Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Britain

  • century britain
  • edwardian britain
  • eighteenth-century britain
  • great britain
  • imperial britain
  • modern britain
  • new britain
  • nineteenth-century britain
  • northern britain
  • post-war britain
  • roman britain
  • southern britain
  • victorian britain
  • western britain

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT. Meteorological tsunamis, or meteo-tsunamis, are long-period waves that possess tsunami characteristics but are meteorological in origin, although they are not storm surges. In this article we investigate the coast of southern Britain-the English Channel, the Bristol Channel, and the Severn Estuary-for the occurrence of tsunami-like waves that, in the absence of associated seismic activity, we recognize as meteo-tsunamis. The passage of squall lines over the sea apparently generated three of these events, and two seem to have been far-traveled, long-period waves from mid-North Atlantic atmospheric low-pressure systems. The remaining three wave events appear to have been associated with storms that, among possible explanations, may have induced large-amplitude standing waves-such as seiches-or created long-period waves through the opposition of onshore gale-force winds and swells with high ebb tidal current velocities. This coastal hazard has resulted in damage and loss of life and should be considered in future coastal defense strategies and in beachuser risk assessments. [source]


    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 3 2008
    ABSTRACT Historians looking to make history a professional discipline of study in Victorian Britain believed they had to establish firm boundaries demarcating history from other literary disciplines. James Anthony Froude ignored such boundaries. The popularity of his historical narratives was a constant reminder of the continued existence of a supposedly overturned phase of historiography in which the historian was also a man of letters, transcending the boundary separating fact from fiction and literature from history. Just as professionalizing historians were constructing a methodology that called on historians to be inductive empirical workers, Froude refused to accept the new science of history, and suggested instead that history was an individual enterprise, one more concerned with drama and art than with science. E. A. Freeman warned the historical community that they "cannot welcome [Froude] as a partner in their labors, as a fellow-worker in the cause of historic truth." This article examines the boundary work of a professionalizing history by considering the attempt to exclude Froude from the historian's discourse, an attempt that involved a communal campaign that sought to represent Froude as "constitutionally inaccurate." Froude suffered from "an inborn and incurable twist," argued Freeman, thereby diagnosing "Froude's disease" as the inability to "make an accurate statement about any matter." By unpacking the construction of "Froude's disease," the article exposes the disciplinary techniques at work in the professionalization of history, techniques that sought to exclude non-scientific modes of thought such as that offered by Froude. [source]


    Summary. This paper considers the role of pottery in the Late Iron Age to Roman transition in south-east Britain. Traditional concern with the significance of Continental imports is rejected in favour of a more holistic and bottom-up approach giving equal emphasis to locally made forms and imports in complete assemblages. Several stages of inter-site correspondence analysis are conducted on a range of sites and assemblages in the region. Patterning pertaining to the use and deposition of both imported and local pottery vessels can be seen to contradict simplistic models for ,Romanization before conquest'. The main conclusions include evidence for the selective disposal of drinking vessels and table wares in pits, the likely widespread consumption of beer as opposed to wine, and the implied importance of indigenous social practices such as feasting and communal drinking. [source]


    Summary. Despite much work on the frontier of Roman Britain, major questions concerned with society and settlement archaeology remain underinvestigated. Salient details of two major urban sites, Carlisle and Corbridge, both of which may shed further light on processes of settlement growth and decline, and which may ultimately contribute to a greater understanding of how the frontier worked, are summarized. At Carlisle, and probably also at Corbridge, settlement growth associated with forts was rapid and multi-tracked, but from the later second century AD changes took place associated, perhaps, with enhanced status and a growing sense of community. [source]


    The article traces a large real and comparative decline in the rewards of high civil servants in Great Britain over the 20th century, accelerating since about 1970. It relates this to developments in the market for ,high quality' graduates and to changes in public and governmental attitudes which have affected the size, organization and role of the civil service. It discusses possible causes of the decline in top rewards in terms of three explanatory approaches suggested by social scientists , the ,institutional', the ,cultural', and the views of the ,Chicago School'. Finally, following an examination of changes in the way senior British civil servants are now recruited and remunerated, it considers possible outcomes in terms of effects on the part they can play in the governmental process. [source]


    In this paper we examine the parallel trends in education and labour market developments in Australia and Britain using unique information on reported overskilling in the workplace. To a degree, the overskilling information overcomes the problem of unobserved ability differences and focuses on the actual job,employee mismatch more than the conventional overeducation variables can. The paper finds that the prevalence of overskilling decreases with education at least for Australia, but the wage penalty associated with overskilling increases with education. Although the prevalence of overskilling differs between Australia and Britain, the pattern of the wage penalties is fairly similar in both countries. [source]


    Government policy on the nature of wage bargaining in the public sector can have important implications for the provision of public services. Using the New Earnings Survey, the Labour Force Survey and the British Household Panel Survey, we examine the size and evolution of public,private sector wage differentials across geographical areas within the UK and over time. Public sector bargaining structures have led to historically high wage premia, although these premia are declining over time. In high-cost low-amenity areas, such as the south-east of England, the public sector underpays relative to the private sector, therefore creating problems in recruitment to and provision of public services. Public sector labour markets are around 40 per cent as responsive to area differences in amenities and costs as are private sector labour markets. Differences in the degree of spatial variation between sectors are likely to remain, leading to persistent problems for the delivery of public services in some parts of the UK. Reform of public sector pay structures is likely to be costly, and so other non-pay policies need to be considered to increase the attractiveness of public sector jobs. [source]


    We use linked data for 1460 workplaces and 19,853 employees from the Workplace Employee Relations Survey 1998 to analyse the incidence and duration of employee training in Britain. We find training to be positively associated with having a recognized vocational qualification and current union membership. However, being non-white, having shorter current-job tenure and part-time or fixed-term employment statuses are all associated with less training. Furthermore, in line with recent non-competitive training models, higher levels of wage compression (measured in absolute or relative terms) are positively related to training. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 3 2009
    Scholarship on the impact of Richard Wagner's music and aesthetic theories has traditionally concentrated on fin-de-siècle France. Aubrey Beardsley's Wagnerian prints have recently been the subject of several significant studies, but they have been examined in a British context with little reference to earlier or concurrent developments in France. This article serves as a case study of Anglo-French artistic exchange at the fin-de-siècle, examining some points of interaction between Beardsley and two key French Wagnerian artists, Henri Fantin-Latour and Odilon Redon, in order to throw more light on the complex mixture of political, social and aesthetic discourses that informed all three artists' interest in the intersection of music and the visual arts, as well as their Wagnerian pictorial languages. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 1 2008
    The invention of the medium of photography and its commercialization as a cheap multiple during the 1850s and 1860s led to challenges to extant copyright laws in France and Great Britain. This paper traces the ways that debates over photographic copyright confronted current understandings of originality and mechanization and repeated arguments that had already been raised by laws governing prints and casts. The British Fine Arts Copyright Act of 1862, which extended statutory protection to all photographs, is contrasted with French cases, which struggled to accommodate photographs within the fine arts as defined by the copyright law of 1793. [source]

    The Coming Transformation of Shareholder Value

    Simon Deakin
    This essay challenges the primacy of shareholder value. Shareholder primacy originates not in company law, but rather in the norms and practices surrounding the rise of the hostile takeover movement in Britain and America in the 1970s and 1980s. It is less strongly institutionalised than might be supposed, because it is essentially a cultural rather than a legal point of reference. Moreover, in the course of the past decade, a shift in the content of shareholder value has occurred which reflects the stakeholder critique of that period: this reflects the idea that shareholders should exercise their power not as representatives of the market, but as agents of society as a whole. The corporate governance of the future will be centrally concerned with how this idea is worked out in practice. [source]

    Redesigning Corporate Governance Structures and Systems for the Twenty First Century

    Robert A.G. Monks
    How a corporation is governed has become in recent years an increasingly important element in how it is valued by the market place. McKinsey & Company in June 2000 published the results of an Investor Opinion Survey of attitudes about the corporate governance of portfolio companies. The survey gathered responses about investment intentions from over 200 institutions who together manage approximately $3.25 trillion in assets. Ranging from 17 per cent in the US and Britain to over 27 per cent in Venezuela, investors placed a specific premium on what was called "Board Governance". To put this into perspective, consider how greatly sales would have to increase, expenses be cut and margins improved to achieve a comparable impact on value. "For purposes of the survey, a well governed company is defined as having a majority of outside directors on the board with no management ties; holding formal evaluations of directors; and being responsive to investor requests for information on governance issues. In addition, directors hold significant stockholdings in the company, and a large proportion of directors' pay is in the form of stock options." This correlation of governance with market value by one of the most respected consulting companies in the world creates the foundations of a new language for management accountability. McKinsey has great credibility as a value-adding advisor to corporate managements. Governance is not a cause or a theology for McKinsey; it is an important element in the value of an enterprise. By getting the opinion of what we call Global Investors with portfolios of holdings on every continent, McKinsey has importantly impacted the cost of capital for all corporations henceforth. Admittedly, McKinsey's criteria of "board governance" are blunt. "Every organization attempting to accomplish something has to ask and answer the following question," writes Harvard Business School professor Michael C. Jensen in the introduction to his recent working paper: "What are we trying to accomplish? Or, put even more simply: When all is said and done, how do we measure better versus worse? Even more simply: How do we keep score... . I say long-term market value to recognize that it is possible for markets not to know the full implications of a firm's policies until they begin to show up.... Value creation does not mean succumbing to the vagaries of the movements in a firm's values from day to day. The market is inevitably ignorant of many of our actions and opportunities, at least in the short run...". Surprisingly little attention is paid to what we all intuitively know, that talented people are not entirely motivated by financial compensation. Directors therefore must pay special attention to creating an appropriate environment for stimulating optimum management performance. [source]

    Plate 492.,Lechenaultia acutiloba Goodeniaceae

    David Morrison
    Summary.,Lechenaultia acutiloba Benth. (Goodeniaceae) is a rare, greenish-yellow-flowered species of compact form, unknown in cultivation in Britain. [source]

    Diabetes service provision: a qualitative study of the experiences and views of Pakistani and Indian patients with Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2006
    J. Lawton
    Abstract Aims To explore Pakistani and Indian patients' experiences of, and views about, diabetes services in order to inform the development of culturally sensitive services. Design Qualitative, interview study involving 23 Pakistani and nine Indian patients with Type 2 diabetes recruited from general practices and the local community in Edinburgh, Scotland. Data collection and analysis occurred concurrently and recruitment continued until no new themes emerged from the interviews. Results Respondents expressed gratitude for the availability of free diabetes services in Britain, as they were used to having to pay to access health care on the Indian subcontinent. Most looked to services for the prompt detection and treatment of complications, rather than the provision of advice about managing their condition. As respondents attached importance to receiving physical examinations, they could be disappointed when these were not offered by health-care professionals. They disliked relying on interpreters and identified a need for bilingual professionals with whom they could discuss their diabetes care directly. Conclusions Gratitude for free services in Britain may instil a sense of indebtedness which makes it difficult for Pakistanis and Indians to be critical of their diabetes care. Health-care professionals may need to describe their roles carefully, and explain how different diabetes services fit together, to avoid Pakistani and Indian patients perceiving treatment as unsatisfactory. Whilst linkworker schemes may meet patients' need to receive culturally sensitive information in their first language, work is needed to assess their effectiveness and sustainability. [source]

    The quality of clinical care in diabetes in Britain , could do better

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2000
    Article first published online: 24 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    "A Certain Irritation": The White House, the State Department, and the Desire for a Naval Settlement with Great Britain, 1927,1930

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 5 2007
    B. j. c. Mckercher
    First page of article [source]

    With Friends Like These

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 1 2005
    PeterBusch , All the Way With JFK? Britain, the U.S., and the Vietnam War . Oxford : Oxford University Press , 2003 . xiv + 240 pp. Notes, index. [source]

    The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2006
    Maarten K. Van Aalst
    Abstract Human emissions of greenhouse gases are already changing our climate. This paper provides an overview of the relation between climate change and weather extremes, and examines three specific cases where recent acute events have stimulated debate on the potential role of climate change: the European heatwave of 2003; the risk of inland flooding, such as recently in Central Europe and Great Britain; and the harsh Atlantic hurricane seasons of 2004 and 2005. Furthermore, it briefly assesses the relation between climate change and El Niño, and the potential of abrupt climate change. Several trends in weather extremes are sufficiently clear to inform risk reduction efforts. In many instances, however, the potential increases in extreme events due to climate change come on top of alarming rises in vulnerability. Hence, the additional risks due to climate change should not be analysed or treated in isolation, but instead integrated into broader efforts to reduce the risk of natural disasters. [source]

    Heddleichthys, a new tristichopterid genus from the Dura Den Formation, Midland Valley, Scotland (Famennian, Late Devonian)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    Daniel Snitting
    Abstract A new tristichopterid genus, Heddleichthys, from the Famennian of Scotland is described based on material previously assigned to a number of different genera, including Glyptopomus, Gyroptychius and Eusthenopteron. The validity of the new genus is established by a discussion of the reasons for the invalidity of the previous assignments. Heddleichthys is characterized by a combination of derived and primitive tristichopterid features. Derived features include the presence of symphyseal dentary fangs and premaxillary pseudofangs, a diamond-shaped symmetric caudal fin, a low posterodorsal expansion of the maxilla, and a posteriorly positioned kite-shaped pineal series. Primitive features include a postorbital and jugal contribution to the orbital margin and a parasphenoid with a ventral keel. External dermal bones are rather poorly preserved in the referred material, with few easily discernible sutures. The holotype specimen, a three-dimensionally preserved skull, was scanned by computed tomography to reveal well-preserved internal dermal bones, including entopterygoids, vomers and parasphenoid. There is no preserved endoskeletal material. As the first representative of derived tristichopterids described from Britain, Heddleichthys lends support to the idea that faunal dispersion between Gondwana and Laurussia in the Late Devonian was widespread. Derived tristichopterids have been described from all continents except South America. In contrast, the basal tristichopterids Eusthenopteron and Tristichopterus are still only described from Laurussia. [source]

    The International Adult Literacy Survey in Britain: Impact on policy and practice

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2003
    Angela J. Fawcett
    Abstract There is increasing concern for the skills of the workforce in the UK and elsewhere, but despite this concern until recently there has been little information available which objectively measures basic skills in adults. In this paper, evidence derived from the prose scale of the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS, 1996) is outlined, with emphasis on the performance of adults at the lowest levels, 1 and 2 in the United Kingdom. A new analysis based on the 183 adults who self-reported learning disabilities demonstrates that over 50% of this group perform at level 1 on the prose scale. Over 60% report that these disabilities persist into adult life, although this number falls to 50% in the youngest age group, reflecting changes in recognition of learning disabilities within the education system. The paper concludes with a case study of the redefinition of basic skill levels in Britain based on the IALS levels. The impact of the IALS findings on policy and practice, and in particular through the recommendations of the Moser report, are discussed. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Bede on the Britons

    W. Trent Foley
    This paper addresses the many facets of Bede's portrayal of the Britons in the Historia ecclesiastica, first by illustrating his attempts to cast the Britons generally in the role of usually villainous biblical types and then by examining his often more positive portrayal of certain Britons and British groups independently of those types. His recommendation of certain British Christians as saints to be imitated as well as his conviction that God has not abandoned them to perdition exempts him from the charge of being unqualifiedly anti-British. Nevertheless, his singular stereotyping of them among all the peoples of Britain reveals an especial virulence not easily explained by his biblically informed world-view. [source]

    Review article: What's new in early medieval burial archaeology?

    Tania M. Dickinson
    Books reviewed in this article: John Hines, Karen Høilund Nielsen and Frank Siegmund (eds), The Pace of Change. Studies in Early,Medieval Chronology. Catherine E. Karkov, Kelley M. Wickham,Crowley and Bailey K. Young (eds), Spaces of the Living and the Dead: An Archaeological Dialogue. Sam Lucy, The Early Anglo,Saxon Cemeteries of East Yorkshire. An Analysis and Reinterpretation. Elizabeth O'Brien, Post,Roman Britain to Anglo,Saxon England: Burial Practices Reviewed. Nick Stoodley, The Spindle and the Spear. A Critical Enquiry into the Construction and Meaning of Gender in the Early Anglo,Saxon Burial Rite. [source]

    The origins of Christian commemoration in late antique Britain

    Mark A. Handley
    The corpus of approximately 250 Christian inscriptions, dating from before c.700, from western Britain has been interpreted as the result of contact between Britain and Gaul. This article will show that Christian commemoration was neither a new, post-Roman introduction into Britain nor the product of contact with Gaul. Rather, it will show that the inscriptions should be seen as part of a larger pattern of epigraphic practice also evidenced in Spain, Italy and North Africa during late antiquity. Where earlier scholars have argued that Christian inscriptions in Britain begin in the period AD 420,40, it will demonstrate that they are more likely to date from the late fourth century, a conclusion with important implications for the study of western Britain. [source]

    Anti-drink driving reform in Britain, c. 1920,80

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
    Bill Luckin
    ABSTRACT Aim The goal of this report is to provide a framework for understanding and interpreting political, scientific and cultural attitudes towards drink driving in 20th-century Britain. Exploring the inherent conservatism of successive governments, Members of Parliament (MPs) and the public towards the issue during the interwar years, the contribution seeks to explain the shift from legislative paralysis to the introduction of the breathalyser in 1967. Design Based on governmental, parliamentary and administrative records, the report follows a mainly narrative route. It places particular emphasis on connections between post-war extra-parliamentary and parliamentary movements for reform. Setting The paper follows a linear path from the 1920s to the 1970s. Britain lies at the heart of the story but comparisons are made with nations,particularly the Scandinavian states,which took radical steps to prosecute drinking and dangerous drivers at an early date. Findings The report underlines the vital post-war role played by Graham Page, leading parliamentary spokesman for the Pedestrians' Association; the centrality of the Drew Report (1959) into an ,activity resembling driving'; the pioneering Conservative efforts of Ernest Marples; and Barbara Castle's consolidating rather than radically innovative activities between 1964 and 1967. Conclusion Both before and after the Second World War politicians from both major parties gave ground repeatedly to major motoring organizations. With the ever-escalating growth of mass motorization in the 1950s, both Conservative and Labour governments agonized over gridlock and ,murder on the roads'. Barbara Castle finally took decisive action against drink drivers, but the ground had been prepared by Graham Page and Ernest Marples. [source]

    A comparative analysis of the habitat of the extinct aurochs and other prehistoric mammals in Britain

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Stephen J. G. Hall
    The present study tests the hypothesis that the habitat of the globally extinct aurochs Bos primigenius was primarily riverine flat-lands. Landscape features in Britain were analyzed for sites with Late Pleistocene and postglacial finds of aurochs (n=188), and, for comparison, wolf (101), brown bear (96), red deer (73), beaver (68), roe deer (46) and moose (23). Find sites were defined as Ordnance Survey 1 km map squares containing 1 or more finds. For each, spot height above sea level, heights of contour lines, flatness of terrain, total length of watercourses, and presence of woods, rock and water features were noted. Comparisons of find sites among species (Kruskal-Wallis test) show significant differences that accord with knowledge of present-day habitat preferences at the landscape level. Considering the species separately each find site was then compared with a randomly selected control map square within 10 km. Compared with their respective control squares, find sites of beaver have, today, a stronger association with presence of lakes; those of brown bear and wolf with presence of cliffs and rock outcrops; and those of aurochs with absence of woodland and with lower elevation and greater flatness. The concordance of these findings with the present-day habitats of the extant species suggests valid inferences can be made about the habitat preference of the extinct aurochs. On this basis the aurochs appears, as hypothesized, to have selected low-lying, flat ground, which (indicated by its present-day use for purposes other than woodland) was relatively fertile. [source]

    Abundance , occupancy relationships in macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches: patterns and mechanisms

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2004
    Matthew T. Frost
    We studied the relationship between abundance and extent of occupancy of 158 species of macrofauna inhabiting 66 sandy beaches around the coast of Great Britain. We also used these data to test the predictions of two hypotheses proposed to explain positive abundance-occupancy relationships. We found a strong positive relationship between abundance and extent of occupancy; this pattern was apparent in taxonomic subsets of organisms which have contrasting reproductive and dispersal traits such as planktotrophic/lecithotrophic development in the plankton vs brood development under parental care. Moreover, the abundance-occupancy relationships in these taxonomic subsets had statistically indistinguishable slopes, and elevation. We propose that this lends support to the notion that differences in population structure such as the tendency to form metapopulations may not be primary determinants of the abundance-occupancy pattern in these taxa as proposed by the rescue/metapopulation hypothesis. To test the predictions of the niche-breadth hypothesis we derived values describing the range of sediment grain-sizes exploited by members of two taxonomic subgroups: amphipods and bivalves. We found a weak, statistically non-significant relationship between this niche-breadth measure and occupancy in bivalves which have been shown to respond to grain-size in previous studies, however this was negated after correction for possible artefacts of sampling effort. All other relationships between abundance or occupancy and grain-size range were non-significant. The consistency of the demonstrated abundance-occupancy relationship with those demonstrated in other studies of primarily terrestrial fauna indicates some shared mechanistic explanation, but our data fail to provide support for the two mechanistic hypotheses investigated. [source]

    Modelling species distributions in Britain: a hierarchical integration of climate and land-cover data

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2004
    Richard G. Pearson
    A modelling framework for studying the combined effects of climate and land-cover changes on the distribution of species is presented. The model integrates land-cover data into a correlative bioclimatic model in a scale-dependent hierarchical manner, whereby Artificial Neural Networks are used to characterise species' climatic requirements at the European scale and land-cover requirements at the British scale. The model has been tested against an alternative non-hierarchical approach and has been applied to four plant species in Britain: Rhynchospora alba, Erica tetralix, Salix herbacea and Geranium sylvaticum. Predictive performance has been evaluated using Cohen's Kappa statistic and the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve, and a novel approach to identifying thresholds of occurrence which utilises three levels of confidence has been applied. Results demonstrate reasonable to good predictive performance for each species, with the main patterns of distribution simulated at both 10 km and 1 km resolutions. The incorporation of land-cover data was found to significantly improve purely climate-driven predictions for R. alba and E. tetralix, enabling regions with suitable climate but unsuitable land-cover to be identified. The study thus provides an insight into the roles of climate and land-cover as determinants of species' distributions and it is demonstrated that the modelling approach presented can provide a useful framework for making predictions of distributions under scenarios of changing climate and land-cover type. The paper confirms the potential utility of multi-scale approaches for understanding environmental limitations to species' distributions, and demonstrates that the search for environmental correlates with species' distributions must be addressed at an appropriate spatial scale. Our study contributes to the mounting evidence that hierarchical schemes are characteristic of ecological systems. [source]

    Substance use and common child mental health problems: examining longitudinal associations in a British sample

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2010
    Anna Goodman
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine the longitudinal associations in both directions between mental health and substance use in adolescence. Design Three-year longitudinal cohort. Setting Britain (nationally representative sample). Participants 3607 youths aged 11,16 years at baseline. Measurements Externalizing and internalizing mental health problems were measured using brief questionnaires (parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and diagnostic interviews, including clinician-rated diagnoses of mental disorder. Substance use was measured by youth self-report, and included regular smoking, frequent alcohol consumption, regular cannabis use and ever taking other illicit drugs. Findings Externalizing (specifically behavioural) problems at baseline independently predicted all forms of substance use, with a particularly strong effect on smoking. In all cases this association showed a dose,response relationship. In contrast, although internalizing problems had a strong univariable association with smoking, this disappeared after adjusting for comorbid externalizing problems. There was little or no evidence that baseline substance use predicted mental health at follow-up. Conclusions Externalizing problems predict adolescent substance use, and adjusting for comorbid externalizing problems is vital when investigating the effects of internalizing problems. A dose,response effect of externalizing problems is seen across the full range. Programmes seeking to prevent adolescent substance use by reducing externalizing problems may therefore wish to consider population-wide interventions rather than targeting individuals only at the negative extreme. [source]

    Effects of competition, cannibalism and intra-guild predation on larval development of the European coccinellid Adalia bipunctata and the invasive species Harmonia axyridis

    Abstract 1.,Resource competition and intra-guild predation (IGP) are important determinants of the structure of aphidophagous guilds. The likelihood and outcome of IGP is influenced by the density of extra-guild prey and the characteristics of the species involved. 2.,The nature of intra-guild interactions between alien and indigenous coccinellids often determines the success of coccinellid invasions, as exemplified by Adalia bipunctata in Japan and Harmonia axyridis in North America and Europe. 3.,Harmonia axyridis has negatively impinged on indigenous species in its introduced range, and its recent arrival in Britain poses a threat for members of native aphidophagous guilds. IGP and inter-specific competition between H. axyridis and British coccinellids are predicted to occur. However, the results of such interactions have been little studied. 4.,Here we investigate the effects of different diets, designed to mimic possible conditions in the wild, on the survival, development, and adult size of H. axyridis and A. bipunctata. Results demonstrate a skew in the consequences of IGP between the two species: the supplementation of a limited aphid diet with non-conspecific eggs leads to a significant advantage for H. axyridis in respect of all parameters assessed, but gives no benefit to A. bipunctata. 5.,We conclude that IGP of A. bipunctata by H. axyridis will contribute to the spread and increase of H. axyridis in Britain. 6.,We further conclude that the skewed nature of IGP between A. bipunctata and H. axyridis at least in part explains the limited spread of A. bipunctata in Japan. [source]

    Escape from natural enemies during climate-driven range expansion: a case study

    Abstract 1.,A major, and largely unexplored, uncertainty in projecting the impact of climate change on biodiversity is the consequence of altered interspecific interactions, for example between parasitoids and their hosts. The present study investigated parasitism in the Brown Argus butterfly, Aricia agestis; a species that has expanded northward in Britain during the last 30 years in association with climate warming. 2.,Aricia agestis larvae suffered lower mortality from parasitoids in newly colonised areas compared with long-established populations. This result was consistent over four consecutive generations (2 years) when comparing one population of each type, and also when several populations within the historical and recently colonised range of the species were compared within a single year. Thus, A. agestis appears to be partially escaping from parasitism as it expands northwards. 3.,Reduced parasitism occurred despite the fact that several of the parasitoid species associated with A. agestis were already present in the newly colonised areas, supported predominantly by an alternative host species, the Common Blue butterfly, Polyommatus icarus. 4.,As the species expand their distributions into areas of increased climatic suitability, invasion fronts may escape from natural enemies, enhancing rates of range expansion. The results suggest that the decoupling of interspecific interactions may allow some species to exploit a wider range of environments and to do so more rapidly than previously thought possible. [source]