Breeding Behaviour (breeding + behaviour)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Using underwater cameras to describe the reproductive behaviour of the endangered eastern freshwater cod Maccullochella ikei

G. L. Butler
Abstract,,, Underwater cameras were used to observe the breeding behaviour of the endangered eastern freshwater cod, Maccullochella ikei, over 3 years and across three areas in the Mann and Nymboida rivers, Australia. The annual breeding season for M. ikei was short and succinct, lasting only 8,10 weeks. Spawning commenced each year in the lowest altitude area during the first week of spring, and approximately 1 week later in the closest upstream area. Day-length is the primary spawning cue for M. ikei, but increasing water temperature may also be of importance. Nesting sites were located in slow-flowing pools, under cover such as large boulders and bedrock shelves, at depths of 0.9,4.0 m, and with one or two entrances only. The nesting site was vigorously cleaned by the male up to 1 week prior to spawning and was only entered by the female for spawning. Paternal care of eggs and larvae was undertaken for up to 24 days, after which larvae dispersed. Greater protection of breeding M. ikei must be a management priority to ensure long-term conservation of the species. [source]

Bison breeding characteristics and interpretation of archaeological seasonality revisited

D. WaldeArticle first published online: 17 JUL 200
Abstract Bison breeding behaviour has been used for the last three decades as the basis for developing methods for assigning season-of-occupation estimates to archaeological sites on the North American Plains. These methods are based upon the supposition that the North American bison breeding season is extremely short and that genetically controlled ontological characteristics such as foetal growth and tooth eruption sequences can therefore be used to infer site seasonality in a reasonably straightforward and precise manner. This paper reviews bison population studies conducted during the past 30 years to reassess present understandings of the length of North American bison breeding seasons. It is concluded that the bison breeding season regularly extends over a period of three to four months, and that initiation of ontological development will therefore also vary over the same period of time. Bison development characteristics cannot provide a reliable or precise means of assigning seasonality to archaeological sites on the North American Plains. It is suggested that methods using physical characteristics such as dental cementum incrementation which are directly affected by seasonal changes could be more productive. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Observations on the breeding behaviour of the Stripe-breasted tit (Parus fasciiventer) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda

Jane Yatuha
Abstract The motivation of this study was to investigate some hitherto unknown information on the breeding ecology of the Stripe-breasted Tit (Parus fasciiventer) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, south-western Uganda. Parus fasciiventer is one of the least studied and endemic bird species restricted to the montane forests of the Albertine Rift. Regionally, it is classified as near-threatened. The study was carried out around the Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation Ruhija camp and the period of study was from January to June 2003. Data were generated through direct observation at the nest box sites of three active nests. Each of the nest boxes was monitored from the time of nest building to the time the chicks fledged. Results and comparative assessments from this study demonstrate that P. fasciiventer, compared with its temperate congeners like Great Tits (Parus major), Marsh Tits (Parus palustris), Crested Tits (Parus cristatus), Coal Tits (Parus ater) and Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus), raised small broods and had longer nestling period. The findings further revealed that the species is capable of raising more than one brood in a single breeding season and provide further evidence that it is a cooperative breeder. Parents participated equally in raising the young, an indication of pure parenting in the species. Résumé La raison de cette étude était de rechercher certaines informations jusqu'alors inconnues sur l'écologie de la reproduction de la mésange à ventre strié, Parus fasciiventer, dans le Parc National de la Forêt impénétrable de Bwindi, dans le sud-ouest de l'Ouganda. Parus fasciiventer est une des espèces d'oiseaux endémiques les moins étudiées; elle se limite aux forêts de montagne du Rift Albertin. Au niveau régional, elle est classée comme quasi menacée. L'étude s'est réalisée autour du camp de Ruhija de l'Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation de janvier à juin 2003. Les données furent obtenues par des observations directes sur les sites de trois nichoirs actifs. Chaque nid a été suivi depuis sa construction jusqu'à la mue des oisillons. Les résultats et des évaluations comparatives de cette étude ont montré que P. fasciiventer, comparéà ses congénères des régions tempérées comme la mésange charbonnière Parus major, la mésange nonnette Parus palustris, la mésange huppée Parus cristatus, la mésange noire Parus ater et la mésange bleue Parus caeruleus, élevait de plus petites nichées et avait une plus longue durée de nidification. Les résultats ont aussi révélé que cette espèce est capable d'élever plus d'une nichée au cours d'une même saison de reproduction et apportent de nouvelles preuves du fait que c'est une espèce qui pratique la reproduction coopérative. Les parents participaient de façon équitable à l'élevage des jeunes, un signe de parenté directe chez cette espèce. [source]

Breeding biology of ostriches (Struthio camelus) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania

Flora J. Magige
Abstract Ostrich breeding behaviour in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania was investigated for differences in laying dates between low altitude western area (WA) and high altitude eastern area (EA) populations. Ostriches in WA laid eggs significantly earlier than in EA. The differences could be attributed to topography and rainfall pattern. Reliable rains in lower altitudes ensure availability of food that in turn influences the whole process of the reproductive cycle. Clutches were contributed by several females with a nest having up to 38 eggs. We also compared the frequency of observation of predators, ostriches, nests, ,singletons' (single eggs laid randomly) and broods between the two areas. There was no significant difference between WA and EA in 1) ostrich/nest ratio, indicating similar breeding densities; 2) ostrich/predator and predator/nest ratios, indicating that predation pressure was equally high; 3) nest/singleton and predator/singleton ratios, indicating that loss of nests did not vary between areas. However, there were significantly more predators, nests and ostriches compared to broods in EA than in WA, indicating a significantly lower reproductive success in EA. Using metapopulation terminology, ostriches in EA could be regarded as a ,sink' population and those in WA as a ,source' population, but investigations over longer time-periods are needed to further resolve if this is the case. Résumé Le comportement reproducteur des autruches dans l'écosystème du Serengeti, en Tanzanie, a étéétudié pour voir les différences dans les dates de pontes entre les populations de la zone occidentale (WA) à basse altitude et de la zone orientale (EA) à plus haute altitude. Les autruches de la WA pondent significativement plus tôt que celles de l'EA. Les différences peuvent être attribuées à la topographie et au régime de la pluviosité. Les pluies fiables à plus basse altitude garantissent la disponibilité de la nourriture, ce qui influence dès lors tout le processus du cycle reproducteur. Des couvées réunissaient les ,ufs de plusieurs femelles , un nid a eu jusqu'à 38 ,ufs. Nous avons aussi comparé la fréquence d'observations de prédateurs, d'autruches, de nids, de «ingletons» (des ,ufs solitaires pondus au hasard) et de nichées entre les deux zones. Il n'y a pas de différence significative entre WA et EA pour 1) le ratio autruches/nids, ce qui indique des densités de reproduction similaires; 2) le ratio autruches/prédateurs et le ratio prédateurs/nids, ce qui indique que la pression de la prédation est aussi haute des deux côtés; et 3) le ratio nids/singletons et le ratio prédateurs/singletons, ce qui indique que la perte des nids ne variait pas entre les zones. Cependant, il y avait significativement plus de prédateurs, de nids et d'autruches par rapport aux nichées dans l'EA que dans la WA, ce qui indique une réussite de la reproduction significativement plus faible dans la EA. En utilisant la terminologie de la métapopulation, les autruches de la EA peuvent être considérées comme une population «puits» et celles de la WA comme une population «source», mais il faudrait faire des recherches de plus longue durée pour montrer si c'est bien le cas. [source]

Mix and match , hybridization reveals hidden complexity in seal breeding behaviour

Not so long ago, mammalian breeding systems were seen as dominated by males fighting each other for the right to mate with passive females. Genetic parentage analysis has been instrumental in changing this view and exposing the key role of female choice. Some of the most interesting discoveries have emerged from work on seals, where extreme polygyny is common but females often seem to have a bigger say than was previously thought. A remarkable case in question involves Macquarie Island, where three species of fur seal recently formed a mixed breeding colony (Goldsworthy et al. 1999). Here, the true colours of both sexes lie unusually exposed, because classical models predict that males of the biggest species will dominate the beach and force females of smaller species to conceive mainly hybrid pups. In a fascinating paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lancaster and colleagues (Lancaster et al. 2007) show that females are not this naïve. Although happy to gain protection for most of the season by sitting in the territory of one of the largest males, regardless of whether he is the same species, females almost always conceive to one of their own kind. The females do this, not because any hybrid male offspring they conceive will be sickly and fail to hold good territories, but because females who pup in their hybrid son's territories will be disproportionately likely to mate elsewhere. Hybrid males seem physically fit but sexually unattractive! [source]