Breeding System (breeding + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2005
Gavin H. Thomas
Abstract Sexual selection, mating opportunities, and parental behavior are interrelated, although the specific nature of these relationships is controversial. Two major hypotheses have been suggested. The parental investment hypothesis states that the relative parental investment of the sexes drives the operation of sexual selection. Thus, the sex that invests less in offspring care competes more intensely and monopolizes access to mates. The sexual conflict hypothesis proposes that sexual selection (the competition among both males and females for mates), mating opportunities, and parental behavior are interrelated and predicts a feedback loop between mating systems and parental care. Here we test both hypotheses using a comprehensive dataset of shorebirds, a maximum-likelihood statistical technique, and a recent supertree of extant shorebirds and allies. Shorebirds are an excellent group for these analyses because they display unique variation in parental care and social mating system. First, we show that chick development constrains the evolution of both parental care and mate competition, because transitions toward more precocial offspring preceded transitions toward reduced parental care and social polygamy. Second, changes in care and mating systems respond to one another, most likely because both influenced and are influenced by mating opportunities. Taken together, our results are more consistent with the sexual conflict hypothesis than the parental investment hypothesis. [source]

Breeding system, branching processes, hybrid swarm theory, and the humped-back diversity relationship as additional explanations for apparent monophyly in the Macaronesian island flora

Summary 1Niche pre-emption and competitive exclusion is unsatisfactory as a sole explanation for the apparent paradox of a large number of monophyletic taxa in the Macaronesian island flora. 2Undetected hybridizations have been proposed as an additional plausible explanation. In addition, hybrid swarm theory predicts that hybridizations between invading species would promote adaptive radiation. 3We suggest that branching processes and coalescence offer yet another plausible explanation allowing for multiple colonizations of closely related taxa, which, because of their later local extinction or hybridization, would lead to apparent monophyly in the molecular record. 4The cause of such widespread radiation of a few taxa has not been explained, but may involve intermediate conditions of disturbance or productivity. This proposition has, to date, only been tested in a microbial model system, but it offers a reasonable explanation for the patterns observed in the Macaronesian flora, and perhaps in other island floras worldwide. [source]

Reproduction in Wild Populations of the Threatened Tree Macadamia tetraphylla: Interpopulation Pollen Enriches Fecundity in a Declining Species

BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2009
Philip C. Pisanu
ABSTRACT Macadamia tetraphylla is a subtropical rain forest tree from fragmented lowlands in eastern Australia. Owing to habitat loss and fragmentation, this commercially important species is vulnerable to extinction. Breeding system and fecundity were investigated in nine populations incorporating three habitat types (moderately disturbed, highly disturbed, and intact) to determine if seed set, seed weight, and genetic diversity are compromised by disturbance. Breeding success was also tested using pollen donors from distant (30,100 km), local (2,3 km), neighbor (10,20 m), and near-neighbor (< 10 m) sources. Macadamia tetraphylla is weakly self-compatible but incapable of automatic self-pollination. Across populations, seed to flower ratios were always < 0.1 percent in open-pollinated trees and trees from moderately disturbed habitats had the highest fruit production. Outcross pollen produced more seed per raceme than open-pollinated or self-pollination treatments. Seed set and seed weights were positively influenced by pollen source with local pollen and distant pollen effecting more or heavier seeds. Germination rates and genetic diversity did not vary significantly in seedlings from different pollen sources. Results suggest a pollen source from at least a 2 km distance is an optimal outbreeding distance; however, many wild populations do not have conspecifics at optimal distances owing to habitat fragmentation. Highly disturbed populations are producing seed but the longevity of these sites is threatened by weed invasions. We conclude that small populations in degraded habitats that are at risk of being overlooked should not be ignored but should be a focus for restoration efforts as they are a valuable asset for the conservation of M. tetraphylla. [source]

Rearing method for the sporophagous thrips Bactrothrips brevitubus (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae)

Tomohiro SHIBATA
Abstract Mycophagous and particularly sporophagous thrips are difficult to rear under laboratory conditions, and this has been a major constraint in studying the life histories of such thrips in any detail. We developed a rearing method for Bactrothrips brevitubus, a sporophagous Japanese thrips, that can be modified readily to rear other sporophagous species. This method can maintain all developmental stages of the thrips by controlling humidity, temperature and fungal spore density. The method enables rearing over multiple generations, thereby facilitating investigations of the relationship between environmental conditions (e.g. food quantity) and breeding system (e.g. reproductive mode and offspring sex ratio). [source]

Cooperative Breeding and Group Structure in the Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Neolamprologus savoryi

ETHOLOGY, Issue 11 2005
Dik Heg
As yet, cooperative breeding has been described only for some fish species. However, evidence is accumulating that it is widespread among Lake Tanganyika cichlids. We studied the cooperative breeding system of the substrate breeding cichlid Neolamprologus savoryi. Breeding groups typically consisted of a large breeding male with one to four breeding females and three to 33 helpers (mean group size: 14.3 members). Group size was significantly related to breeding male and female body sizes, and larger males had more breeding females and larger sized male helpers. The size of the largest female in the group was positively related to the number and sizes of secondary breeding females and female helpers. In case of multiple breeding females, these females usually divided the group's territory into sub-territories, each with its own helpers (subgroups). Interspersed between groups, independent fish were detected defending an individual shelter (4.4% of all fish). In 9% of the groups no breeding female was present. All group members participated in territory defence and maintenance, and showed submissive behaviours to larger group members. As expected, the level of between-subgroup conflicts was high compared with the level of within-subgroup conflicts. We compare these results with data available from other cooperatively breeding fishes. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2010
Gabriel D. G. Debout
We investigated sex allocation in the Neotropical ant Allomerus octoarticulatus var. demerarae. Because Allomerus is a plant symbiont, we could make geographically extensive collections of complete colonies and of foundresses in saplings, allowing us to estimate not only population- and colony-level sex allocation but also colony resource levels and the relatednesses of competing ant foundresses. This species exhibits a strongly split sex ratio, with 80% of mature colonies producing ,90% of one sex or the other. Our genetic analyses (DNA microsatellites) reveal that Allomerus has a breeding system characterized by almost complete monogyny and a low frequency of polyandry. Contrary to theoretical explanations, we find no difference in worker relatedness asymmetries between female- and male-specialist colonies. Furthermore, no clear link was found between colony sex allocation and life history traits such as the number of mates per queen, or colony size, resource level, or fecundity. We also failed to find significant support for male production by workers, infection by Wolbachia, local resource competition, or local mate competition. We are left with the possibility that Allomerus exhibits split sex ratios because of the evolution of alternative biasing strategies in queens or workers, as recently proposed in the literature. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2004
Ken R. Helms
Abstract A recent study by Fournier et al. (2003) provides important new information on sex allocation in the ant Pheidole pallidula, and proposes a new scenario for sex-ratio evolution in P. pallidula and similar species. However, Helms proposed to the authors that two important conclusions of the study were questionable because of potential problems with the analyses. Here we provide new data and a reanalysis that strengthens the conclusion that colony sex ratio is associated with breeding system (i.e., polygyny or monogyny). However, the proposal that colonies shift from monogyny to polygyny when they become larger and more productive is weakened because there is substantial overlap in productivity between monogynous and polygynous colonies. [source]

Backhousia citriodora F. Muell.,Rediscovery and chemical characterization of the L -citronellal form and aspects of its breeding system

J. C. Doran
Abstract The rare L -citronellal form of Backhousia citriodora F. Muell. was first reported in 1950 but attempts to relocate it were unsuccessful until 1996. The quest to relocate trees of this type has been driven by interest in L -citronellal for perfumery. The common, citral form of the species is already under cultivation for oil production in Australia. This paper reports on the rediscovery of the L -citronellal form, first in 1996 in a year-old provenance/progeny trial of B. citriodora in south-eastern Queensland, and then in a natural population on Queensland's Sunshine Coast in 1998. The three L -citronellal trees in the trial gave foliar oil concentrations (g/100 g dry weight) of 3.2, 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, when sampled in November 1996. The same trees sampled in March 1999 gave pale yellow oils consisting of 85,89% citronellal, 6,9% isopulegol isomers with small quantities of citronellol (approx. 3%) and several other compounds. Data on the physicochemical properties of these oils are given in the paper. Seed from a single mature L -citronellal tree gave progeny of both the L -citronellal and citral form in a ratio of approximately 1 : 1. Propagation material from many more plants of the L -citronellal form needs to be collected and assembled in breeding populations. This would form the basis of a selection and breeding programme, should this chemotype show economic potential. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Genetic diversity and migration patterns of the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton malaianus in a potamo-lacustrine system

Summary 1.,Previously, the Yangtze River connected thousands of shallow lakes which together formed a potamo-lacustrine system capable of sustaining a rich variety of submerged macrophytes. 2.,Potamogeton malaianus is one of the dominant submerged macrophytes in many lakes of this area. Genetic variation and population structure of P. malaianus populations from ten lakes in the potamo-lacustrine system were assessed using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. 3.,Twelve primer combinations produced a total of 166 unambiguous bands of which 117 (70.5%) were polymorphic. Potamogeton malaianus exhibited a moderate level of population genetic diversity (PP = 70.5%, HE = 0.163 and I = 0.255), as compared with that of plants in the same habitat and range. The main factors responsible for this moderate value were the plant's mixed breeding system (both sexual and asexual) and the hydrological connectivity among habitats. 4.,F statistics, calculated using different approaches, consistently revealed a moderate genetic differentiation among populations, contributing about 20% of total genetic diversity. An estimate of gene flow (using FST) suggested that gene flow played a more important role than genetic drift in the current population genetic structure of P. malaianus (Nm = 1.131). 5.,The genetic diversity of P. malaianus did not increase downstream. A high level of linkage,disequilibrium at the whole population level suggested that metapopulation processes may affect genetic structure. The migration pattern of P. malaianus was best explained by a two-dimensional stepping stone model, indicating that bird-mediated dispersal could greatly influence gene movements among lakes. [source]

Double-nesting behaviour and sexual differences in breeding success in wild Red-legged Partridges Alectoris rufa

IBIS, Issue 4 2009
Double-nesting behaviour, a rare breeding system in which females lay in two nests, one incubated by herself and the other one by her mate, could be considered an intermediate stage in the evolutionary trend from biparental to uniparental care of single clutches. We examined the occurrence and success of double-nesting behaviour in Red-legged Partridges Alectoris rufa in Central Spain. Clutch size and hatching success were recorded, as well as the variation in these between years and between incubating sexes. Participation in incubation was higher for females (94.76%) than males (41.0%), and the proportion of incubating males varied markedly between years, with no incubating males in one dry year and approximately 50% of males incubating in other years. There was significant variation among years and between sexes in laying date, clutch size and hatching success. Clutch size decreased with later laying date in males and females. The probability of clutch loss to predation differed between sexes, being much higher for nests incubated by females. Our results suggest that both rainfall and predation influence the occurrence and success of double-nesting. [source]

Islands in a desert: breeding ecology of the African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus in Namibia

IBIS, Issue 4 2001
The continental African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus, like its relative the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, breeds in isolated patches. We studied the mating system of the African Reed Warbler to see whether this species, like the Seychelles Warbler, shows co-operative breeding. The African Reed Warbler is not polygynous. The majority breed monogamously (88%, n= 65), however in 12% of the territories three adult unrelated birds (mostly males) were observed participating in the brooding and feeding of nestlings, suggesting a polyandrous breeding system. Multilocus DNA fingerprinting revealed that the helping bird was unrelated to the pair birds. The percentage of nests with helpers was low compared to rates found in the Seychelles Warbler or Henderson Reed Warbler Acrocephalus vaughani taiti. This could be due to the scarcity of potential helpers or to the fact that, although limited, birds still had the opportunity to disperse within a meta-population structure in search of vacant territories. The presence of helpers was associated with increased hatching success due to lower predation rates, but not with increased fledging success. Another possible benefit of helping behaviour in this species could be improved predator detection and mobbing. Nest predation was high and warblers tended to build their nests in the highest, most dense reed patches available in their territory. There was no relation between habitat quality, measured as insect food availability, and the occurrence of helpers. [source]

Parentage analysis in Gabonese colonies of soil-feeding termites belonging to the Cubitermes sp. affinis subarquatus complex of species (Termitidae: Termitinae)

INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
Virginie Roy
Abstract,Cubitermes spp. are widely distributed soil-feeding termite species in sub-Saharan Africa which play a fundamental role in soil structure and fertility. A complex of at least four cryptic species (i.e., Cubitermes sp. affinis subarquatus complex of species) has been recently described using molecular markers. In order to investigate the breeding system of these species, five microsatellite markers were used to carry out parentage and relatedness analyses in 15 Gabonese colonies. Monogamy was confirmed as the predominant reproductive organization in Cubitermes spp. (76% of the colonies). Within 30% of these monogamous colonies, a high relatedness between reproductives was shown, suggesting that mating between related individuals occurs. However, Cubitermes colonies can deviate from monogamy. Indeed, parental contributions by at least two related reproductives of the same sex were revealed in four colonies and polyandry was demonstrated in two of them. Infiltration of reproductives in the colony is the most plausible explanation for such cases of polygamy in Cubitermes spp. [source]

Habitat heterogeneity affects population growth in goshawk Accipiter gentilis

Oliver Krüger
Summary 1The concept of site-dependent population regulation combines the ideas of Ideal Free Distribution-type of habitat settlement and density dependence in a vital rate mediated by habitat heterogeneity. The latter is also known as habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Site-dependent population regulation hypothesis predicts that increasing population density should lead to inhabitation of increasingly poor territories and decreasing per capita population growth rate. An alternative mechanism for population regulation in a territorial breeding system is interference competition. However, this would be expected to cause a more even decrease in individual success with increasing density than site-dependent regulation. 2We tested these ideas using long-term (1975,99) population data from a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population in Eastern Westphalia, Germany. 3Goshawk territory occupancy patterns and reproduction parameters support predictions of site-dependent population regulation: territories that were occupied more often and earlier had a higher mean brood size. Fecundity did not decrease with increasing density in best territories. 4Using time-series modelling, we also showed that the most parsimonious model explaining per capita population growth rate included annual mean habitat quality, weather during the chick rearing and autumn period and density as variables. This model explained 63% of the variation in per capita growth rate. The need for including habitat quality in the time-series model provides further support for the idea of site-dependent population regulation in goshawk. [source]

Evolutionary transitions among dioecy, androdioecy and hermaphroditism in limnadiid clam shrimp (Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata)

Abstract Examinations of breeding system transitions have primarily concentrated on the transition from hermaphroditism to dioecy, likely because of the preponderance of this transition within flowering plants. Fewer studies have considered the reverse transition: dioecy to hermaphroditism. A fruitful approach to studying this latter transition can be sought by studying clades in which transitions between dioecy and hermaphroditism have occurred multiple times. Freshwater crustaceans in the family Limnadiidae comprise dioecious, hermaphroditic and androdioecious (males + hermaphrodites) species, and thus this family represents an excellent model system for the assessment of the evolutionary transitions between these related breeding systems. Herein we report a phylogenetic assessment of breeding system transitions within the family using a total evidence comparative approach. We find that dioecy is the ancestral breeding system for the Limnadiidae and that a minimum of two independent transitions from dioecy to hermaphroditism occurred within this family, leading to (1) a Holarctic, all-hermaphrodite species, Limnadia lenticularis and (2) mixtures of hermaphrodites and males in the genus Eulimnadia. Both hermaphroditic derivatives are essentially females with only a small amount of energy allocated to male function. Within Eulimnadia, we find several all-hermaphrodite populations/species that have been independently derived at least twice from androdioecious progenitors within this genus. We discuss two adaptive (based on the notion of ,reproductive assurance') and one nonadaptive explanations for the derivation of all-hermaphroditism from androdioecy. We propose that L. lenticularis likely represents an all-hermaphrodite species that was derived from an androdioecious ancestor, much like the all-hermaphrodite populations derived from androdioecy currently observed within the Eulimnadia. Finally, we note that the proposed hypotheses for the dioecy to hermaphroditism transition are unable to explain the derivation of a fully functional, outcrossing hermaphroditic species from a dioecious progenitor. [source]

Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios

Abstract Conventional sex roles imply caring females and competitive males. The evolution of sex role divergence is widely attributed to anisogamy initiating a self-reinforcing process. The initial asymmetry in pre-mating parental investment (eggs vs. sperm) is assumed to promote even greater divergence in post-mating parental investment (parental care). But do we really understand the process? Trivers [Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man 1871,1971 (1972), Aldine Press, Chicago] introduced two arguments with a female and male perspective on whether to care for offspring that try to link pre-mating and post-mating investment. Here we review their merits and subsequent theoretical developments. The first argument is that females are more committed than males to providing care because they stand to lose a greater initial investment. This, however, commits the ,Concorde Fallacy' as optimal decisions should depend on future pay-offs not past costs. Although the argument can be rephrased in terms of residual reproductive value when past investment affects future pay-offs, it remains weak. The factors likely to change future pay-offs seem to work against females providing more care than males. The second argument takes the reasonable premise that anisogamy produces a male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) leading to males competing for mates. Male care is then predicted to be less likely to evolve as it consumes resources that could otherwise be used to increase competitiveness. However, given each offspring has precisely two genetic parents (the Fisher condition), a biased OSR generates frequency-dependent selection, analogous to Fisherian sex ratio selection, that favours increased parental investment by whichever sex faces more intense competition. Sex role divergence is therefore still an evolutionary conundrum. Here we review some possible solutions. Factors that promote conventional sex roles are sexual selection on males (but non-random variance in male mating success must be high to override the Fisher condition), loss of paternity because of female multiple mating or group spawning and patterns of mortality that generate female-biased adult sex ratios (ASR). We present an integrative model that shows how these factors interact to generate sex roles. We emphasize the need to distinguish between the ASR and the operational sex ratio (OSR). If mortality is higher when caring than competing this diminishes the likelihood of sex role divergence because this strongly limits the mating success of the earlier deserting sex. We illustrate this in a model where a change in relative mortality rates while caring and competing generates a shift from a mammalian type breeding system (female-only care, male-biased OSR and female-biased ASR) to an avian type system (biparental care and a male-biased OSR and ASR). [source]

Genetic structure of Polytrichum formosum in relation to the breeding system as revealed by microsatellites

M. Van Der Velde
Microsatellite variation was determined for three Danish and three Dutch populations of the haploid moss species Polytrichum formosum to gain insight into the relative importance of sexual vs. asexual reproduction for the amount and structure of genetic variation. In general, low levels of microsatellite variation were observed within this species. Even when estimated for polymorphic loci only, the levels of microsatellite variability (P=90.6, A=4.3 and HS=0.468) within populations were on average lower than those reported for most other plant species. In contrast, genotypic diversity was high within each of the examined populations, indicating that sexual reproduction is a very important determinant of the genetic structure of P. formosum within populations. In agreement with previous findings for allozyme data, no significant genetic differentiation (FST=0.028, RST=0.015) was observed neither between populations nor between regions approximately 450 km apart (Denmark vs. the Netherlands). These low levels of population differentiation observed for both types of genetic markers are probably best explained by a high level of effective spore dispersal (gene flow) between populations. Therefore, also on a large geographical scale sexual reproduction is the most important determinant of the genetic structure of P. formosum, despite the high potential to reproduce clonally. [source]

Potential Autonomous Selfing in Gesneria citrina (Gesneriaceae), a Specialized Hummingbird Pollinated Species with Variable Expression of Herkogamy

Xin-Sheng Chen
Abstract Species with mixed mating systems often demonstrate variable expression of breeding system characteristics and thus represent the opportunity to understand the factors and mechanisms that promote both outcrossed and selfed seed production. Here, we investigate variation in levels of herkogamy (variation in stigma-anther separation distance) in a Puerto Rican population of hummingbird pollinated Gesneria citrina Urban. There is significant variation in herkogamy levels among individuals of this species and stigma-anther separation is negatively associated with the ability to set fruits and seeds in the absence of pollinators. The variation in levels of herkogamy may represent a mechanism to ensure the production of some self-fertilized progeny in the absence of hummingbird pollinators. We also describe a novel breeding system in G. citrina, where stamens elongate over time to reach stigma height, but stamen elongation is accelerated by pollination. These results suggest that once the flowers are pollinated, stamen elongation may favor increased pollen removal and siring success, while the reduction in stigma-anther distance no longer imposes the risk of interference between male and female functions. We discuss our findings of breeding system variation in the context of pollination system evolution in an island setting (Antillean islands). [source]

Population genetics and breeding system of Tupistra pingbianensis (Liliaceae), a naturally rare plant endemic to SW China

Abstract The levels and partitioning of genetic diversity and inbreeding depression were investigated in Tupistra pingbianensis, a narrow endemic of southeast Yunnan, China, characterized by a naturally fragmented distribution due to extreme specialization on a rare habitat type. Here genetic diversity and patterns of genetic variation within and among 11 populations were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers with 97 individuals across its whole geographical range. High levels of genetic variation were revealed both at the species level (P99= 96.012%; Ht= 0.302) and at the population level (P99= 51.41%; Hs= 0.224). Strong genetic differentiation among populations was also detected (FST= 0.2961; ,II= 0.281), which corresponded to results reported for typical animal-pollinated, mixed selfing, and outcrossing plant species. This result was consistent with mating patterns detected by our pollination experiments. The indirect estimate of gene flow based on ,II was low (Nm= 0.64). Special habitat and its life history traits might play an important role in shaping the genetic diversity and the genetic structure of this species. A pollination experiment also failed to detect significant inbreeding depression upon F1 fruit set, seed weight, and germinate rate fitness-traits. As a naturally rare species, T. pingbianensis is not seriously genetically impoverished and likely to have adapted to tolerating a high level of inbreeding early in its history, we propose this species need only periodic monitoring to ensure their continued persistence, but not intervention to remain viable. [source]

High population differentiation and unusual haplotype structure in a shade-intolerant pioneer tree species, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides (Rutaceae) revealed by analysis of DNA polymorphism at four nuclear loci

Abstract Differences in demographic history, life-history traits, and breeding systems affect nucleotide variation patterns. It is expected that shade-intolerant pioneer tree species have different patterns of genetic polymorphism and population structure than climax species. We studied patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at four putative starch pathway loci (agpSA, agpSB, agpL, and GBSSI) in Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, a shade-intolerant pioneer tree species that occupies forest gaps in warm-temperate forests of East Asia. Genetic diversity was lower within each population than among populations, and differentiation among populations was high across the loci (FST = 0.32,0.64), as expected from the insect-pollinated breeding system and the metapopulation structure of this pioneer species. Numbers of haplotypes were smaller than those expected from the observed numbers of segregating sites. Single haplotypes accounted for more than 47% of all the sampled genes at the respective loci. These variation patterns were incompatible with neutral predictions for populations of a finite island model. Complex population dynamics, such as bottleneck and/or admixture, in the history of this pioneer tree species might have resulted in the observed patterns of genetic variation and population structure, which are different from those of climax wind-pollinated tree species, such as conifers. In contrast to the other loci investigated in this study, agpL showed nearly no variation in Z. ailanthoides (one singleton only), but there was some extent of variation in a closely related species, Zanthoxylum schinifolium. This suggests possibly a recent selective sweep at or near the locus in Z. ailanthoides. [source]

Molecular ecology of social behaviour: analyses of breeding systems and genetic structure

Kenneth G. Ross
Abstract Molecular genetic studies of group kin composition and local genetic structure in social organisms are becoming increasingly common. A conceptual and mathematical framework that links attributes of the breeding system to group composition and genetic structure is presented here, and recent empirical studies are reviewed in the context of this framework. Breeding system properties, including the number of breeders in a social group, their genetic relatedness, and skew in their parentage, determine group composition and the distribution of genetic variation within and between social units. This group genetic structure in turn influences the opportunities for conflict and cooperation to evolve within groups and for selection to occur among groups or clusters of groups. Thus, molecular studies of social groups provide the starting point for analyses of the selective forces involved in social evolution, as well as for analyses of other fundamental evolutionary problems related to sex allocation, reproductive skew, life history evolution, and the nature of selection in hierarchically structured populations. The framework presented here provides a standard system for interpreting and integrating genetic and natural history data from social organisms for application to a broad range of evolutionary questions. [source]

Evidence for predominant clones in a cyclically parthenogenetic organism provided by combined demographic and genetic analyses

L. Haack
Abstract Aphids are particularly interesting models in the study of genetic and demographic components of plant adaptation because of their breeding system which combines parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction (i.e. cyclical parthenogenesis), and the frequent emergence of host-adapted races reported in this group. In this paper, patterns of host adaptation were assessed on local populations of the aphid Sitobion avenae by following their demographic and genetic structure in a maize field for two consecutive years. The existence of putative generalist (polyphagous) or specialized (host-adapted) genotypes was also investigated by comparing the genotypic distribution of this aphid on maize and other cultivated host plants, using five microsatellite loci. Although population dynamics revealed strong variation in aphid abundance during the colonization period on maize, two genotypes identified at seven additional microsatellite loci were predominant and exhibited stable frequencies over cropping season and between years. Based on present and earlier studies, these two prevalent genotypes were shown to survive on different host plants other than maize, to colonize large geographical zones and to persist parthenogenetically for several years. All these data strongly suggest that these two genotypes are asexual generalist clones that could have been favoured by agricultural practices encountered in western Europe. Besides these two clones, a continual replacement of rare genotypes was observed on maize in both years. Hypotheses involving selection via aphid,plant interactions and natural enemies were proposed for explaining the disappearance of these genotypes on maize. [source]

Characterization of six microsatellite markers in Trillium camschatcense using a dual-suppression-polymerase chain reaction technique

Abstract Trillium camschatcense is a herbaceous perennial plant distributed in Hokkaido and northern Honshu, Japan. Geographical variations in the breeding system (partial selfing or obligate outcrossing) are reported in the populations of Hokkaido. We isolated six polymorphic microsatellite loci from this species. The number of allele per locus ranged from four to 12, whereas the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.69 to 0.83. These markers may allow further investigations to reveal the evolutionary and ecological processes of mating system in T. camschatcense. [source]

A field guide to models of sex-ratio evolution in gynodioecious species

OIKOS, Issue 10 2007
Maia F. Bailey
Gynodioecious plant species, species in which individuals are females or hermaphrodites, are ideal systems for studying connections between genetics, ecology, and long-term evolutionary changes because sex determination can be complex, involving cytoplasmic and/or nuclear genes, and sex ratio is often variable across landscapes. Field data are needed to evaluate the many theories concerning this breeding system. In order to facilitate the gathering of relevant data, this paper introduces the four types of gynodiocy (nuclear, nuclear-cytoplasmic and stochastic gynodioecy plus subdioecy), describes example species and expected patterns, discusses the various forces that drive the evolution of female frequencies, and gives concrete advice on where to start collecting data for different systems. For species in which females are relatively rare, we recommend reciprocal crosses to determine if sex-determination is nuclear or nuclear-cytoplasmic along with a search for correlations between female frequencies and ecological factors. For species in which females are common and sex ratios are highly variable, we recommend looking at female offspring sex ratios to determine if females are primarily produced in ephemeral epidemics. In the course of this discussion, we argue that the majority of natural gynodioecious species will have complex sex determination in which multiple cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes interact with multiple nuclear restorers of fertility. Sex-ratio evolution in such species will be primarily influenced by fitness differences among hermaphrodites (costs of restoration) and less influenced by fitness differences between the sexes (compensation). Metapopulation dynamics alone may explain population sex ratios of species in which females are associated with marginal environments or hybrid zones; however, we feel that in most cases equilibrium forces within populations and metapopulation dynamics among populations each explain portions of the sex-ratio pattern. [source]

Cryptic self-incompatibility and distyly in Hedyotis acutangula Champ. (Rubiaceae)

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
X. Wu
Abstract Distyly, floral polymorphism frequently associated with reciprocal herkogamy, self- and intramorph incompatibility and secondary dimorphism, constitutes an important sexual system in the Rubiaceae. Here we report an unusual kind of distyly associated with self- and/or intramorph compatibility in a perennial herb, Hedyotis acutangula. Floral morphology, ancillary dimorphisms and compatibility of the two morphs were studied. H. acutangula did not exhibit precise reciprocal herkogamy, but this did not affect the equality of floral morphs in the population, as usually found in distylous plants. Both pin and thrum pollen retained relatively high viability for 8 h. The pollen to ovule ratio was 72.5 in pin flowers and 54.4 in thrum flowers. Pistils of pin flowers remained receptive for longer than those of thrum flowers. No apparent difference in the germination rate of pin and thrum pollen grains was observed when cultured in vitro, although growth of thrum pollen tubes was much faster than that of pin pollen tubes. Artificial pollination revealed that pollen tube growth in legitimate intermorph crosses was faster than in either intramorph crosses or self-pollination, suggesting the occurrence of cryptic self-incompatibility in this species. Cryptic self-incompatibility functioned differently in the two morphs, with pollen tube growth rates after legitimate and illegitimate pollination much more highly differentiated in pin flowers than in thrum flowers. No fruit was produced in emasculated netted flowers, suggesting the absence of apomixis. Our results indicate that H. acutangula is distylous, with a cryptic self-incompatibility breeding system. [source]

Pattern of Flower and Fruit Production in Stryphnodendron adstringens, an Andromonoecious Legume Tree of Central Brazil

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
P. L. Ortiz
Abstract: Patterns of flower and fruit production in racemes of Stryphnodendron adstringens, an andromonoecious Brazilian savanna tree species, were studied in two natural areas near Uberlândia-MG. Racemes were divided in three parts: apex, centre, and base. Number of flowers, gender, and nectar and pollen production were analyzed for each section. Frequency of visitors to each part of the inflorescence was also quantified. Hand self- and cross-pollinations were performed in complete racemes and fruit set used to determine breeding system. The racemes produced a mean of 329 flowers, more densely packed in the central portion. Hermaphrodite and male flowers occur along the inflorescence but hermaphrodite flowers are more common in the centre. Fruit set was markedly low but does not seem to be limited by pollination service, since free open-pollinated racemes and hand cross-pollinated ones do not differ in fruit production rates. Fruits resulted mostly from cross-pollinated flowers and fruit production was biased to the central portion of the raceme. Nectar yield was higher in the central portion of the raceme and visitors arrived more commonly on this portion of the inflorescence. However, most flowers did not produce nectar. The pattern of fruit production seems to be a consequence of the hermaphrodite flower distribution in the raceme and it is not constrained by pollen flow or flower opening sequence. [source]

RAPD Evidence for Apomixis and Clonal Populations in Eriotheca (Bombacaceae)

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
R. L. Martins
Abstract: Two woody species of Eriotheca (Bombacaceae) of the Central Brazilian Cerrados were submitted to RAPD analyses. Both species are bee pollinated and have a similar flower structure, but E. pubescens presents adventitious embryony and apomixis, while E. gracilipes is self-incompatible. The RAPD screening reflects these differences in breeding systems, with very low genetic variation in the apomictic species, while the sexual species presented much higher variability with no similar genotypes among the sampled trees. The results suggest that adventitious embryony in E. pubescens effectively results in clonal populations or population mosaics of clonal individuals. Since recent studies have indicated poly-embryony and possibly apomixis in a number of Cerrado woody species otherwise considered obligatorily allogamous, the RAPD results presented here indicate the technique will be a useful tool to detect clonal populations of apomictic origin among Cerrado woody species with mixed mating systems and will help to assess the importance of apomixis as a breeding system for the Cerrado flora. [source]

Development of a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker linked to pungency in pepper

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 3 2005
Y. Minamiyama
Abstract The complete tack of pungency in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is controlled by a single recessive gene (c). To develop a molecular marker linked to the C locus, two segregating F2 populations (TM2 and TF2) derived from crosses between occasionally pungent and non-pungent peppers in C. annuum were used. Using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) technique in combination with a bulked segregation analysis, two RAPD markers, OPD20-800 and OPY09-800, were obtained. Of the two markers, the more closely linked marker. OPY09-800, was converted into a codominant CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence) marker using data from the alignment of the two allelic sequences. This CAPS marker was linked to the C locus (3.6 cM in the TF2 population), and polymorphism was detected among accessions within C. annuum. This marker might be helpful for the selection of a c gene in backcross and progeny tests in a conventional breeding system. [source]

Pollination biology of the sclerophyllous shrub Pultenaea villosa Willd. (Fabaceae) in southeast Queensland, Australia

Abstract The pollination biology of the common shrub Pultenaea villosa Willd. was examined in a subtropical dry sclerophyll forest in eastern Australia. We determined floral phenology and morphology, the timing of stigma receptivity and anther dehiscence, nectar availability, the plant breeding system, and flower visitors. The shrub's flowers are typical zygomorphic pea flowers with hidden floral rewards and reproductive structures. These flowers require special manipulation for insect access. A range of insects visited the flowers, although bees are predicted to be the principle pollinators based on their frequency on the flowers and their exclusive ability to operate the wing and keel petals to access the reproductive structures. Nectar and pollen are offered as rewards and were actively collected by bees. Nectar is offered to visitors in minute amounts at the base of the corolla. In Toohey Forest, P. villosa flowers in spring and is the most abundant floral resource in the understory of the forest at this time. The breeding system experiment revealed that P. villosa requires outcrossing for high levels of seed set and that the overlap of stigma receptivity and pollen dehiscence within the flower suggests the potential for self-incompatibility. [source]

Reproductive biology and pollination ecology of the rare Yellowstone Park endemic Abronia ammophila (Nyctaginaceae)

Abstract We examined the breeding system, reproductive output and pollination ecology of Abronia ammophila Greene, a rare and highly restricted endemic of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Floral morphology permits the automatic deposition of self-pollen on the stigma of individual flowers, and male and female reproductive functions temporally overlap. In controlled hand-pollination treatments, we found no significant difference among pollination treatments (unmanipulated, self-pollinated or cross-pollination). The species maintains a long reproductive season with high reproductive output (natural seed set ranged from 59 to 84%). Our results, along with pollinator observations, suggest that A. ammophila exhibits a mixed-mating system: the species can produce seed without pollinators (via either autogamy or agamospermy), but is also visited by an array of pollinating insects that included moths, butterflies and bumblebees. However, noctuid moths were the most abundant pollinators. In contrast, other Abronia species are obligate outcrossers. The mixed-mating system of A. ammophila may have evolved as a consequence of ecological pressures such as scarcity of mates or pollinators. [source]

Identification and characterization of pin and thrum alleles of two genes that co-segregate with the Primula S locus

Jinhong Li
Summary The study of heteromorphy in Primula over the past 140 years has established the reproductive significance of this breeding system. Plants produce either thrum or pin flowers that demonstrate reciprocal herkogamy. Thrums have short styles and produce large pollen from anthers at the mouth of the flower; pins have long styles and produce small pollen from anthers located within the corolla tube. The control of heteromorphy is orchestrated by the S locus with dominant (S) and recessive (s) alleles that comprise a co-adapted linkage group of genes. Thrum plants are heterozygous (Ss) and pin plants are homozygous (ss). Reciprocal crosses between the two forms are required for fertilization; within-morph crosses are impeded by a sporophytic self-incompatibility system. Rare recombination events within the S locus produce self-fertile homostyles. As a first step towards identifying genes located at the S locus, we used fluorescent differential display to screen for differential gene expression in pin and thrum flowers. Rather than only detecting differentially regulated genes, we identified two S locus linked genes by virtue of allelic variation between pin and thrum transcripts. Analysis of pin and thrum plants together with homostyle recombinant reveals that one gene flanks the locus, whereas the other shows complete linkage. One gene is related to Arabidopsis flower-timing genes Col9 and Col10; the other encodes a small predicted membrane protein of unknown function. Notwithstanding the diallelic behaviour of the Primula S locus, analysis of pin and thrum plants reveal three alleles for each gene: two pin and one thrum. [source]