Breed Types (breed + type)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Effect of breed type, housing and feeding system on performance of growing pigs managed under organic conditions

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 15 2007
Hilary RC Kelly
Abstract BACKGROUND: There is a need for information on the performance and carcass quality of pigs under different organic management systems. This study compared Duroc-sired progeny from three maternal breed types when kept either at pasture or in housing with an outdoor run and offered ad libitum concentrate either alone or with fodder beet or grass/clover silage as additional forage. RESULTS: Liveweight gain, feed intake and the proportion of forages consumed did not differ between genotypes. Carcass fatness of progeny was lowest for a ,modern' genotype (Camborough 12) and highest for a ,traditional' purebred genotype (Saddleback), with a ,crossbred traditional' genotype (Saddleback Duroc) being intermediate (11.4, 14.3 and 13.4 mm P2 respectively, standard error of mean (SEM) 0.27, P < 0.001). With a cereal-based concentrate available ad libitum, intake of forages was low (<2% of dry matter intake). Although growth rate did not differ between housing systems, daily feed intake was greater at pasture (2.47 vs 2.22 kg meal equivalent, SEM 0.05, P < 0.001), giving poorer feed efficiency (P < 0.01). Pastured animals consumed less additional forage and had a higher killing-out % but similar carcass fatness. CONCLUSION: For organic pig production to be financially sustainable, disadvantages arising from the genotype and/or rearing system chosen need to be offset by a market premium for the pigs produced. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Effects of slaughter age on the levels of free amino acids and dipeptides in fattening cattle

ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2004
Akira WATANABE
ABSTRACT The effects of slaughter age, breed type and postmortem period were studied on the concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) and dipeptides (carnosine and anserine) in Longissimus dorsi muscle of beef. Slaughter age affected the levels of most FAA and dipeptides, and the concentrations of these compounds were significantly lower at 35 months of age than either 15 or 25 months of age. Slight increases were observed at 25 months compared with 15 months, but the differences were not significant except for a few FAA. These tendencies still remained when the concentrations were recalculated on the basis of protein. A significant breed effect was observed for taurine, carnosine and anserine. Almost all FAA were significantly increased during postmortem conditioning, but the level of each FAA fluctuated, and the fluctuations could not be explained statistically by slaughter age or breed differences. [source]


Comparative study on the regulation of body fluids and mammary circulation at different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on different types of roughage

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 2 2000
N. Chaiyabutr
Summary The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of prolonged feeding of urea-treated rice straw, compared with feeding of hay, on the regulation of body fluids, milk yield and mammary circulation at early lactation (30 days postpartum), mid-lactation (120 days postpartum) and late lactation (210 days postpartum) in crossbred Holstein Friesians. Sixteen first lactating crossbred Holstein Friesians (HF), consisting of eight animals of two breed types, 87.5%HF and 50%HF, were selected and each breed was randomly allocated into two groups. Each group, consisting of four animals from the same breed, was fed either 5% urea-treated rice straw or pangola hay (Digitaria decumbens) as the source of roughage in combination with a similar concentrate throughout the experiments. During the course of lactation there were no significant differences in body weight, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma volume and blood volume among groups of 87.5%HF animals and 50%HF animals fed either hay or urea-treated rice straw. Water turnover rate, total body water space and total body water as a percentage of body weight of 50%HF animals were significantly higher than those of 87.5%HF animals fed either hay or urea-treated rice straw. The packed cell volume was significantly higher in all lactating periods of both groups of 50%HF animals in comparison with 87.5%HF animals. The ratio of DM intake to milk production for 87.5%HF animals fed either hay or urea-treated rice straw was significantly lower than that of 50%HF animals in early lactation. The udder blood flow and milk secretion of 87.5%HF were significantly higher in early lactation and markedly declined when lactation advanced in comparison with those of 50%HF animals fed either hay or urea-treated rice straw. The ratio of mammary blood flow to milk yield for all groups was in a similar range during early lactation although it significantly increased in mid- and late lactation for both groups of 87.5%HF animals. From these results it can be concluded that both 50%HF and 87.5%HF animals feeding on urea-treated rice straw as a roughage source do not show any undernutritional effects in comparison with those fed with hay during the course of lactation. The physiological response differences between breeds are that 87.5%HF animals, which have a genetic makeup closer to the exotic bos taurus breed and a high milk yield, show a poor adjustment to the tropical environment and poorer lactation persistency in comparison with 50%HF animals. [source]


Effect of breed type, housing and feeding system on performance of growing pigs managed under organic conditions

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 15 2007
Hilary RC Kelly
Abstract BACKGROUND: There is a need for information on the performance and carcass quality of pigs under different organic management systems. This study compared Duroc-sired progeny from three maternal breed types when kept either at pasture or in housing with an outdoor run and offered ad libitum concentrate either alone or with fodder beet or grass/clover silage as additional forage. RESULTS: Liveweight gain, feed intake and the proportion of forages consumed did not differ between genotypes. Carcass fatness of progeny was lowest for a ,modern' genotype (Camborough 12) and highest for a ,traditional' purebred genotype (Saddleback), with a ,crossbred traditional' genotype (Saddleback Duroc) being intermediate (11.4, 14.3 and 13.4 mm P2 respectively, standard error of mean (SEM) 0.27, P < 0.001). With a cereal-based concentrate available ad libitum, intake of forages was low (<2% of dry matter intake). Although growth rate did not differ between housing systems, daily feed intake was greater at pasture (2.47 vs 2.22 kg meal equivalent, SEM 0.05, P < 0.001), giving poorer feed efficiency (P < 0.01). Pastured animals consumed less additional forage and had a higher killing-out % but similar carcass fatness. CONCLUSION: For organic pig production to be financially sustainable, disadvantages arising from the genotype and/or rearing system chosen need to be offset by a market premium for the pigs produced. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Global geographies of innovation diffusion: the case of the Australian cattle industry

THE GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010
MATTHEW TONTS
The geographies and histories of the introduction of cattle breeds to Australia in the period since white settlement are documented as an example of the diffusion of agricultural innovations. Three phases of development are identified: a colonial expansion phase from the late eighteenth to the early twentieth century during which a number of primarily British cattle breeds were imported by the colonial settlers; an innovative phase in the mid twentieth century when both governments and private interests sought to produce or import new breeds deemed to be better adapted to Australian environments; and a multifunctional phase in recent decades. In this final phase, government deregulation and new technologies, such as the long distance transport of genetic packages, have facilitated the importation and development of many new cattle breeds in Australia. While this has produced a significant rise in the total number of breeds represented nationally, many recent and historic breeds currently exhibit extremely small numbers and a few generally well-established breeds such as Holstein, Hereford and Angus still dominate the national herd. This study of changing breed types and introductions provides some evidence of post-productivism and of a multifunctional transition in that several cattle breeds favoured by hobby farmers and boutique breeders are now represented, but the aggregate numbers for these breeds remain small and the numbers for several of the traditional (or colonial) breeds are currently in decline. Overall, it is apparent that Australia's cattle industry retains a strongly productivist ethos and that, particularly given the country's very great environmental variation, its levels of breed diversity remain low. [source]


The evolution of tropical adaptation: comparing taurine and zebu cattle

ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2010
E. K. F. Chan
Summary Beef cattle breeds consist of three major genetic subdivisions. The taurine group is adapted to temperate environments, and the zebu and Sanga groups are both adapted to tropical environments. With the advent of genotyping and sequencing technologies in agriculture, genome-wide exploration of the genetic basis for the differences in tropical adaptation has only just become possible. In this study, approximately 9000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were genotyped on 317 animals of a selection of taurine, zebu, and composite breeds to characterize any systematic differences between these groups. We identified 91 intra-breed-class markers; 78 were polymorphic only within the zebu animals, while 13 were polymorphic only in the taurine animals. There were no fixed differences (fixed for alternate alleles between the two breed types) between zebu and taurine animals. We found 14 regions with significantly different allele frequencies between zebu and taurine animals indicative of variable selection pressure or genetic drift. We also found 12 independent regions of differential extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH), indicative of recent selection or rapid fixation of the alternate allele within a short period of time in one of the two breed classes. A preliminary functional genomics analysis of these regions pointed towards signatures of tropical attributes including keratins, heat-shock proteins and heat resistance genes. We anticipate this investigation to be a stepping-stone for future studies to identify genomic regions specific to the two cattle groups, and to subsequently assist in the discrimination between temperate and tropically adapted cattle. [source]