British Subjects (british + subject)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Ethnicity, social disadvantage and psychotic-like experiences in a healthy population based sample

C. Morgan
Objective: We sought to investigate the prevalence and social correlates of psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of Black and White British subjects. Method: Data were collected from randomly selected community control subjects, recruited as part of the ĘSOP study, a three-centre population based study of first-episode psychosis. Results: The proportion of subjects reporting one or more psychotic-like experience was 19% (n = 72/372). These were more common in Black Caribbean (OR 2.08) and Black African subjects (OR 4.59), compared with White British. In addition, a number of indicators of childhood and adult disadvantage were associated with psychotic-like experiences. When these variables were simultaneously entered into a regression model, Black African ethnicity, concentrated adult disadvantage, and separation from parents retained a significant effect. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of psychotic-like experiences in the Black Caribbean, but not Black African, group was explained by high levels of social disadvantage over the life course. [source]

Melanized nigral neuronal numbers in Nigerian and British individuals

Uday B. Muthane DM
Abstract The role of genetic and environmental factors in etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is debated. The prevalence of PD is higher among white than nonwhite populations, yet it is five times higher in nonwhites living in the United States than in Nigeria. We compare counts of melanized nigral neurons between neurologically normal Nigerians and British brains. Neuronal counts were estimated in an age-matched sample of 23 Nigerian and 7 British brains from neurologically normal individuals who had no Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites on ,-synuclein immunostaining. Two investigators blind to age and ethnicity performed counts of melanized neurons in a single 7-,m hemisections showing the substantia nigra pars compacta. No significant difference exits in the number of neurons between the Nigerian and the British subjects (P = 0.1, NS). Differences in melanized nigral neuronal numbers may not explain differences in the prevalence of PD between white and nonwhite populations, suggesting factors other than neuronal numbers contribute to differential susceptibility of black vs. white races to PD. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Parliament and the Problem of China, 1925,7: Priorities, Preoccupations and Stereotypes

Though China had never been part of Britain's formal empire, a century of trade and warfare had caused China to cede trading and territorial rights to Britain. But from 1925 to 1927 the rise of the Kuomintang and the anti-imperialistic movement began to threaten British interests in China, alarming policy makers in London. At the same time, the China issue also captured the attention of MPs, who spent long sessions debating British policy towards China. These debates reveal much about MPs' perceptions of China, and can be seen as a microcosm of the British public sphere, encapsulating the multivalent British opinions on the world around them. Discussions of the ,China Situation' became an opportunity to express opinions on most of the important topics of the day , the economy, the General Strike, the Red Scare, disarmament, and the future of empire. A close reading of these debates can tell us much, not only about assumptions MPs held about China and the Chinese people, but also about issues closer to home. Three major events in China grabbed the attention of parliament in the period 1925,7. They were: (1) the May 30th Movement and the subsequent anti-British boycott in 1925; (2) the decision to send troops to Shanghai in January 1927; and (3) the so-called Nanking outrages, when British subjects in China were killed by Nationalist Army troops. What follows is a description and analysis of the debates over these three episodes. [source]

Liability, Responsibility and Blame: British Ransom Victims in the Mediterranean Periphery, 1860,81

Martin Blinkhorn
Between 1865 and 1881 there occurred in southern Europe and the Balkans several cases of kidnapping in which British subjects were seized and held to ransom by brigands. Most ended peacefully (though expensively) with the negotiation and handing over of a substantial ransom, usually in gold, and the subsequent freeing of the hostage(s); one case, that of the so-called ,Marathon murders' of 1870 in Greece, ended in tragedy. Quite apart from the problems these incidents created for the victims and their families, some kidnappings also raised important questions for the governments involved, notably who was to blame for such incidents, who was formally responsible for them, and , crucially , who was ultimately liable for the cost involved? These questions and the responses of British governments to them, culminating in 1881 with the enunciation by Gladstone's administration of a clear policy on such matters, form the core of this article. [source]