 286,u by SEC) and greater than values considered appropriate for petroleum asphaltenes (300,1200,u with maximum intensity near 700,u). Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Discal attachments of the human temporomandibular joint

JE Christo
Abstract Background: Despite its clinical significance, the anatomy of the human temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and its relationship to the lateral pterygoid muscle remains poorly described and often misrepresented in standard texts. The aim of this study was to describe how the anterior and posterior attachments of the TMJ disc vary between lateral, central and medial regions of the joint. Methods: Ten left TMJs were removed en bloc from cadavers and serial sections were made at 3,4mm intervals. Observations were made to ascertain the anterior and posterior attachments of the disc and the joint structures were traced from standardized photographs. Results: Laterally, the capsule and lateral discal ligament merged prior to their attachment at the condylar pole. Medially, muscle fibres, capsule and the disc converged on the medial pole of the condyle. There was no evidence that fibres of the upper head of the lateral pterygoid muscle inserted directly into the disc. The upper head inserted into the condyle either directly at the pterygoid fovea or via a central tendon or indirectly via the capsule. Posteriorly, the superior part of the posterior attachment of the disc attached to the cartilaginous meatus and tympanic part of the temporal bone. The inferior part of the posterior attachment of the disc attached to the posterior surface of the condyle. In four joints, this attachment was folded beneath the posterior band of the disc, creating a wedge-shaped flap that ran medio-laterally. Conclusion: This study is in broad agreement with other anatomical TMJ studies but there are two main points of difference. Firstly, a true muscle insertion of the superior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle to the disc was not observed. Secondly, a wedge-shaped flap of retrodiscal tissue was identified between the condyle and the disc. [source]


BIOETHICS, Issue 4 2008
ABSTRACT Despite broad agreement that the vulnerable have a claim to special protection, defining vulnerable persons or populations has proved more difficult than we would like. This is a theoretical as well as a practical problem, as it hinders both convincing justifications for this claim and the practical application of required protections. In this paper, I review consent-based, harm-based, and comprehensive definitions of vulnerability in healthcare and research with human subjects. Although current definitions are subject to critique, their underlying assumptions may be complementary. I propose that we should define vulnerability in research and healthcare as an identifiably increased likelihood of incurring additional or greater wrong. In order to identify the vulnerable, as well as the type of protection that they need, this definition requires that we start from the sorts of wrongs likely to occur and from identifiable increments in the likelihood, or to the likely degree, that these wrongs will occur. It is limited but appropriately so, as it only applies to special protection, not to any protection to which we have a valid claim. Using this definition would clarify that the normative force of claims for special protection does not rest with vulnerability itself, but with pre-existing claims when these are more likely to be denied. Such a clarification could help those who carry responsibility for the protection of vulnerable populations, such as Institutional Review Boards, to define the sort of protection required in a more targeted and effective manner. [source]

Biogeology of Wallacea: geotectonic models, areas of endemism, and natural biogeographical units

The concepts of biogeographical regions and areas of endemism are briefly reviewed prior to a discussion of what constitutes a natural biogeographical unit. It is concluded that a natural biogeographical unit comprises a group of endemic species that share a geological history. These natural biogeographical units are termed Wallacean biogeographical units in honour of the biogeographer A.R. Wallace. Models of the geological development of Indonesia and the Philippines are outlined. Areas of endemism within Wallacea are identified by distributional data, and their relationship to each other and to the adjacent continental regions are evaluated using molecular phylogenies from the literature. The boundaries of these areas of endemism are in broad agreement with earlier works, but it is argued that the Tanimbar Islands are biologically part of south Maluku, rather than the Lesser Sundas, and that Timor (plus Savu, Roti, Wetar, Damar, and Babar) and the western Lesser Sundas form areas of endemism in their own right. Wallacean biogeographical units within Wallacea are identified by congruence between areas of endemism and geological history. It is concluded that although Wallacea as a whole is not a natural biogeographical region, neither is it completely artificial as it is formed from a complex of predominantly Australasian exotic fragments linked by geological processes within a complex collision zone. The Philippines are argued to be an integral part of Wallacea, as originally intended. 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 101, 193,212. [source]

Prevention in integrated children's services: the impact of sure start on referrals to social services and child protection registrations

John Carpenter
Abstract Every Child Matters, the English government's plans for integrated children's services, proposed that preventative approaches such as those developed through Sure Start should be able to reduce the numbers of children requiring more intensive support from children's social services and, by implication, the numbers of children on the child protection register. This study examined the impact of Sure Start local programmes (SSLPs) on four local authorities with social services responsibilities in the northeast of England. The researchers analysed routinely collected statistical data concerning over 10,000 referrals of children under four years and over 1,600 child protection registrations (CPRs) in an eight-year period before and after the introduction of 19 SSLPs. They also analysed interviews with 36 key informants in eight case study SSLP areas. Contrary to expectations, the quantitative data revealed no discernable short-term effect on the numbers of referrals, or on CPRs. Interview data showed broad agreement on the potential impact of preventative work undertaken by SSLPs and many respondents believed that it was too early to draw conclusions. Alternatively, the universal approach to prevention within the Sure Start areas and the attempts to provide non-stigmatising and non-intrusive community-based services may be ineffective in reducing the need for intensive support for ,at risk' families. The findings are discussed in relation to ,targeted' prevention programmes and government policy intentions. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]