British Women (british + woman)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Conflicting community commitments: A dialogical analysis of a British woman's World War II diaries

Alex Gillespie
Recent developments of the concept of "sense of community" have highlighted the multiplicity of people's senses of community. In this article, the authors introduce the theory of the dialogical self as a means of theorizing the conflicts that can arise between a person's commitments to multiple communities. They ask the question, "When faced with conflicting community commitments, how does a person decide where his or her allegiances lie?" The contribution of the theory of the dialogical self is illustrated through an idiographic analysis of diaries kept by one British woman living through World War II. Conflicting commitments to her home community and to the national community's war effort provoke troubling dilemmas and efforts to resolve them through internal dialogues. Contributions to theory, research, and practice are discussed. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Consumption and community: choices for women over forty

Isabelle Szmigin
Women in their 40s face a range of issues regarding how they choose to present themselves to the world; often these choices involve forms of consumption. We talked to two groups of British women and discussed how they felt about themselves and the pressures upon them. We present a discussion which aims to synthesize some of the key features of how these women face their futures and suggest potential theoretical positions to help encapsulate women's present and future selves. We suggest that there are a number of pressures that may engender alternative consumption choices and these are often set within a wider sense of female community. The concept of community should prove useful for further theorising on women's future consumption choices. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Visible changes of female facial skin surface topography in relation to age and attractiveness perception

Nadine Samson
Summary Objectives, Evolutionary psychology suggests that a woman's age and physical appearance are important mate choice criteria. Given that changes in female facial skin surface topography are important, prominent visible signs of aging, male perceptual sensitivity for variation in this trait may also affect preference and attractiveness judgment. Methods, Two experiments were conducted to investigate perception (Experiment 1) and noticeability (Experiment 2) of skin surface topography manipulations in facial images of six British women, aged 45,65 years. In Experiment 1 skin surface topography cues were completely removed on the cheeks, the "crow's feet" area adjacent to the eye, under the eyes, above the upper lip, and on the forehead while, in Experiment 2, it was removed gradually (20% increments) on the forehead and around the eyes. In both experiments, stimuli were presented to American and German participants (total N = 300, aged 15,55 years) in omnibus pair-wise combinations (within-face). With each pair, respondents were asked to select that face which they considered as younger looking (Experiments 1 and 2) and more attractive (Experiment 1). Results, Faces with skin surface topography cues removed were judged significantly younger and more attractive than their original (unmodified) counterparts, with modifications on the forehead and around the eyes showing the highest differences. In these areas, participants were able to detect at least a 20% visual change in skin surface topography. Conclusions, The results support the assertion that even small changes in skin surface topography affect the perceptions of a woman's facial age and attractiveness and may, thus, also influence men's mate preferences. [source]

Independent changes in female body shape with parity and age: A life-history approach to female adiposity

Jonathan C.K. Wells
Both aging and reproduction have been shown to influence female body shape in industrialized populations, involving redistribution of fat from lower to upper body regions. However, the extent to which effects of parity vary by age and the extent to which age affects shape independent of parity remain unclear. We studied shape variability in relation to age and parity in a cross-sectional survey of 4,130 white British women, using three-dimensional photonic scanning. In women ,40 years, bearing children was associated with increased abdominal and reduced thigh girths, independent of age and BMI. Very few such differences were statistically significant in women >40 years, suggesting the effects of parity on shape wash out over time. In nulliparous women, aging was associated with shape variability, independent of BMI, with a similar pattern of associations evident in women both ,40 and >40 years. Our data support previous findings of "covert maternal depletion" in relation to parity, but show that this is merely a more pronounced component of a general strategic shift of fat from lower to upper body with age. These findings are consistent with a life-history model of female energy stores being allocated to competing "reproduction" and "maintenance" depots, with the optimal trade-off strategy changing with age and with that strategic shift accelerated by bearing children. This model is relevant to the "grandmother hypothesis." The dual effects of age and parity on fat distribution substantially resolve by old age the profound sexual dimorphism in adiposity present at the start of adult life. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Birthweight and paternal involvement predict early reproduction in British women: Evidence from the National Child Development Study

Daniel Nettle
There is considerable interest in the mechanisms maintaining early reproduction in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in developed countries. Previous research has suggested that differential exposure to early-life factors such as low birthweight and lack of paternal involvement during childhood may be relevant. Here, we used longitudinal data on the female cohort members from the UK National Child Development Study (n = 3,014,4,482 depending upon variables analyzed) to investigate predictors of early reproduction. Our main outcome measures were having a child by age 20, and stating at age 16 an intended age of reproduction of 20 years or lower. Low paternal involvement during childhood was associated with increased likelihood of early reproduction (O.R. 1.79,2.25) and increased likelihood of early intended reproduction (O.R. 1.38,2.50). Low birthweight for gestational age also increased the odds of early reproduction (O.R. for each additional s.d. 0.88) and early intended reproduction (O.R. for each additional s.d. 0.81). Intended early reproduction strongly predicted actual early reproduction (O.R. 5.39, 95% CI 3.71,7.83). The results suggest that early-life factors such as low birthweight for gestational age, and low paternal involvement during childhood, may affect women's reproductive development, leading to earlier target and achieved ages for reproduction. Differential exposure to these factors may be part of the reason that early fertility persists in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. We discuss our results with respect to the kinds of interventions likely to affect the rate of teen pregnancy. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The impact of developmental conditions on adult salivary estradiol levels: Why this differs from progesterone?

Alejandra Nez-De La Mora
Women living in energetically stressful conditions have significantly lower baseline salivary steroid levels compared to those in affluent environments. Developmental hypotheses suggest that interpopulation variation in ovarian function results from contrasting environments experienced during growth. We use a migrant study of Bangladeshi women to test this hypothesis. We compared middle-class women (19,39 years) who migrated to London, UK, at different life-stages (pre and postmenarche), with Bangladeshi sedentees, second-generation British-Bangladeshis, and white British women living in similar London neighborhoods (total n = 227). We analyzed levels of salivary estradiol for one menstrual cycle, together with data on anthropometry, diet, lifestyle, and migration and reproductive histories. Results from multiple linear regression models, controlling for anthropometric and reproductive variables, show no significant differences in baseline estradiol levels between groups whether all cycles or just ovulatory cycles are analyzed. We also found no correlation between age at migration or time since migration on estradiol levels, nor between adult estradiol levels and age at menarche. Our results differ from previous reports of significantly lower salivary estradiol levels in populations living in more extreme ecological settings. They also contrast with our previous findings of significant intergroup differences in baseline levels of salivary progesterone. However, women who spent their childhood in Sylhet have a lower proportion of ovulatory cycles compared to women who developed in Britain. These group differences in ovulation frequency indicate more qualitative effects of contrasting developmental environments. We discuss possible explanations for differences in response between progesterone and estradiol, as well as broader implications of our findings. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Interleukin-6 is a significant predictor of radiographic knee osteoarthritis: The Chingford study

Gregory Livshits
Objective There is a great need for identification of biomarkers that could improve the prediction of early osteoarthritis (OA). We undertook this study to determine whether circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,), and C-reactive protein (CRP) can serve as useful markers of radiographic knee OA (RKOA) in a normal human population. Methods RKOA data were obtained from the cohort of the Chingford Study, a prospective population-based study of healthy, middle-aged British women. The RKOA-affected status of the subjects was assessed using the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade as determined on radiographs obtained at baseline (n = 908) and at 10 years and 15 years thereafter. Serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF, were assayed at 5, 8, and 15 years, using high-sensitivity commercial assays. A K/L grade of ,2 in either knee was used as the outcome measure. Statistical analyses included analysis of variance for repeated measurements and logistic regression models, together with longitudinal modeling of dichotomous responses. Results During 15 years of followup, the prevalence of RKOA (K/L grade ,2) increased from 14.7% to 48.7% (P < 0.00001 versus baseline). The body mass index (BMI) and circulating levels of CRP and IL-6 were consistently and significantly higher in subjects diagnosed as having RKOA. When multiple logistic regression was applied to the data, the variables of older age (P = 3.93 10,5), higher BMI at baseline (P = 0.0003), and increased levels of IL-6 at year 5 (P = 0.0129) were determined to be independent predictors of the appearance of RKOA at year 10. The results were fully confirmed using longitudinal modeling of repeated measurements of the data obtained at 3 visits. The odds ratio for RKOA in subjects whose IL-6 levels were in the fourth quartile of increasing levels (versus the first quartile) was 2.74 (95% confidence interval 1.94,3.87). Conclusion This followup study showed that individuals were more likely to be diagnosed as having RKOA if they had a higher BMI and increased circulating levels of IL-6. These results should stimulate more work on IL-6 as a potential therapeutic target. [source]

The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women

NA Alwan
Please cite this paper as: Alwan N, Greenwood D, Simpson N, McArdle H, Cade J. The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women. BJOG 2010;117:821,829. Objective, To examine the relationship between dietary supplement use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Design, A prospective birth cohort. Setting, Leeds, UK. Sample, One thousand two hundred and seventy-four pregnant women aged 18,45 years. Methods, Dietary supplement intake was ascertained using three questionnaires for the first, second and third trimesters. Dietary intake was reported in a 24-hour dietary recall administered by a research midwife at 8,12 weeks of gestation. Information on delivery details and antenatal pregnancy complications was obtained from the hospital maternity records. Main outcome measures, Birthweight, birth centile and preterm birth. Results, Reported dietary supplement use declined from 82% of women in the first trimester of pregnancy to 22% in the second trimester and 33% in the third trimester. Folic acid was the most commonly reported supplement taken. Taking any type of daily supplement during any trimester was not significantly associated with size at birth taking into account known relevant confounders. Women taking multivitamin-mineral supplements in the third trimester were more likely to experience preterm birth (adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.6, P = 0.02). Conclusions, Regular multivitamin,mineral supplement use during pregnancy, in a developed country setting, is not associated with size at birth. However, it appears to be associated with preterm birth if taken daily in the third trimester. The mechanism for this is unclear and our study's findings need confirming by other cohorts and/or trials in developed countries. [source]