Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Abundance

  • absolute abundance
  • algal abundance
  • animal abundance
  • ant abundance
  • aphid abundance
  • arthropod abundance
  • bacterial abundance
  • beetle abundance
  • bird abundance
  • butterfly abundance
  • cell abundance
  • chemical abundance
  • cowbird abundance
  • decreased abundance
  • deer abundance
  • dolphin abundance
  • dung beetle abundance
  • element abundance
  • elemental abundance
  • elephant abundance
  • estimated abundance
  • estimating abundance
  • fe abundance
  • fish abundance
  • food abundance
  • fruit abundance
  • gene abundance
  • greater abundance
  • herbivore abundance
  • high abundance
  • highest abundance
  • host abundance
  • increased abundance
  • increasing abundance
  • individual abundance
  • insect abundance
  • invertebrate abundance
  • ion abundance
  • isotopic abundance
  • larval abundance
  • liana abundance
  • local abundance
  • low abundance
  • lower abundance
  • lower relative abundance
  • macroinvertebrate abundance
  • mammal abundance
  • maximum abundance
  • mean abundance
  • microbial abundance
  • mrna abundance
  • natural abundance
  • numerical abundance
  • parasite abundance
  • peak abundance
  • periphyton abundance
  • phytoplankton abundance
  • plant abundance
  • pollinator abundance
  • population abundance
  • predator abundance
  • predicted abundance
  • prey abundance
  • protein abundance
  • reduced abundance
  • regional abundance
  • relative abundance
  • relative species abundance
  • resource abundance
  • rodent abundance
  • seasonal abundance
  • seed abundance
  • small mammal abundance
  • solar abundance
  • species abundance
  • species relative abundance
  • spider abundance
  • stock abundance
  • total abundance
  • transcript abundance
  • tree abundance
  • very low abundance
  • vole abundance
  • zooplankton abundance

  • Terms modified by Abundance

  • abundance analysis
  • abundance change
  • abundance data
  • abundance decreased
  • abundance distribution
  • abundance estimate
  • abundance estimation
  • abundance increase
  • abundance index
  • abundance level
  • abundance measurement
  • abundance models
  • abundance pattern
  • abundance prediction
  • abundance profile
  • abundance protein
  • abundance ratio
  • abundance structure
  • abundance trend
  • abundance value

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2005
    Merrill A. Peterson
    Abstract Most studies of reinforcement have focused on the evolution of either female choice or male mating cues, following the long-held view in sexual selection theory that mating mastakes are typically more costly for females than for males. However, factors such as conspecific sperm precedence can buffer females against the cost of mating mistakes, suggesting that in some hybrid zones mating mistakes may be more costly for males than for females. Thus, the historical bias in reinforcement research may underestimate its frequency. In this study, we present evidence that reinforcement has driven the evolution of male choice in a hybrid zone between teh highly promiscuous lealf beetles chyrsochus cobaltinus and C. auratus, the hybrids of which have extremely low fitness. In addition, there is evidence for male choice in these beetles and that male mating mistakes may be costly, due to reduced opportunities to mate with conspecific females. The present study combines laboratory and field methods to quantify the strenght of sexual isolation, test the hypothesis of reproductive character displacement, and assess the link between relative abundance and the strenght of selection against hybridization. We document that, while sexual isolation is weak, it is sufficient to produce positive assortative mating. In addtion, reproductive character displacement was only detected in the relatively rare species. The strong postzygotic barriers in this system are sufficient to generate the bimodality that characterizes this hybrid zone, but the weak sexual isolation is not, calling into question whether strong prezygotic isolation is necessary for the maintenance of bimodality. Growing evidence that the cost of mating mistakes is sufficient to shape the evolution of male mate choice suggests that the reinforecement of male mate choice may prove to be a widespread occurrence. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Agan, J. C. & Lehman, R. L. Department of Physical and Life Sciences, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi 6300 Ocean Dr., Corpus Christi, TX 78412 USA Benthic algal sampling from high and low energy zones at a selected site on the south jetty at Port Aransas, Texas was completed between April 1999 and February 2000. Species composition and seasonal periodicity in relation to temperature and salinity fluctuations were determined. Dominant plants throughout the year included Bryocladia cuspidata, Bryocladia thyrsigera, Gelidium pusillum, Centroceras clavulatum, Ulva fasciata, and Padina gymnospora. The Rhodophyta dominated species coverage, along with biomass accumulation, although Chlorophyta species accrued the greatest biomass on the high energy side in April and June sampling. Chlorophyta are important to benthic coverage and biomass in the shallowest of waters, despite being fewer in species richness. Phaeophyta species including Petalonia fascia, Hincksia mitchelliae, and Ectocarpus siliculosus were found only during the cooler months. Padina gymnospora was the one exception as it was collected year-round. Results indicate that a greater Rhodophyta abundance was found on the channel side (low energy), where as, the surf side (high energy) contained a greater Chlorophyta abundance. Phaeophyta abundance for both high and low energy sites were comparable possibly due to the greater depth of water in which they are located. Little variance occurred in average biomass accumulation throughout the year. Highest biomass was in August (216.613g dry weight) with lowest occurring in April (107.4205g dry weight). [source]


    Article first published online: 9 OCT 200
    Agan, J. C. & Lehman, R. L. Department of Physical and Life Sciences, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi 6300 Ocean Dr., Corpus Christi, TX 78412 USA Benthic algal sampling from high and low energy zones at a selected site on the south jetty at Port Aransas, Texas was completed between April 1999 and February 2000. Species composition and seasonal periodicity in relation to temperature and salinity fluctuations were determined. Dominant plants throughout the year included Bryocladia cuspidata, Bryocladia thyrsigera, Gelidium pusillum, Centroceras clavulatum, Ulva fasciata, and Padina gymnospora. The Rhodophyta dominated species coverage, along with biomass accumulation, although Chlorophyta species accrued the greatest biomass on the high energy side in April and June sampling. Chlorophyta are important to benthic coverage and biomass in the shallowest of waters, despite being fewer in species richness. Phaeophyta species including Petalonia fascia, Hincksia mitchelliae, and Ectocarpus siliculosus were found only during the cooler months. Padina gymnospora was the one exception as it was collected year-round. Results indicate that a greater Rhodophyta abundance was found on the channel side (low energy), where as, the surf side (high energy) contained a greater Chlorophyta abundance. Phaeophyta abundance for both high and low energy sites were comparable possibly due to the greater depth of water in which they are located. Little variance occurred in average biomass accumulation throughout the year. Highest biomass was in August (216.613g dry weight) with lowest occurring in April (107.4205g dry weight). [source]


    Brian D. Smith
    Abstract Independent observer teams made concurrent counts of Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris and Ganges River dolphins Platanista gangetica gangetica in mangrove channels of the Sundarbans Delta in Bangladesh. These counts were corrected for missed groups using mark-recapture models. For Irrawaddy dolphins, a stratified Lincoln-Petersen model, which incorporated group size and sighting conditions as covariates, and a Huggins conditional likelihood model, which averaged models that individually incorporated group size, sighting conditions, and channel width as covariates, generated abundance estimates of 397 individuals (CV = 10.2%) and 451 individuals (CV = 9.6%), respectively. For Ganges River dolphins, a stratified Lincoln-Petersen model, which incorporated group size as a covariate, and a Huggins conditional likelihood model, which averaged the same models described above, generated abundance estimates of 196 individuals (CV = 12.7%) and 225 individuals (CV = 12.6%), respectively. Although the estimates for both models were relatively close, the analytical advantages of the Huggins models probably outweigh those of the Lincoln-Petersen models. However, the latter should be considered appropriate when simplicity is a priority. This study found that waterways of the Sundarbans support significant numbers of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins, especially compared to other areas where the species have been surveyed. [source]


    Andrew M. Gormley
    Abstract Capture-recapture techniques have been extensively used to estimate survival rates of Hector's dolphins at Banks Peninsula, but not abundance. We analyzed nine seasons of photo-identification data using a model-fitting approach in the computer program MARK, and then used MARK's estimates of capture probabilities to calculate the abundance of distinctive individuals. We extrapolated these estimates to include unmarked individuals using five seasons of data on the proportion of identifiable individuals in this population, obtained from "random photography." This capture-recapture approach suggests a 1996 population of about 1,100 (CV = 0.21). This is very similar to the 1997 line-transect estimate of about 900 (CV = 0.28), especially considering that the two techniques do not necessarily measure the same thing. An important advantage of the capture-recapture approach stems from the inherent versatility of photo-ID data. If the sampling design is appropriate, an unbiased abundance estimate can be achieved as a spin-off from work directed at other questions. However, in our view, line-transect estimates are easier to interpret because the sampling design is explicit. [source]


    Valerie D. Moulton
    Abstract This study investigates how densities of ringed seals were affected by construction and oil production activities at Northstar, an artificial island built in the nearshore Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Intensive and replicated aerial surveys of seals on landfast ice were conducted during six spring seasons: for three seasons before island construction began (1997,1999); after a winter of intensive island construction (2000); and after more limited construction plus drilling (2001) and drilling plus oil production (2002). A Poisson regression model was used to examine seal densities relative to distance from Northstar after allowance for environmental covariates. Post hoc power analysis indicated that the study design and Poisson regression approach had high power to detect small-scale changes in seal densities near Northstar if such changes had occurred. However, seal densities during spring were not significantly affected by proximity to Northstar in 2000,2002. Habitat, temporal, and weather factors did have significant effects on seal densities. This study shows that effects of the Northstar oil development on local distribution of basking ringed seals are no more than slight, and are small relative to the effects of natural environmental factors. An understanding of environmental effects is essential when assessing potential impacts of industrial activity on ringed seals. [source]


    Andrew J. Read
    We conducted a mark-recapture survey of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the bays, sounds, and estuaries of North Carolina during July 2000, using photographic identification techniques. During this survey we took 7,682 photographs of dolphins and, of these, 3,457 images were of sufficient quality for analysis. We identified 306 dolphins from distinctive nicks and notches on their dorsal fins. Eighry-six dolphins were photographed on more than one occasion during the course of the survey; one dolphin was photographed on four separate days. We then applied the results of our photographic analyses to several mark-recapture models and examined potential violations of the assumptions of these models, including an unexpected correlation between photo quality and mark distinctiveness. Our analysis suggests that our results are robusr to possible violations of these assumptions. The resulting estimates were then scaled to account for the proportion (0.46) of unmarked dolphins in the population. Our best estimate of the number of dolphins present in the inshore waters of North Carolina during July 2000 is 1,033 with a 95% Confidence Interval of 860,1,266 (CV = 0.099). Most dolphins were found in the northern part of the study area, which includes the second largest estuarine system in the United States. [source]


    Janice M. Waite


    ABSTRACT. The population dynamics in a food chain are derived from a sequence of short-run equilibria of an ecosystem where predator species demand prey biomass, supply own biomass to their predators and are assumed to behave as if they maximize net biomass intake. Introducing prices as scarcity indicators for the biomass of each species enables us to determine a short-run ecosystem equilibrium guided by prices. Equilibrium regimes differ with respect to their mix of zero-priced (= abundant) and positive-priced (= scarce) species. The population dynamics turn out to vary with the prevailing equilibrium regime. Our analysis yields a richer and more complex population dynamics than the traditional predator-prey dynamics of the Lotka-Volterra type. [source]

    Remarkable Amphibian Biomass and Abundance in an Isolated Wetland: Implications for Wetland Conservation

    biodiversidad; declinación de anfibios; recuperación de humedales sequía; uso de suelo Abstract:,Despite the continuing loss of wetland habitats and associated declines in amphibian populations, attempts to translate wetland losses into measurable losses to ecosystems have been lacking. We estimated the potential productivity from the amphibian community that would be compromised by the loss of a single isolated wetland that has been protected from most industrial, agricultural, and urban impacts for the past 54 years. We used a continuous drift fence at Ellenton Bay, a 10-ha freshwater wetland on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina (U.S.A.), to sample all amphibians for 1 year following a prolonged drought. Despite intensive agricultural use of the land surrounding Ellenton Bay prior to 1951, we documented 24 species and remarkably high numbers and biomass of juvenile amphibians (>360,000 individuals; >1,400 kg) produced during one breeding season. Anurans (17 species) were more abundant than salamanders (7 species), comprising 96.4% of individual captures. Most (95.9%) of the amphibian biomass came from 232095 individuals of a single species of anuran (southern leopard frog[Rana sphenocephala]). Our results revealed the resilience of an amphibian community to natural stressors and historical habitat alteration and the potential magnitude of biomass and energy transfer from isolated wetlands to surrounding terrestrial habitat. We attributed the postdrought success of amphibians to a combination of adult longevity (often >5 years), a reduction in predator abundance, and an abundance of larval food resources. Likewise, the increase of forest cover around Ellenton Bay from <20% in 1951 to >60% in 2001 probably contributed to the long-term persistence of amphibians at this site. Our findings provide an optimistic counterpoint to the issue of the global decline of biological diversity by demonstrating that conservation efforts can mitigate historical habitat degradation. Resumen:,A pesar de la pérdida de hábitats de humedales y las declinaciones asociadas de poblaciones de anfibios, se han realizado pocos intentos para traducir las pérdidas de humedales en pérdidas mensurables en los ecosistemas. Estimamos la productividad potencial de la comunidad de anfibios que se afectaría por la pérdida de un humedal aislado que ha estado protegido de los impactos industriales, agrícolas y urbanos durante los últimos 54 años. Utilizamos un cerco de desvío en la Bahía Ellentonn, un humedal dulceacuícola de 10 ha en el Río Savannah, cerca de Aiken, Carolina del Sur (E.U.A.), para muestrear todos los anfibios durante 1 año después de una sequía prolongada. A pesar del intensivo uso agrícola del suelo alrededor de la Bahía Ellenton antes de 1951, documentamos 24 especies y números y biomasa de anfibios juveniles notablemente altos (>360,000 individuos; >1,400 kg) en una temporada reproductiva. Los anuros (17 especies) fueron más abundantes que las salamandras (7 especies), y comprendieron 96.4% de las capturas individuales. La mayor parte (95.9%) de la biomasa provino de 232095 individuos de una sola especie de anuro (Rana sphenocephala). Nuestros resultados revelaron que la resiliencia de la comunidad de anfibios a los estresantes naturales y a la alteración histórica del hábitat y la magnitud potencial de la transferencia de biomasa y energía desde los humedales aislados hacia el hábitat terrestre circundante. Atribuimos el éxito post-sequía de los anfibios a una combinación de longevidad de adultos (a menudo > 5 años), la reducción de la abundancia de depredadores y la abundancia de recursos alimenticios para las larvas. Asimismo, el incremento de la cobertura forestal alrededor de la Bahía Ellerton de < 20% en 1951 a > 60% en 2001 probablemente contribuyó a la persistencia de los anfibios a largo plazo en este sitio. Nuestros hallazgos proporcionan un contrapunto optimista al tema de la declinación global de la diversidad biológica al demostrar que los esfuerzos de conservación pueden mitigar a la degradación histórica del hábitat. [source]

    Local Gradients of Cowbird Abundance and Parasitism Relative to Livestock Grazing in a Western Landscape

    Christopher B. Goguen
    We predicted that both cowbird abundance and parasitism rates of vireo nests would decrease with increasing distance from active livestock grazing, and that the nesting success of vireos would increase. We measured cowbird abundance and host density and located and monitored vireo nests in pinyon-juniper and mixed-conifer habitats that ranged from actively grazed to isolated from livestock grazing by up to 12 km. Cowbird abundance declined with distance from active livestock grazing and was not related to host density or habitat type. Brood parasitism levels of vireo nests (n = 182) decreased from> 80% in actively grazed habitats to 33% in habitats that were 8,12 km from active grazing but did not vary by habitat type or distance to forest edge. Vireo nesting success was higher in mixed-conifer habitat than in pinyon-juniper but was unrelated to distance from active livestock grazing. Nest losses due to parasitism declined with distance from active livestock grazing. Our results suggest that cowbird abundance and parasitism rates of hosts may be distributed as a declining gradient based on distance from cowbird feeding sites and that isolation from feeding sites can reduce the effects of parasitism on host populations. These findings provide support for management techniques that propose to reduce local cowbird numbers and parasitism levels by manipulating the distribution of cowbird feeding sites. The presence of parasitized nests> 8 km from active livestock grazing suggests that, in some regions, management efforts may need to occur at larger scales than previously realized. Resumen: Estudiamos patrones locales de abundancia del tordo cabeza café (Molothrus ater), las tasas de parasitismo y el éxito de nidada de un hospedero común, el vireo (Vireo plumbeus), en relación con la distribución del pastoreo en una región poco desarrollada del noreste de Nuevo México, entre 1992 y 1997. Pronosticamos que tanto la abundancia del tordo, como las tasas de parasitismo de nidos de vireo disminuirían con un incremento en la distancia a las zonas de pastoreo activo de ganado y el éxito de nidada de vireos incrementaría. Medimos la abundancia de tordos y la densidad de hospederos y localizamos y monitoreamos los nidos de vireos en hábitats de pino-cedro y de coníferas mixtas que variaron desde activamente pastoreadas hasta sitios distanciados del pastoreo hasta por 12 km. La abundancia de los tordos disminuyó con la distancia de las zonas de pastoreo activo de ganado y no estuvo relacionada con la densidad de hospederos o el tipo de hábitat. Los niveles de parasitismo de las nidadas del vireo (n = 182) disminuyeron de> 80% en hábitats activamente pastoreados a 33% en hábitats que estuvieron de 8 a 12 km de distancia de los sitios de pastoreo activo, pero no variaron con el tipo de hábitat ni la distancia al borde del bosque. El éxito de nidada de vireos fue mayor en el hábitat mixto de coníferas que en el hábitat de pino-cedro, pero no estuvo relacionado con la distancia al sitio de pastoreo. Las pérdidas debidas al parasitismo disminuyeron con la distancia al sitio activo de pastoreo. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la abundancia de tordos y las tasas de parasitismo de hospederos podría estar distribuida en forma de un gradiente en descenso basado en la distancia a los sitios de alimentación de los tordos y a que el aislamiento de los sitios de alimentación puede reducir los efectos del parasitismo de las poblaciones de hospederos. Estos resultados apoyan las técnicas de manejo que proponen la reducción local de números de tordos y los niveles de parasitismo al manipular la distribución de sitios de alimentación de tordos. La presencia de nidos parasitados> 8 km de sitios con pastoreo activo sugiere que, en algunas regiones, los esfuerzos de manejo deben ocurrir a escalas mayores a lo que anteriormente se pensaba. [source]

    Latitudinal patterns in abundance and life-history traits of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis on South American sandy beaches

    Omar Defeo
    ABSTRACT Demographic and life-history attributes of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis were analysed along 2700 km of the Atlantic coast of South America, including sandy beaches at the southernmost limit (Uruguay) and at the core of its geographical range (Brazil). Population features varied markedly within this range and exhibited systematic geographical patterns of variation. Abundance significantly increased from temperate to subtropical beaches, and the same held true for the asymptotic weight of males. Conversely, length at maturity and asymptotic weight of females increased from subtropical to temperate beaches, being inversely related to sea water temperature. Macroecological patterns in abundance and body weight showed the first large-scale evidence of scaling of population density to body size for a sandy beach population. Mortality rates (both sexes) followed a nonlinear increase from low-density temperate beaches to high-density subtropical beaches. The effect of habitat quality and availability could explain discontinuities in the species distribution within its range, and also differential responses in life-history attributes at a local scale. Asymmetries and converse latitudinal trends between sexes suggest that there is not a single general factor determining large-scale patterns in life-history traits of this species. Our results reinforce the view that density-dependent and environmental factors operating together regulate sandy beach populations. The need to develop macroecological studies in sandy beach ecology is highlighted, as knowledge acquired from local to large spatial scales throws light on population structure and regulation mechanisms. [source]

    Response of collembolan communities to land-use change and grassland succession

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2007
    Matthieu Chauvat
    This study focuses on the long-term changes of collembolan communities occurring after the conversion of arable land to managed grassland. We analysed collembolan communities at grassland sites of different age that had been gradually converted over a period of 50 yr. Abundance and biomass responded rapidly and very positively to the conversion of arable land to grassland, while species richness was not affected. Collembolan assemblages changed only little during grassland maturation. The impact of land-use change on community structure was more obvious at the functional level because the colonization processes observed in our study mostly relied on hemiedaphic species. Vegetation and soil parameters were good predictors of collembolan community structure during development of managed grassland. The present study demonstrated that past landscape patterns and processes like land-use conversion and subsequent succession had a considerable impact on the present day pattern of species richness and community composition of Collembola within a landscape. Our results strongly differ from those obtained for other invertebrate groups, highlighting on the one hand the very diverse reactions of invertebrates to a common factor, and on the other hand the need to survey more than one taxa in order to draw conclusions on effects of land-use change on faunistic communities. [source]

    Abundance , occupancy relationships in macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches: patterns and mechanisms

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2004
    Matthew T. Frost
    We studied the relationship between abundance and extent of occupancy of 158 species of macrofauna inhabiting 66 sandy beaches around the coast of Great Britain. We also used these data to test the predictions of two hypotheses proposed to explain positive abundance-occupancy relationships. We found a strong positive relationship between abundance and extent of occupancy; this pattern was apparent in taxonomic subsets of organisms which have contrasting reproductive and dispersal traits such as planktotrophic/lecithotrophic development in the plankton vs brood development under parental care. Moreover, the abundance-occupancy relationships in these taxonomic subsets had statistically indistinguishable slopes, and elevation. We propose that this lends support to the notion that differences in population structure such as the tendency to form metapopulations may not be primary determinants of the abundance-occupancy pattern in these taxa as proposed by the rescue/metapopulation hypothesis. To test the predictions of the niche-breadth hypothesis we derived values describing the range of sediment grain-sizes exploited by members of two taxonomic subgroups: amphipods and bivalves. We found a weak, statistically non-significant relationship between this niche-breadth measure and occupancy in bivalves which have been shown to respond to grain-size in previous studies, however this was negated after correction for possible artefacts of sampling effort. All other relationships between abundance or occupancy and grain-size range were non-significant. The consistency of the demonstrated abundance-occupancy relationship with those demonstrated in other studies of primarily terrestrial fauna indicates some shared mechanistic explanation, but our data fail to provide support for the two mechanistic hypotheses investigated. [source]

    Abundance and diversity of heterotrophic bacterial cells assimilating phosphate in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Krista Longnecker
    Summary Microorganisms play key roles in the cycles of carbon and nutrients in the ocean, and identifying the extent to which specific taxa contribute to these cycles will establish their ecological function. We examined the use of 33P-phosphate to identify heterotrophic bacteria actively involved in the cycling of phosphate, an essential inorganic nutrient. Seawater from the sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean was incubated with 33P-phosphate and analysed by microautoradiography to determine the proportion and diversity of the bacterial community-assimilating phosphate. Complementary incubations using 3H-leucine and 3H-thymidine were also conducted. We found that a higher proportion of total heterotrophic bacterial cells in surface water samples assimilated phosphate compared with leucine or thymidine. Bacteria from all of the phylogenetic groups we identified by CARD-FISH were able to assimilate phosphate, although the abundances of cells within each group did not scale directly with the number found to assimilate phosphate. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Cytophaga -like cells assimilated phosphate compared with leucine or thymidine. Our results suggest that a greater proportion of bacterial cells in surface waters are actively participating in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus, and possibly other elements, than is currently estimated through the use of 3H-leucine or 3H-thymidine. [source]

    Abundance and activity of Chloroflexi -type SAR202 bacterioplankton in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the (sub)tropical Atlantic

    Marta M. Varela
    Summary The contribution of Chloroflexi -type SAR202 cells to total picoplankton and bacterial abundance and uptake of d - and l -aspartic acids (Asp) was determined in the different meso- and bathypelagic water masses of the (sub)tropical Atlantic (from 35°N to 5°S). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the overall abundance of SAR202 was , 1 × 103 cells ml,1 in subsurface waters (100 m layer), increasing in the mesopelagic zone to 3 × 103 cells ml,1 and remaining fairly constant down to 4000 m depth. Overall, the percentage of total picoplankton identified as SAR202 increased from < 1% in subsurface waters to 10,20% in the bathypelagic waters. On average, members of the SAR202 cluster accounted for about 30% of the Bacteria in the bathypelagic waters, whereas in the mesopelagic and subsurface waters, SAR202 cells contributed < 5% to total bacterial abundance. The ratio of d -Asp : l -Asp uptake by the bulk picoplankton community increased from the subsurface layer (d -Asp : l -Asp uptake ratio , 0.03) to the deeper layers reaching a ratio of ,1 at 4000 m depth. Combining FISH with microautoradiography to determine the proportion of SAR202 cells taking up d -Asp versus l -Asp, we found that ,,30% of the SAR202 cells were taking up l -Asp throughout the water column while d -Asp was essentially not taken up by SAR202. This d -Asp : l -Asp uptake pattern of SAR202 cells is in contrast to that of the bulk bacterial and crenarchaeal community in the bathypelagic ocean, both sustaining a higher fraction of d -Asp-positive cells than l -Asp-positive cells. Thus, although the Chloroflexi -type SAR202 constitutes a major bathypelagic bacterial cluster, it does not contribute to the large fraction of d -Asp utilizing prokaryotic community in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the North Atlantic, but rather utilizes preferentially l -amino acids. [source]

    Abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea communities of an alkaline sandy loam

    Ju-pei Shen
    Summary The abundance and composition of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) communities under different long-term (17 years) fertilization practices were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A sandy loam with pH (H2O) ranging from 8.3 to 8.7 was sampled in years 2006 and 2007, including seven fertilization treatments of control without fertilizers (CK), those with combinations of fertilizer nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K): NP, NK, PK and NPK, half chemical fertilizers NPK plus half organic manure (1/2OMN) and organic manure (OM). The highest bacterial amoA gene copy numbers were found in those treatments receiving N fertilizer. The archaeal amoA gene copy numbers ranging from 1.54 × 107 to 4.25 × 107 per gram of dry soil were significantly higher than those of bacterial amoA genes, ranging from 1.24 × 105 to 2.79 × 106 per gram of dry soil, which indicated a potential role of AOA in nitrification. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria abundance had significant correlations with soil pH and potential nitrification rates. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns revealed that the fertilization resulted in an obvious change of the AOB community, while no significant change of the AOA community was observed among different treatments. Phylogenetic analysis showed a dominance of Nitrosospira -like sequences, while three bands were affiliated with the Nitrosomonas genus. All AOA sequences fell within cluster S (soil origin) and cluster M (marine and sediment origin). These results suggest that long-term fertilization had a significant impact on AOB abundance and composition, while minimal on AOA in the alkaline soil. [source]

    Abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes in wastewater lagoons at cattle feedlots with different antibiotic use strategies

    Nicholas Peak
    Summary The abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tet(B) and tet(L), were quantified over time in wastewater lagoons at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) to assess how feedlot operation affects resistance genes in downstream surface waters. Eight lagoons at five cattle feedlots in the Midwestern United States were monitored for 6 months. Resistance and 16S-rRNA gene abundances were quantified using real-time PCR, and physicochemical lagoon conditions, tetracycline levels, and other factors (e.g. feedlot size and weather conditions) were monitored over time. Lagoons were sorted according to antibiotic use practice at each site, and designated as ,no-use', ,mixed-use' or ,high-use' for comparison. High-use lagoons had significantly higher detected resistance gene levels (tetR; 2.8 × 106 copies ml,1) relative to no-use lagoons (5.1 × 103 copies ml,1; P < 0.01) and mixed-use lagoons (7.3 × 105 copies ml,1; P = 0.076). Bivariate correlation analysis on pooled data (n = 54) confirmed that tetR level strongly correlated with feedlot area (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) and ,total' bacterial 16S-rRNA gene level in each lagoon (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), which are both characteristic of large CAFOs. tet(M) was the most commonly detected gene, both in absolute number and normalized to 16S-rRNA gene level, although tet(O), tet(Q) and tet(W) levels were also high in the mixed and high-use lagoons. Finally, resistance gene levels were highly seasonal with abundances being 10,100 times greater in the autumn versus the summer. Results show that antibiotic use strategy strongly affects both the abundance and seasonal distribution of resistance genes in associated lagoons, which has implications on water quality and feedlot management practices. [source]

    Abundance of intrinsic disorder in SV-IV, a multifunctional androgen-dependent protein secreted from rat seminal vesicle

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 4 2008
    Silvia Vilasi
    The potent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and procoagulant properties of protein no. 4 secreted from the rat seminal vesicle epithelium (SV-IV) have previously been found to be modulated by a supramolecular monomer,trimer equilibrium. More structural details that integrate experimental data into a predictive framework have recently been reported. Unfortunately, homology modelling and fold-recognition strategies were not successful in creating a theoretical model of the structural organization of SV-IV. It was inferred that the global structure of SV-IV is not similar to that of any protein of known three-dimensional structure. Reversing the classical approach to the sequence,structure,function paradigm, in this paper we report novel information obtained by comparing the physicochemical parameters of SV-IV with two datasets composed of intrinsically unfolded and ideally globular proteins. In addition, we analyse the SV-IV sequence by several publicly available disorder-oriented predictors. Overall, disorder predictions and a re-examination of existing experimental data strongly suggest that SV-IV needs large plasticity to efficiently interact with the different targets that characterize its multifaceted biological function, and should therefore be better classified as an intrinsically disordered protein. [source]

    Abundance, diversity, and activity of microbial assemblages associated with coral reef fish guts and feces

    Steven Smriga
    Abstract Feces and distal gut contents were collected from three coral reef fish species. Bacteria cell abundances, as determined via epifluorescence microscopy, ranged two orders of magnitude among the fishes. Mass-specific and apparent cell-specific hydrolytic enzyme activities in feces from Chlorurus sordidus were very high, suggesting that endogenous fish enzymes were egested into feces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of 16S rRNA genes were more similar among multiple individuals of the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans than among individuals of the parrotfish C. sordidus or the snapper Lutjanus bohar. Analyses of feces-derived 16S rRNA gene clones revealed that at least five bacterial phyla were present in A. nigricans and that Vibrionaceae comprised 10% of the clones. Meanwhile, C. sordidus contained at least five phyla and L. bohar three, but Vibrionaceae comprised 71% and 76% of the clones, respectively. Many sequences clustered phylogenetically to cultured Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium spp. including Vibrio ponticus and Photobacterium damselae. Other Vibrionaceae -like sequences comprised a distinct phylogenetic group that may represent the presence of ,feces-specific' bacteria. The observed differences among fishes may reflect native gut microbiota and/or bacterial assemblages associated with ingested prey. [source]

    Analysis of the trophy sport fishery for the speckled peacock bass in the Rio Negro River, Brazil

    M. H. HOLLEY
    Abstract, The middle portion of the Rio Negro River in Brazil near the equator supports a popular recreational sport fishery for speckled peacock bass, Cichla temensis (Humboldt). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fishing mortality on this population. Fish were collected from sport-fishing (n = 72) and commercial (n = 103) catches and otoliths were aged to estimate longevity, growth and natural mortality. Recreational anglers in this region seek to catch, then release, larger speckled peacock bass; and fish larger than 62 cm standard length (SL) (about 4.5 kg) served as a bench mark to assess the potential impact of subsistence and commercial harvest on the abundance of larger fish in the sport fishery. Time of opaque band formation on otoliths generally coincided with the dry season (November to April); these bands appeared to form once per year, but formation was highly variable. Speckled peacock bass grew to 62 cm SL on average in 6.4 years, but some fish obtained this size in 4,5 years. Maximum age was 9 years, but most fish were less than 7 years. Instantaneous annual natural mortality (M) estimated from maximum size, longevity and growth ranged from 0.19 to 0.44. Simulation modelling predicted that exploitation rates of fish >25 cm SL similar to the estimated natural mortality rates would reduce the abundance of fish >62 cm by 67,89% compared with no harvest. Even modest exploitation rates of 5% and 10% would result in approximately 30,50% reduction, respectively, of these larger fish. Abundance of large speckled peacock bass that sustains the sport fishery is susceptible to low rates of exploitation in this remote region of Brazil. [source]

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations in the abundance and biomass of Neocalanus plumchrus in continental slope waters off Oregon

    Abstract Seasonal and inter-annual variability in the abundance and biomass of copepodid stages of the sub-arctic oceanic copepod, Neocalanus plumchrus, was studied during the January,May growth season, using an 11-yr time series of zooplankton samples collected over the upper 100 m of the water column. Abundance and biomass peaks occur in March/April. Abundance and biomass of N. plumchrus were significantly negatively correlated with sea surface temperature and significantly positively correlated with sea surface chlorophyll a, salinity, and density above the pycnocline. The seasonal integrated abundance and biomass of N. plumchrus declined during the warm years (2003,05), and increased during the cold years (2006,08). The date when 50% of the population had passed through stage C5 was significantly negatively correlated with temperature , earlier in warm years and later in cold years. In 3 yr (2003, 2007 and 2008), a second cohort appeared in mid-May, as indicated by the presence of stages C1 and C2 in the samples. Unusually high abundances of N. plumchrus in the spring of 2007 and 2008 were associated with cool ocean temperatures and an early spring transition in the NCC ecosystem, suggesting that the NCC ecosystem has returned to a cold phase. We discuss the merits of a hypothesis that the N. plumchrus population observed off Oregon is a local population as opposed to one that is expatriated from the Gulf of Alaska. [source]

    Ecological responses to nutrients in streams and rivers of the Colorado mountains and foothills

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2010
    Summary 1. Abundance and composition of periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates were treated as potential nutrient response variables for 74 streams in montane Colorado. The streams ranged from unenriched to mildly enriched with nutrients (N, P). 2. The study showed no meaningful relationship between periphyton biomass accumulation and concentrations of total or dissolved forms of nitrogen or phosphorus. Nutrient concentrations were also unrelated to periphyton and macroinvertebrate richness, diversity and community composition. Macroinvertebrate communities did, however, show a strong positive relationship to periphyton abundance. 3. A positive response of periphyton biomass to increasing nutrient concentrations has been well documented over large ranges of nutrient concentrations. Our study suggests that the nutrient response is suppressed by other controlling factors on the lower limb of the nutrient response curve (i.e. at low nutrient concentrations); a quantitatively significant response occurs only in excess of a threshold beyond which nutrients become dominant over other controlling factors. This interpretation of the results is consistent with published meta-analyses showing lack of nutrient response for a high proportion of experimentally enriched periphyton communities, and division of responses between N and P for communities that do show growth in response to enrichment. 4. Grazing probably is not the key controlling variable for periphyton in Colorado mountain streams, given that the highest chlorophyll concentrations are associated with the highest abundances of macroinvertebrates. Modelling indicates that the initial amount of periphyton biomass at the start of the growing season, in conjunction with elevation-related length of the growing season and water temperature, explains most of the variation in periphyton accumulation among these streams, but there is a yet unexplained suppression of periphyton growth rates across all elevations. [source]

    Ecological and socio-economic impacts of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): a review

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Summary 1.,Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the world's most invasive aquatic plants and is known to cause significant ecological and socio-economic effects. 2.,Water hyacinth can alter water clarity and decrease phytoplankton production, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals and concentrations of other contaminants. 3.,The effects of water hyacinth on ecological communities appear to be largely nonlinear. Abundance and diversity of aquatic invertebrates generally increase in response to increased habitat heterogeneity and structural complexity provided by water hyacinth but decrease due to decreased phytoplankton (food) availability. 4.,Effects of water hyacinth on fish are largely dependent on original community composition and food-web structure. A more diverse and abundant epiphytic invertebrate community may increase fish abundance and diversity, but a decrease in phytoplankton may decrease dissolved oxygen concentrations and planktivorous fish abundance, subsequently affecting higher trophic levels. 5.,Little is known about the effects of water hyacinth on waterbird communities; however, increases in macroinvertebrate and fish abundance and diversity suggest a potentially positive interaction with waterbirds when water hyacinth is at moderate density. 6.,The socio-economic effects of water hyacinth are dependent on the extent of the invasion, the uses of the impacted waterbody, control methods and the response to control efforts. Ecosystem-level research programmes that simultaneously monitor the effects of water hyacinth on multiple trophic-levels are needed to further our understanding of invasive species. [source]

    Seasonal and inter-stream variations in the population dynamics, growth and secondary production of an algivorous fish (Pseudogastromyzon myersi: Balitoridae) in monsoonal Hong Kong

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2009
    Summary 1.,Balitorid loaches are widespread and highly diverse in Asian streams, yet their life history and ecology have received little attention. We investigated seasonal (wet versus dry season) and spatial variation in populations of algivorous Pseudogastromyzon myersi in Hong Kong, and estimated the magnitude of secondary production by this fish in pools in four streams (two shaded and two unshaded) over a 15-month period. 2.,Mean population densities of P. myersi ranged from 6.0 to 23.2 individuals m,2, constituting more than half (and typically >70%) of benthic fishes censused. Abundance was c. 25% greater in the wet season, when recruitment occurred. Significant density differences among streams were not related to shading conditions and were evident despite small-scale variations in P. myersi abundance among pools. Mean biomass varied among streams from 0.85 to 3.87 g ash-free dry weight (AFDW) m,2. Spatial and seasonal patterns in biomass and density were similar, apart from some minor disparities attributable to differences in mean body size among populations. 3.,All four P. myersi populations bred once a year in June and July, and life spans varied from 24 to 26 months. Populations consisted of three cohorts immediately after recruitment but, for most of the study period, only two cohorts were evident. Cohort-specific growth rates did not differ significantly among streams but, in all streams, younger cohorts had higher cohort-specific growth rates. 4.,Secondary production of P. myersi estimated by the size-frequency (SF) method was 2.7,11.5 g AFDW m,2 year,1 and almost twice that calculated by the increment-summation (IS) method (1.2,6.6 g AFDW m,2 year,1). Annual P/B ratios were 1.17,2.16 year,1 (IS) and 2.73,3.22 year,1 (SF). Highest production was recorded in an unshaded stream and the lowest in a shaded stream, but site rankings by production did not otherwise match shading conditions. Wet-season production was six times greater than dry-season production, and daily production fell to almost zero during January and February. Cool temperatures (<17 °C) may have limited fish activity and influenced detectability during some dry-season censuses. Estimates of abundance and annual production by P. myersi are therefore conservative. 5.,Comparisons with the literature indicate that the abundance and production of P. myersi in Hong Kong was high relative to other benthic fishes in tropical Asia, or their temperate counterparts in small streams. Manipulative experiments are needed to determine the influence of P. myersi, and algivorous balitorids in general, on periphyton dynamics and energy flow in Asian streams. [source]

    Abundance and production of bacteria, and relationship to phytoplankton production, in a large tropical lake (Lake Tanganyika)

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Summary 1. Abundance and bacterial production (BP) of heterotrophic bacteria (HBact) were measured in the north and south basins of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, during seasonal sampling series between 2002 and 2007. The major objective of the study was to assess whether BP can supplement phytoplankton particulate primary production (particulate PP) in the pelagic waters, and whether BP and particulate PP are related in this large lake. HBact were enumerated in the 0,100 m surface layer by epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry; BP was quantified using 3H-thymidine incorporation, usually in three mixolimnion layers (0,40, 40,60 and 60,100 m). 2. Flow cytometry allowed three subpopulations to be distinguished: low nucleic acid content bacteria (LNA), high nucleic acid content bacteria (HNA) and Synechococcus -like picocyanobacteria (PCya). The proportion of HNA was on average 67% of total bacterial abundance, and tended to increase with depth. HBact abundance was between 1.2 × 105 and 4.8 × 106 cells mL,1, and was maximal in the 0,40 m layer (i.e. roughly, the euphotic layer). Using a single conversion factor of 15 fg C cell,1, estimated from biovolume measurements, average HBact biomass (integrated over a 100-m water column depth) was 1.89 ± 1.05 g C m,2. 3. Significant differences in BP appeared between seasons, especially in the south basin. The range of BP integrated over the 0,100 m layer was 93,735 mg C m,2 day,1, and overlapped with the range of particulate PP (150,1687 mg C m,2 day,1) measured in the same period of time at the same sites. 4. Depth-integrated BP was significantly correlated to particulate PP and chlorophyll- a, and BP in the euphotic layer was on average 25% of PP. 5. These results suggest that HBact contribute substantially to the particulate organic carbon available to consumers in Lake Tanganyika, and that BP may be sustained by phytoplankton-derived organic carbon in the pelagic waters. [source]

    Abundance and microhabitats of freshwater sponges (Spongillidae) in a Danubean floodplain in Austria

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Summary 1. This study examined the abundance and distribution of freshwater sponges (Spongillidae) at 32 sites in a floodplain on the Danube within the ,Donau-Auen' National Park east of Vienna, Austria. Ranked from abundant to rare, the species inventory comprised Ephydatia fluviatilis, Spongilla lacustris, Ephydatia mülleri, Eunapius fragilis and Trochospongilla horrida. 2. The presence of hard substratum was essential for the growth of sponges. Timber stands near the water and drifting dead wood increased the abundance of E. fragilis, E. fluviatilis and E. mülleri, whereas stony substrata were important for S. lacustris. A small fraction of E. fluviatilis was collected from macrophytes (Phragmites). 3. Based on the area colonised, the abundance of S. lacustris, E. fragilis and E. fluviatilis was highest (94.2,100% of the total) in floodplain waters where hydrological connectivity with the Danube was low (0,6 days year,1), whereas E. mülleri and T. horrida made up 20.3,35.9% of the total at sites connected for up to 179 days year,1. Moreover, the area colonised by T. horrida at a current velocity >0.20 m s,1 was larger than in the remaining species. Sites with E. mülleri and T. horrida had a higher silicon concentration (0.9 mg L,1) than sites where the remaining three species were collected (0.4,0.6 mg L,1). 4. In most species, the length of macroscleres (the larger spicules) was positively correlated with conductivity and negatively with pH. With respect to aberrant macroscleres, hooks were observed most frequently, whereas the proportion of centrotylotes (ie with the one on more globular swellings along the spicule) was lowest. 5. Freshwater sponges have a great deal of potential as bioindicators and restoration measures that improve floodplain connectivity will favour rare species, such as E. mülleri and T. horrida, while impairing others (e.g. E. fragilis, S. lacustris and E. fluviatilis). [source]

    Land-use influences macroinvertebrate community response following a pulse disturbance

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2003
    Kevin J. Collier
    Summary 1.,We tested the hypothesis that interactions between disturbance types can influence invertebrate community response and recovery in two streams draining pasture (press-pulse disturbance) and native forest (pulse disturbance) catchments before and after a one-in-28-year flood. We also sampled drift and adult insects to gain insights into the relative importance of these two postdisturbance recolonisation pathways. 2.,Taxa numbers and total density declined markedly at the forested site after the flood, but there was a delayed response at the pasture site, reflecting greater initial resistance to this pulse disturbance among taxa adapted to the underlying press disturbance. 3.,Community composition was less stable at the pasture site where per cent abundance of taxa was highly variable prior to the flood and over the 2-year postflood sampling period. After the flood, the pasture stream fauna was more heavily dominated by vagile taxa, including several chironomid species and hydroptilid caddisflies. 4.,Taxa numbers and densities recovered to preflood levels within 5,7 months at both sites, but a range of taxa-specific responses was observed that took up to 18 months to recover to preflood densities. Community stability at the pasture site had not returned to preflood composition by 2 years postflood. 5.,Changes in drift densities of several common stream invertebrates at the pasture site reflected postflood changes in benthic densities and seasonally low drift in winter. Terrestrial invertebrates dominated drift at the pasture site for 3 months postflood whereas Ephemeroptera were most common at the native forest site. 6.,Flight patterns of selected adult aquatic insects showed a strongly seasonal pattern. Abundance of adults at the pasture site in the second year following the flood increased in line with the recovery of the non-Dipteran benthic fauna. Significant upstream flight occurred for several caddisfly species at the native forest site, and weakly directional or downstream flight was evident for most common Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera. 7.,This study indicates that the magnitude and duration of responses to major pulse disturbances can depend on the presence or absence of an underlying press disturbance. This finding has implications for monitoring, and suggests that a knowledge of disturbance history beyond 2 years may be required to interpret mechanisms contributing to observed land-use impacts. [source]

    Effects of light and microcrustacean prey on growth and investment in carnivory in Utricularia vulgaris

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
    Göran Englund
    SUMMARY 1.,In a 5-week enclosure experiment, we studied the effects of light (ambient light, low light) and prey availability (no prey, prey added) on growth and investment in carnivory in Utricularia vulgaris. 2.,Investment in carnivory, measured as the proportion of biomass allocated to bladders, was strongly affected by our manipulations of light intensity and prey density. In the treatment with high prey density the light reduction decreased the investment in bladders from 25% to zero. The effect of prey density on investment in bladders was negative. Because prey addition increased the concentration of nutrients, especially phosphorus, we propose that the effect of the prey treatment on investment reflected altered nutrient concentrations. 3.,Availability of prey increased growth and apical biomass of Utricularia. As Utricularia had very few bladders in some treatments we suggest that the effect was due to a combination of live prey trapped and increased nutrient availability from dead prey. 4.,Abundance of periphyton on Utricularia and on the enclosure walls was highest in the treatments with high prey density where nutrient concentrations were highest. Thus we interpret the response of periphyton as primarily reflecting nutrient availability. [source]

    Taxonomic level, trophic biology and the regulation of local abundance

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Michael Kaspari
    Abstract 1Taxocenes , monophyletic ecological assemblages , are a key focus of macroecology. Abundance (individuals per area) is a basic property of taxocenes but has received less attention than diversity, although the two are probably related. Abundance reflects a taxocene's ability to harvest and sequester available energy and divide it among individuals. This paper explores how two properties of all taxocenes , trophic makeup and taxonomic level (e.g. genus, tribe, subfamily, family , ) , may contribute to patterns of local abundance at geographical scales. 2Forty-nine ground ant taxocenes, in habitats ranging from New World deserts to rain forests, were surveyed along a three-orders of magnitude productivity gradient using transects of 30 1-m2 quadrats at each site. Abundance , the number of nests per transect , varied over two orders of magnitude. 3Over 80% of the genera collected were omnivores. However, herbivore, omnivore, and predator taxa were added to ant taxocenes in roughly 1 order of magnitude steps up the productivity gradient. Specialist detritivores were added last. 4Net primary productivity and mean monthly temperature both consistently entered regression models predicting abundance. However, while productivity was the dominant predictor of abundance for higher taxa (families, subfamilies), temperature was the dominant predictor of abundance for lower taxa (tribes, genera). The answer to the question ,What regulates the abundance of a taxocene?' is thus sensitive to the taxonomic level of analysis. 5These data support the following scenario. Lower taxa are abiotic specialists given the insufficient number of genomes and generations required for the exploration of the entire abiotic envelope. Higher taxa, in contrast, consist of suites of abiotic specialists arrayed along the entire productivity gradient, with access to productivity everywhere the taxon occurs. If this scenario is true, individual species may respond to global changes in temperature; the higher taxa they belong to may most respond to global changes in productivity. [source]