Breakfast Foods (breakfast + food)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


ABSTRACT Idli is a traditional fermented rice and black gram-based breakfast food of South India. Idli batter was prepared from soaking polished parboiled rice and decorticated black gram for 4 h at 30 1C in water. The soaked mass was ground to 0.5- to 0.7-mm particle size batter using wet grinder with adequate amount of water. The blend ratios of 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 (v/v) batter were allowed for fermentation (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h) adding 2% of salt. The idli batter parameters viz. bulk density, pH, percent total acidity, flow behavior index and consistency coefficient were studied for different fermentation times and blend ratios. The bulk density, pH and percentage total acidity of batter during different fermentation times and blend ratios ranged between 0.94 and 0.59 g/cm3, 5.9 and 4.1 and 0.443 and 0.910%, respectively. The consistency coefficient at any fermentation time shows increasing trend as the rice to black gram ratio increased. The flow behavior index indicated strong non-Newtonian fluid behavior (pseudoplastic) of idli batter at different fermentation times and blend ratios. [source]

Hash browns for breakfast, baked potatoes for dinner: Changes in food attitudes as a function of motivation and context

Shelley N. Aikman
Two studies investigated whether participants' motivational state and the context in which attitude reports are made influence food attitudes. Specifically, these studies examined whether hunger and the time-typicality of foods (i.e. match or mismatch between the time when a food is typically eaten and the time the attitude is reported) interact to influence reported attitudes. Study 1 suggests that hunger leads to more positive attitudes toward foods that are typically eaten at the time the attitude report is made (e.g. breakfast foods in morning) compared to foods not typically eaten at the time the attitude report is made (e.g. breakfast foods in evening). Study 2 replicates this time-typical effect of hunger and suggests that time-typical experience rather than general experience with foods is important for hunger induced attitude change. By demonstrating that food attitudes are influenced by motivational states and the match between when the attitude is reported and when it is typically encountered, the present studies extend previous attitude theory and research that has identified other contextual factors that influence attitude reports. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Nutrient intake of children consuming breakfast at school clubs in London

S. Waddington
Introduction: Research into the effectiveness of breakfast clubs has most commonly focused on social benefits to the child and school, such as improved attendance at school, punctuality and improved concentration levels in the classroom (UEA, 2002). Limited research has been undertaken to investigate the nutritional value of the breakfast foods on offer, or the nutritional content of foods consumed by the child. The aim of this study was to find out what children eat and drink at school breakfast clubs in London. Method: The sample population consisted of 98 children (39 boys and 59 girls) aged 5,11 years attending four primary schools in London. Data were collected about the food on offer and the pricing of different food items, demographic data about the children attending the school club, qualitative data on food preferences and a weighed food intake on two different occasions for each child. Statistical tests (anova and chi-squared tests) and nutrient analysis using Comp-Eat were carried out. Results: The average nutrient content of the breakfast meal consumed was 330 kcal, 12 g protein, 11 g fat and 49 g carbohydrate. Variation was seen between schools. Generally intakes of vitamin C, calcium and sodium were high and intakes of iron were average. anova between schools showed statistically significant results for a number of nutrients , protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, sugar, calcium and sodium. Boys were consuming statistically significantly more fat, saturated fat and calcium than girls. One in five children did not have a drink at breakfast. Menu options and pricing of food items varied between the schools and it was noted to influence children's food choice and consumption. Mean energy intakes equated to 18% of the estimated average requirement for boys and 20% for girls, with girls consuming more carbohydrate and sugar, and boys consumed more fat and protein. Discussion: The findings suggest that careful planning of menus should be undertaken with cereal-based options being offered daily and cooked options only occasionally, and that healthier eating messages can be incorporated effectively into school clubs when supported by the whole school approach to healthy eating. Conclusion: Food offered at school breakfast clubs can contribute substantial nutrients to a child's daily intake and therefore a varied menu, and guided food choices, should be developed incorporating healthier nutrient rich options. This work was supported by Brooke Bond working in partnership with the BDA Community Nutrition Group. [source]

An Apple is More Than Just a Fruit: Cross-Classification in Children's Concepts

Simone P. Nguyen
This research explored children's use of multiple forms of conceptual organization. Experiments 1 and 2 examined script (e.g., breakfast foods), taxonomic (e.g., fruits), and evaluative (e.g., junk foods) categories. The results showed that 4- and 7-year-olds categorized foods into all 3 categories, and 3-year-olds used both taxonomic and script categories. Experiment 3 found that 4- and 7-year-olds can cross-classify items, that is, classify a single food into both taxonomic and script categories. Experiments 4 and 5 showed that 7-year-olds and to some degree 4-year-olds can selectively use categories to make inductive inferences about foods. The results reveal that children do not rely solely on one form of categorization but are flexible in the types of categories they form and use. [source]