Breakpoint Regions (breakpoint + regions)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Children and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia have similar gene expression profiles

E. Kuchinskaya
Abstract:,Objectives:,To compare the gene expression pattern in children and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in order to improve our understanding of the difference in disease biology and prognosis. Methods:,The gene expression profiles in diagnostic samples from 29 children and 15 adults with ALL were analysed using the oligonucleotide chip Hu95ver2a, produced by Affymetrix. Results:,Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that, in spite of differences in outcome, patients clustered irrespective of age, first by T-cell or B-precursor immunophenotype, and second by cytogenetic changes within the B-precursor group. The expression pattern analysis allowed the reclassification of some samples into the proper cytogenetic group. We also showed that separate clustering of samples with the BCR/ABL translocation could be explained by different breakpoint regions in the BCR. No significant difference in gene expression was observed between samples with and without CDKN2A deletion within the B-precursor group. Analysis of different age groups revealed a similarity in expression profiles when infants with the MLL translocation and adults over 40 yr of age were compared irrespective of karyotype. Conclusions:,In spite of the difference in clinical outcome, the gene expression pattern in children and adults with ALL is very similar and is primarily dependent on immunophenotype and cytogenetic aberrations. However, when age groups are compared, the expression patterns of infants and adults over 40 show a remarkable similarity. [source]

Novel mechanisms of gene disruption at the medulloblastoma isodicentric 17p11 breakpoint

Martin G. McCabe
Isodicentric 17q is the most commonly reported chromosomal abnormality in medulloblastomas. Its frequency suggests that genes disrupted in medulloblastoma formation may play a role in tumorigenesis. We have previously identified two chromosome 17 breakpoint at a 1 Mb resolution. Our aims were to accurately map the position of these breakpoints and to identify mechanisms of gene disruption at this site. CGH with a custom tiling path genomic BAC array of chromosome 17 enriched with fosmids at the breakpoint regions was used to analyze a series of 45 medulloblastomas and three medulloblastoma-derived cell lines. In total, 17 of 45 medulloblastomas had an isodicentric 17q. Two breakpoint regions were identified and their positions were mapped. The array identified a more complex arrangement at the breakpoint than has been reported previously using lower resolution BAC arrays. The patterns observed indicated that dicentric chromosome formation occurs both via nonallelic homologous recombination between palindromically arranged low copy repeats (the previously accepted mechanism) and by recombination between nonidentical sequences. In addition, novel alternative structural alterations, a homozygous deletion and a duplication, were identified within the chromosome breakpoint region in two cases. At the resolution of the array, these structural alterations spanned the same genes as cases with dicentric 17q formation, implying that the disruption of genes at the chromosome breakpoint itself may be of greater biological significance than has previously been suspected. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Identification of 2 putative critical segments of 17q gain in neuroblastoma through integrative genomics

Jo Vandesompele
Abstract Partial gain of chromosome arm 17q is the most frequent genetic change in neuroblastoma (NB) and constitutes the strongest independent genetic factor for adverse prognosis. It is assumed that 1 or more genes on 17q contribute to NB pathogenesis by a gene dosage effect. In the present study, we applied chromosome 17 tiling path BAC arrays on a panel of 69 primary tumors and 28 NB cell lines in order to reduce the current smallest region of gain and facilitate identification of candidate dosage sensitive genes. In all tumors and cell lines with 17q gain, large distal segments were consistently present in extra copies and no interstitial gains were observed. In addition to these large regions of distal gain with breakpoints proximal to coordinate 44.3 Mb (17q21.32), smaller regions of gain (distal to coordinate 60 Mb at 17q24.1) were found superimposed on the larger region in a minority of cases. Positional gene enrichment analysis for 17q genes overexpressed in NB showed that dosage sensitive NB oncogenes are most likely located in the gained region immediately distal to the most distal breakpoint of the 2 breakpoint regions. Interestingly, comparison of gene expression profiles between primary tumors and normal fetal adrenal neuroblasts revealed 2 gene clusters on chromosome 17q that are overexpressed in NB, i.e. a region on 17q21.32 immediately distal to the most distal breakpoint (in cases with single regions of gain) and 17q24.1, a region coinciding with breakpoints leading to superimposed gain. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

De novo monosomy 9p24.3-pter and trisomy 17q24.3-qter characterised by microarray comparative genomic hybridisation in a fetus with an increased nuchal translucency

Sophie Brisset
Abstract Objectives Increased nuchal translucency (NT) during the first trimester of pregnancy is a useful marker to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we report a prenatal case with molecular cytogenetic characterisation of an abnormal derivative chromosome 9 identified through NT. Methods Amniocentesis was performed because of an increased NT (4.4 mm) and showed an abnormal de novo 46,XX,add(9)(p24.3) karyotype. To characterise the origin of the small additional material on 9p, we performed a microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (microarray CGH) using a genomic DNA array providing an average of 1 Mb resolution. Results Microarray CGH showed a deletion of distal 9p and a trisomy of distal 17q. These results were confirmed by FISH analyses. Microarray CGH provided accurate information on the breakpoint regions and the size of both distal 9p deletion and distal 17q trisomy. The fetus was therefore a carrier of a de novo derivative chromosome 9 arising from a t(9;17)(p24.3;q24.3) translocation and generating a monosomy 9p24.3-pter and a trisomy 17q24.3-qter. Conclusion This case illustrates that microarray CGH is a rapid, powerful and sensitive technology to identify small de novo unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mouse testis,brain RNA-binding protein (TB-RBP): expression, purification and crystal X-ray diffraction

John M. Pascal
TB-RBP (testis,brain RNA-binding protein) is a mouse RNA-binding protein that controls the temporal and spatial expression of mRNA. Found most abundantly in brain and male germ cells in the testis, TB-RBP is known to suppress the translation of specific testicular and brain mRNAs as part of cell development. TB-RBP,mRNA complexes can bind microtubules and thereby facilitate RNA translocation. Translin is the human orthologue of TB-RBP which binds to single-stranded ends of DNA sequences in breakpoint regions of chromosomal translocations. TB-RBP/translin has been crystallized in space group P21212. The expression, purification, and crystallization of TB-RBP are described as well as preliminary X-ray diffraction data. The multimeric state of TB-RBP is addressed using dynamic light-scattering results. [source]

Analysis of two translocation breakpoints and identification of a negative regulatory element in patients with Rieger's syndrome

Dimitri G. Trembath
Abstract BACKGROUND Rieger's syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by eye, tooth, and umbilical anomalies. A gene responsible for Rieger's syndrome, PITX2, has previously been cloned using two patients with balanced translocations, t(4;16) and t(4;11), with breakpoints that lie near the gene, but which do not interrupt it. METHODS We sequenced both breakpoint regions on chromosome 4 and screened this area for novel genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine if PITX2 was still present on the 4:16 chromosome. Both the chromosome 16 and chromosome 11 breakpoints were cloned and sequenced using panhandle polymerase chain reaction (PHPCR). Transient transfection studies were performed to compare effects on a reporter gene between native chromosome 4 sequence and chromosome 11 sequence. RESULTS The region surrounding PITX2 on chromosome 4 is rich in repetitive elements, but no novel genes were identified. FISH demonstrated that PITX2 was intact on the 4:16 translocation chromosome. The PHPCR experiments demonstrated that the translocated regions of chromosomes 16 and 11 were repeat-rich, and transfection studies revealed a slight enhancer effect with the chromosome 4 sequence, and a strong silencer effect when the chromosome 11 sequence was present. CONCLUSIONS Given the lack of any novel genes near either breakpoint, changes in potential regulatory elements may be the best model to explain the loss of PITX2 expression in these patients and hence the Rieger's syndrome phenotype. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]