Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Breeds

  • cattle breed
  • chicken breed
  • chinese breed
  • different breed
  • different pig breed
  • dog breed
  • european breed
  • horse breed
  • large breed
  • new breed
  • of breed
  • other breed
  • pig breed
  • same breed
  • several breed
  • sheep breed
  • small breed
  • variety of breed

  • Terms modified by Breeds

  • breed association
  • breed difference
  • breed dog
  • breed type

  • Selected Abstracts

    Norepinephrine Uptake Sites in the Locus Coeruleus of Rat Lines Selectively Bred for High and Low Alcohol Preference: A Quantitative Autoradiographic Binding Study Using [3H]-Tomoxetine

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2000
    Bang H. Hwang
    Background: The locus coeruleus (LC) is the largest norepinephrinergic cell group in the central nervous system and contains a high density of norepinephrine (NE) uptake sites. Alcohol-preferring (AP) rats and high,alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats are selectively bred for high alcohol preference, whereas alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats and low,alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats are bred for low alcohol preference. However, it is unknown whether NE uptake sites in the LC are associated with alcohol preference in AP and HAD rats when compared with their respective control rats, NP and LAD rats. This study was designed to examine this question. Methods: Animals were decapitated and brains were removed, frozen with dry ice powder, and stored in a deep freezer. The LC tissue blocks were cut into 14 , cryostat sections, collected on glass slides, and incubated with 0.6 nM [3H]-tomoxetine in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer system. For nonspecific binding, 1 ,M desipramine was added to the radioactive ligand. Sections were rinsed, quickly dried, and processed for quantitative autoradiography. In addition, galanin content in the LC was also studied. Results: The LC possessed a high density of [3H]-tomoxetine binding sites. There were fewer tomoxetine binding sites (fmol/mg protein) in the AP rats (433.0 ± 8.1) than in the NP rats (495.6 ± 3.7). HAD rats (386.5 ± 13.2) also possessed fewer tomoxetine binding sites than LAD rats (458.7 ± 10.1). Galanin content in the LC was similar between AP and NP rats and between HAD and LAD rats. Conclusions: Because both AP rats and HAD rats were selectively bred for alcohol preference, the finding of consistently low levels of [3H]-tomoxetine binding in the LC of these two lines of rats with high alcohol preference suggests that down-regulation of NE transporters in the LC of AP and HAD rats may be associated with alcohol-seeking behavior. A possible involvement of the coerulear NE uptake sites in depression is also discussed. Galanin in the LC may not relate to alcohol preference. [source]

    The spermatozoon of the Old Endemic Australo-Papuan and Philippine rodents , its morphological diversity and evolution

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    William G. Breed
    Abstract Breed, W.G. and Leigh, C.M. 2010. The spermatozoon of the Old Endemic Australo-Papuan and Philippine rodents , its morphological diversity and evolution.,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 279,294 The spermatozoon of most murine rodents contains a head in which there is a characteristic apical hook, whereas most old endemic Australian murines, which are part of a broader group of species that also occur in New Guinea and the Philippines, have a far more complex sperm form with two additional ventral processes. Here we ask the question: what is the sperm morphology of the New Guinea and Philippines species and what are the trends in evolutionary changes of sperm form within this group? The results show that, within New Guinea, most species have a highly complex sperm morphology like the Australian rodents, but within the Pogonomys Division some species have a simpler sperm morphology with no ventral processes. Amongst the Philippines species, many have a sperm head with a single apical hook, but in three Apomys species the sperm head contains two additional small ventral processes, with two others having cockle-shaped sperm heads. When these findings are plotted on a molecular phylogeny, the results suggest that independent and convergent evolution of highly complex sperm heads containing two ventral processes has evolved in several separate lineages. These accessory structures may support the sperm head apical hook during egg coat penetration. [source]

    Breed as risk factor for oesophageal foreign bodies

    C.A. Rodríguez-Alarcón
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Quantitative Assessment of Regional Right Ventricular Myocardial Velocities in Awake Dogs by Doppler Tissue Imaging: Repeatability, Reproducibility, Effect of Body Weight and Breed, and Comparison with Left Ventricular Myocardial Velocities

    Valérie Chetboul
    Right ventricular myocardial (RVM) motion is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to determine the variability of RVM velocities by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in healthy dogs (study 1), to analyze RVM motion in a large healthy canine population (study 2), and to compare the results with those obtained for the left ventricular free wall. Six healthy Beagle Dogs were monitored in study 1, and 64 healthy dogs of 14 different breeds were monitored in study 2. Velocities were recorded in 2 segments (basal and apical) of the right and left myocardial walls. In study 1, 36 TDI examinations were performed for 4 days, whereas a single TDI examination was performed on each dog in study 2. All velocity profiles included 1 positive systolic wave and 2 negative diastolic waves. The lowest intraday and interday coefficient of variation values of the right TDI variables were observed at the base (3.5,16.1%). The variability of the right apical velocities was much higher, with most coefficient of variation values >15%. RVM velocities were higher in the basal than in the apical segments (P < .001) and were higher than the left velocities of the corresponding segment (P < .01). Body weight and breed had an effect on only a few right and left TDI variables. TDI provides a repeatable and reproducible method for evaluating basal RV function in the dog. These data also demonstrate the heterogeneity of the myocardial velocities between the left and the right ventricles and between the base and the apex. [source]

    Another Breed of "Service" Animals: STARS Study Findings About Pet Ownership and Recovery From Serious Mental Illness

    Jennifer P. Wisdom PhD
    This study elucidates the role of pets in recovery processes among adults with serious mental illness. Data derive from interviews with 177 HMO members with serious mental illness (52.2% women, average age 48.8 years) in the Study of Transitions and Recovery Strategies (STARS). Interviews and questionnaires addressed factors affecting recovery processes and included questions about pet ownership. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory method to identify the roles pets play in the recovery process. Primary themes indicate pets assist individuals in recovery from serious mental illness by (a) providing empathy and "therapy"; (b) providing connections that can assist in redeveloping social avenues; (c) serving as "family" in the absence of or in addition to human family members; and (d) supporting self-efficacy and strengthening a sense of empowerment. Pets appear to provide more benefits than merely companionship. Participants' reports of pet-related contributions to their well-being provide impetus to conduct more formal research on the mechanisms by which pets contribute to recovery and to develop pet-based interventions. [source]

    Effect of Days Post-Partum, Breed and Ovum Pick-Up Scheme on Bovine Oocyte Recovery and Embryo Development

    AS Lopes
    Contents The objective of this study was to investigate (i) the effect of two different ovum pick-up (OPU) schemes (once vs twice weekly aspirations) on oocyte recovery rate, quality and subsequent in vitro embryo development, (ii) the influence of days post-partum on oocyte recovery and (iii) possible differences in OPU results from two different herds. In group A, OPU was performed twice weekly in two Holstein Friesian (HF) and three Danish Red and White (DRW) cows from a private herd. In the research herd, two groups of eight HF cows were investigated: group B (OPU once weekly) and group C (OPU twice weekly). The collected oocytes were subsequently submitted to in vitro embryo production. More oocytes were recovered from the private herd when compared with the research herd. In the research herd, the twice weekly scheme aspirated more oocytes than the once weekly scheme. The quality of the retrieved oocytes was significantly different between groups B and C but not between groups A and C, and HF cows yielded higher quality oocytes than DRW cows (p = 0.029). Oocytes from group C showed higher level of embryonic development than group B oocytes. No differences in blastocyst rates were observed between groups A and C. Session affected the number of retrieved oocytes and subsequent developmental rates, with these being lower in the first compared with the last sessions. Finally, there was no significant effect of days post-partum in the number and quality of the retrieved oocytes, likely because of the small group size and high variation between sessions. [source]

    The Distribution of Ganglion Cells in the Equine Retina and its Relationship to Skull Morphology

    K. E. Evans
    Summary It has recently been reported that a strong correlation exists between the distribution of retinal ganglion cells and nose length in the domestic dog. To determine if this phenomenon occurs in another domestic species with diverse skull morphology, the current study examined the distribution of retinal ganglion cells in 30 horses from a variety of breeds. There was a significant variation in the density of ganglion cells found across the retinae. Breed was a significant predictor for ganglion cell density within the visual streak. A strong positive correlation exists between the density of ganglion cells in the visual streak and nasal length. Significant variation was also seen in the area centralis but did not correlate with any of the recorded skull measurements. The findings of this study provide us with further understanding of the equine visual system and the level of variation that exists between individuals of the same species. [source]

    Factors associated with low vitamin D status of Australian alpacas

    GJ Judson
    Objective To investigate factors associated with low vitamin D status of alpacas at pasture in southern Australia. Design A 2-year survey of alpacas from two farms in South Australia and three in Victoria. Blood samples were collected from 20 to 30 alpacas on each farm on five occasions each year. Breed, gender, age and fleece colour of animals were recorded. Method Blood samples were assayed for plasma 2.5-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D3) and plasma inorganic phosphorus (Pi). Data sets from 802 animal samples were analysed by multiple regression to determine variables associated with low vitamin D status of alpacas. The relationship between plasma 25-OH D3 and plasma Pi was also investigated. Results Vitamin D status was significantly affected by month of sampling, with low values in late winter and high values in summer. Plasma vitamin D concentrations increased with age, were higher in alpacas with light fleeces than in those with dark fleeces and were also higher in the Suri than in the Huacaya breed. Plasma Pi concentrations were generally lower in alpacas with plasma 25-OH D3 values < 25 nmol/L. Conclusions Young alpacas with dark fleeces are most at risk from vitamin D insufficiency in late winter in southern Australia. The present study indicates that plasma Pi values are not a reliable indicator of vitamin D status of alpacas as assessed by plasma 25-OH D3 concentrations. [source]

    Effect of breed on anatomy of portosystemic shunts resulting from congenital diseases in dogs and cats: a review of 242 cases

    Objective To evaluate the effect of species and breed on the anatomy of portosystemic vascular anomalies in dogs and cats. Design Retrospective study of 233 dogs and nine cats presenting to the University Veterinary Centre, Sydney. Methods Case records were evaluated for breed, sex, age, anatomical and histological diagnosis. Cases were included when a portosystemic vascular anomaly resulted from a congenital or developmental abnormality of the liver or portal venous system. Results Disease conditions included single congenital portosystemic shunt with patent portal vasculature (214 dogs, nine cats), portal vein aplasia (nine dogs), multiple acquired shunts resulting from portal vein hypoplasia (seven dogs), biliary atresia (one dog) and microvascular dysplasia (one dog). One Maltese had a single, congenital shunt and multiple acquired shunts resulting from hepatic cirrhosis. Breeds that were significantly over-represented included the Maltese, Silky Terrier, Australian Cattle Dog, Bichon Frise, Shih Tzu, Miniature Schnauzer, Border Collie, Jack Russell Terrier, Irish Wolfhound and Himalayan cat. Bichon Frise with shunts were significantly more likely to be female than male (12:2, P < 0.001). Two hundred and fourteen dogs (91.4%), and all cats, had shunts that were amenable to attenuation. Inoperable shunts occurred in 19 dogs (8.2%). Fifty six of 61 (92%) operable shunts in large breed dogs were intrahepatic, versus 10/153 (7%) in small breeds (P < 0.0001). Breeds that were not predisposed to portosystemic shunts were significantly more likely to have unusual or inoperable shunts than dogs from predisposed breeds (29% versus 7.6%, P < 0.0001). No significant relationship between breed and shunt type could be determined in cats. Conclusion Breed has a significant influence on shunt anatomy in dogs. Animals presenting with signs of portosystemic shunting may suffer from a wide range of operable or inoperable conditions. Veterinarians should be aware that unusual or inoperable shunts are much more likely to occur in breeds that are not predisposed to congenital portosystemic shunts. [source]

    Effects of breed, sex and halothane genotype on fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids in pork longissimus muscle

    S. Zhang
    Summary The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of breed, sex, and halothane (HAL-1843TM) genotype on fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) extracted from porcine longissimus muscle (LM). Purebred Yorkshire (n = 131), Duroc (n = 136), Hampshire (n = 49), Spotted (n = 35), Chester White (n = 74), Poland China (n = 51), Berkshire (n = 169) and Landrace (n = 82) pigs (n = 727; 427 barrows and 300 gilts) from the 1994 and 2001 National Barrow Show Sire Progeny Tests were used. For statistical analyses, a mixed model was used that included fixed effects of breed, sex, HAL-1843TM genotype, year, slaughter date within each year, interaction of breed × sex and random effects of sire and dam within breed. Breeds and sex were significantly associated with the percentages of the majority fatty acids in TAG. Duroc pigs had greater total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and lower total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p < 0.05) contents than did pigs of all other breeds except Berkshire (p > 0.05). The concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the greatest in Hampshire pigs (p < 0.05). The content of total SFA was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the concentrations of total MUFA and PUFA were lower (p < 0.01) in barrows than those in gilts. The contents of major SFA in PL did not differ significantly among pigs from different breeds and sex groups. However, breed and sex significantly affected the concentrations of major MUFA and PUFA in PL and strong negative correlation between the total contents of MUFA and PUFA in PL was observed in the current study. Chester White pigs had greater total MUFA and lower total PUFA contents (p < 0.05) in PL than did pigs of all other breeds except Spotted (p > 0.05). In contrast to breed and sex effects, the concentrations of fatty acids in PL were more affected by HAL-1843TM genotype than those in TAG. The content of C16:0, a major SFA in PL, differed significantly in pigs with different HAL-1843TM genotypes. In conclusion, these results suggest that breed and sex are important sources of the variations for fatty acid composition of TAG and PL in LM. [source]

    Volatile Compounds of Raw Beef from 5 Local Spanish Cattle Breeds Stored Under Modified Atmosphere

    K. Insausti
    ABSTRACT Volatile compounds of raw beef from Asturiana de los Valles, Morucha, Parda Alpina, Pirenaica, and Retinta cattle breeds were studied. Steaks were packaged under 60% O2, 30% CO2, and 10% N2, and 53 volatile compounds were tentatively identified by purge-and-trap extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry after 0, 5, 10, and 15 d of chill storage. The degradation of beef quality with increasing storage time was evidenced by the increase in 2,3,3-trimethylpentane, 2,2,5-trimethylhexane, 3-octene, 3-methyl-2-heptene, 2-octene, and 2-propanone and by the decrease in dimethyl sulfide. Consequently, some of the volatile compounds, which are believed to be formed by thermal degradation of meat, might be formed during chill storage, and the rate of formation of some was dependent on the specific compound. [source]

    Genetic and Environmental Risk Indicators in Canine Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas: Breed Associations and Geographic Distribution of 608 Cases Diagnosed throughout France over 1 Year

    M. Pastor
    Background: The etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) is multifactorial. Environmental and genetic factors are frequently incriminated both in humans and dogs. Objectives: Our purpose was to study the geographic distribution of canine NHL (CNHL) in France and to evaluate genetic and environmental influences. Animals: Six hundred and eight cases of CNHL, diagnosed throughout France over 1 year, were collected from 7 Veterinary Histopathologic Laboratories. Methods: Retrospective study. Breeds affected by lymphomas were compared with the national population and associations between breed and immunophenotype were studied. The distribution of CNHL and canine T-cell NHL per 100,000 dogs per department was compared with the distribution of waste incinerators, polluted sites, and radioactive waste. Results: The breeds significantly overrepresented among lymphoma cases were Boxer, Setter, and Cocker Spaniel (P < .001). There was a significant association between Boxer and T-cell NHL (P < .001), and between German Shepherd and Rottweiler and B-cell NHL (P < .01). The geographic distribution of CNHL and canine T-cell NHL indicated significant heterogeneity. Significant association between distributions of CNHL and waste incinerators (,= 0.25, P < .05), polluted sites (,= 0.36, P < .001), and radioactive waste (,= 0.51, P < .001) was found. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Influence of genetics in the development of CNHL was supported by the existence of an association between breed and immunophenotype. Waste incinerators, polluted sites, and radioactive waste could just be considered as risk indicators of CNHL, but not as risk factors. Case-control studies around critical sites are necessary to confirm the implication of those environmental factors in the development of CNHL. [source]

    Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Quality of Cryopreserved Boar Semen in Different Breeds

    K Kaeoket
    Contents During the cryopreservation process, the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the sperm plasma membrane decreases significantly because of lipid peroxidation, which may contribute to sperm loss quality (i.e. fertility) of frozen,thawed semen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of DHA (fish oil) in freezing extender II on frozen,thawed semen quality. Semen from 20 boars of proven motility and morphology, were used in this study. Boar semen was split into four groups, in which the lactose,egg yolk (LEY) extender used to resuspend the centrifuged sperm pellet was supplemented with various levels of fish oil to reach DHA level of 1X (group I, control, no added fish oil), 6X (group II), 12X (group III) and 18X (group IV). Semen solutions were frozen by using a controlled rate freezer. After cryopreservation, frozen semen was thawed and evaluated for progressive motility, viability by using SYBR-14/Ethidiumhomodimer-1 (EthD-1) staining and acrosome integrity by using FITC-PNA/EthD-1 staining. There was a significantly higher (p < 0.001) percentage of progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity in DHA (fish oil) supplemented groups than control group. Generally, there seemed to be a dose-dependent effect of DHA, with the highest percentage of progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity in group-III. In conclusion, supplementation of the LEY extender with DHA by adding fish oil was effective for freezing boar semen as it resulted in higher post-thaw plasma membrane integrity and progressive motility. [source]

    Lactose Synthase Components in Milk: Concentrations of ,-Lactalbumin and ,1,4-Galactosyltransferase in Milk of Cows from Several Breeds at Various Stages of Lactation

    GT Bleck
    Contents It is believed that milk production is determined by the number and activity of mammary secretory cells. Secretory activity, as assessed by milk volume, depends on secretion of the major osmole in milk, lactose, which is produced by lactose synthase. The amount of either of the two proteins in lactose synthase may regulate milk production. The objective of this study was to determine whether the concentrations in milk of the two components of lactose synthase, ,-lactalbumin (,-LA) and ,1,4-galactosyltransferase (B4GALT), were related to genetic background, stage of lactation, breed or parity of dairy cows. ,-Lactalbumin and B4GALT concentrations were measured by ELISA and by enzyme assays, respectively, from single milk samples. Two herds with a total of 279 cows were used in the analysis. One herd contained Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Holstein and Jersey cows; the second herd contained two groups of cows; Holsteins selected for high milk production and Holsteins with 1960s genetics. The ,-LA concentration in milk was greater in Jerseys and Ayrshires than in Holsteins and Brown Swiss. However, no difference in ,-LA concentration was observed in milk from high and low genetic merit cows in the Minnesota herd or among different genetic backgrounds in the Illinois herd. ,1,4-Galactosyltransferase concentrations were similar for all groups that were analyzed. ,-Lactalbumin concentrations were positively correlated with milk protein concentration, milk fat concentration and lactose concentration. ,1,4-Galactosyltransferase concentration in milk exhibited a strong positive correlation with number of days in milk. Although the concentration of B4GALT increased as lactation progressed, the values did not show any correlation with persistency of lactation or late lactation milk production. In conclusion, this survey shows that the two components of lactose synthase are each correlated to protein concentration and individually correlated to the concentration of other milk components and stage of lactation. [source]

    Origins and genetic diversity of New World Creole cattle: inferences from mitochondrial and Y chromosome polymorphisms

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 2 2010
    C. Ginja
    Summary The ancestry of New World cattle was investigated through the analysis of mitochondrial and Y chromosome variation in Creoles from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Paraguay and the United States of America. Breeds that influenced the Creoles, such as Iberian native, British and Zebu, were also studied. Creoles showed high mtDNA diversity (H = 0.984 ± 0.003) with a total of 78 haplotypes, and the European T3 matriline was the most common (72.1%). The African T1a haplogroup was detected (14.6%), as well as the ancestral African-derived AA matriline (11.9%), which was absent in the Iberian breeds. Genetic proximity among Creoles, Iberian and Atlantic Islands breeds was inferred through their sharing of mtDNA haplotypes. Y-haplotype diversity in Creoles was high (H = 0.779 ± 0.019), with several Y1, Y2 and Y3 haplotypes represented. Iberian patrilines in Creoles were more difficult to infer and were reflected by the presence of H3Y1 and H6Y2. Y-haplotypes confirmed crossbreeding with British cattle, mainly of Hereford with Pampa Chaqueño and Texas Longhorn. Male-mediated Bos indicus introgression into Creoles was found in all populations, except Argentino1 (herd book registered) and Pampa Chaqueño. The detection of the distinct H22Y3 patriline with the INRA189-90 allele in Caracú suggests introduction of bulls directly from West Africa. Further studies of Spanish and African breeds are necessary to elucidate the origins of Creole cattle, and determine the exact source of their African lineages. [source]

    Effect of breed on anatomy of portosystemic shunts resulting from congenital diseases in dogs and cats: a review of 242 cases

    Objective To evaluate the effect of species and breed on the anatomy of portosystemic vascular anomalies in dogs and cats. Design Retrospective study of 233 dogs and nine cats presenting to the University Veterinary Centre, Sydney. Methods Case records were evaluated for breed, sex, age, anatomical and histological diagnosis. Cases were included when a portosystemic vascular anomaly resulted from a congenital or developmental abnormality of the liver or portal venous system. Results Disease conditions included single congenital portosystemic shunt with patent portal vasculature (214 dogs, nine cats), portal vein aplasia (nine dogs), multiple acquired shunts resulting from portal vein hypoplasia (seven dogs), biliary atresia (one dog) and microvascular dysplasia (one dog). One Maltese had a single, congenital shunt and multiple acquired shunts resulting from hepatic cirrhosis. Breeds that were significantly over-represented included the Maltese, Silky Terrier, Australian Cattle Dog, Bichon Frise, Shih Tzu, Miniature Schnauzer, Border Collie, Jack Russell Terrier, Irish Wolfhound and Himalayan cat. Bichon Frise with shunts were significantly more likely to be female than male (12:2, P < 0.001). Two hundred and fourteen dogs (91.4%), and all cats, had shunts that were amenable to attenuation. Inoperable shunts occurred in 19 dogs (8.2%). Fifty six of 61 (92%) operable shunts in large breed dogs were intrahepatic, versus 10/153 (7%) in small breeds (P < 0.0001). Breeds that were not predisposed to portosystemic shunts were significantly more likely to have unusual or inoperable shunts than dogs from predisposed breeds (29% versus 7.6%, P < 0.0001). No significant relationship between breed and shunt type could be determined in cats. Conclusion Breed has a significant influence on shunt anatomy in dogs. Animals presenting with signs of portosystemic shunting may suffer from a wide range of operable or inoperable conditions. Veterinarians should be aware that unusual or inoperable shunts are much more likely to occur in breeds that are not predisposed to congenital portosystemic shunts. [source]

    A survey of mobile and wireless technologies for augmented reality systems

    George Papagiannakis
    Abstract Recent advances in hardware and software for mobile computing have enabled a new breed of mobile augmented reality (AR) systems and applications. A new breed of computing called ,augmented ubiquitous computing' has resulted from the convergence of wearable computing, wireless networking, and mobile AR interfaces. In this paper, we provide a survey of different mobile and wireless technologies and how they have impact AR. Our goal is to place them into different categories so that it becomes easier to understand the state of art and to help identify new directions of research. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Responses of weaned lambs to fear-eliciting situations: Origin of individual differences

    Manon Viérin
    Abstract The aims of this study were 1) to develop methods of objectively measuring fear in weaned lambs, and 2) to evaluate the effects of age, sex, breed, and rearing conditions on fear reactions. Four hundred forty-one lambs, aged 3 to 6 months, were submitted to three fear-eliciting situations (isolation, surprise effect, and human presence). Factor analysis revealed a first factor, interpreted in terms of fear, that accounted for 40% of total variance in the three tests. As in adult sheep, the main signs of fear were inhibition of feeding, long distance from the frightening stimulus, frequent immobilizations, and numerous high-pitch bleats. Behavior was also influenced by differences in general locomotor activity and exploratory motivation. Fear reactions were influenced by age (3- to 4-month-old lambs more fearful than 5- to 6-month-old), sex (females more fearful than males), breed (Romanov more fearful than Ile-de-France), and rearing conditions (artificial vs. maternal: almost no influence in males and influence in females depending on age). These results with sheep provide interesting theoretical and practical perspectives to the study of fearfulness. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 42: 131,147, 2003 [source]

    Feeding and breeding across host plants within a locality by the widespread thrips Frankliniella schultzei, and the invasive potential of polyphagous herbivores

    M. Milne
    Abstract. Polyphagous insect herbivores could be expected to perform relatively well in new areas because of their ability to exploit alternative resources. We investigated relative abundance patterns of the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella schultzei, which is characteristically found on plants from many different families, to establish the role of different host plant species in a single locality where the species is not indigenous (Brisbane, south-eastern Queensland, Australia). F. schultzei females and larvae were always present in flowers (where oviposition takes place) and never on leaves of the eight plant species that we surveyed regularly over one year. They were present in flowers of Malvaviscus arboreus in much higher densities than for any other host. F. schultzei females were more fecund and larvae developed faster on floral tissue diets of M. arboreus than on those of other hosts. M. arboreus is therefore regarded as the ,primary' host plant of F. schultzei in the locality that we investigated. The other species are regarded as ,minor' hosts. Available evidence indicates a common geographical origin of F. schultzei and M. arboreus. F. schultzei may therefore be primarily adapted to M. arboreus. The flowers of the minor species on which F. schultzei is also found may coincidentally share some features of the primary host. Adult thrips may therefore accumulate on minor hosts and breed there, but to a lesser extent than on the primary host. The general implications for investigating polyphagous host relationships and interpreting the ecology of these species as generalist invaders are spelt out. [source]

    Burying beetle Nicrophorus investigator reproduction on Pacific salmon carcasses

    M. D. Hocking
    Abstract., 1.,In many undisturbed watersheds along the Pacific Rim, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) provide a predictable source of carrion to the riparian zone, largely due to horizontal transfer of salmon carcasses by bears (Ursus spp.) and other vertebrates. 2.,Burying beetles are important members of the north-temperate carrion fauna, and may utilise salmon carcasses and remnants for breeding. In this study, isotopic and observational data are reported that demonstrate previously unrecognised Nicrophorus investigator (Zetterstedt) reproduction on large salmon carcasses from five watersheds in coastal British Columbia. 3.,Stable isotope signatures (,15N and ,13C) of adult beetles collected in autumn indicate a diet of salmon origin in all but one individual from all watersheds, suggesting that this beetle,salmon association is widespread. Comparison of autumn isotope signatures to individuals collected randomly in summer suggests that isotope signatures represent the larval carrion source from the previous autumn rather than immediate adult diet. 4.,In a survey of N. investigator use of salmon carcasses from two watersheds, 35 broods were observed on chum and pink salmon carcasses, including 16 natural brood complexes containing over 100 larvae, and five ranging from 250 to 750 larvae. 5.,Overall, north-coastal populations of N. investigator breed on the rich and reliable salmon resource and may exhibit a system of communal breeding on these carcasses. This is most relevant when the dramatic reduction in salmon spawning biomass over the last century is considered. [source]

    Fungivore host-use groups from cluster analysis: patterns of utilisation of fungal fruiting bodies by ciid beetles

    Glenda M. Orledge
    Abstract., 1.,Ciid beetles typically live and breed in the fruiting bodies of lignicolous basidiomycete fungi. This study was undertaken to address the lack of an objective examination of patterns of host use by ciids. 2.,Cluster analysis of ciid host-use datasets from Britain, Germany, North America, and Japan, and subsequent cross-dataset comparisons, demonstrated the existence of ciid host-use patterns of wide geographical occurrence. These patterns were formalised as ciid host-use groups. 3.,Six Holarctic ciid host-use groups, and two host-use subgroups, were identified, and are described. Each host-use group comprises an assemblage of fungal genera and the breeding ciids that it supports. Each taxon belongs to only a single host-use group, but may be associated with several members of that group. There is a strong tendency for closely related taxa to belong to the same host-use group. 4.,It is suggested that ciid host-use groups are defined ultimately by host chemistry, with the ciids that belong to a particular group recognising, and responding positively to, emitted volatiles characterising the fungi belonging to that group. 5.,The idea of the host-use group bears comparison with the concepts of niche and guild, but is not equivalent to either. 6.,Ciid host-use groups have a valuable role to play in underpinning future studies of ciid ecology, also the systematics of both ciids and their fungal hosts. [source]

    Spanish merino wools and the nouvelles draperies: an industrial transformation in the late medieval Low Countries1

    From the seventeenth century, the world's finest wools have been those produced by descendants of the Spanish merino. During the middle ages, however, England produced Europe's finest wools. Not until the fourteenth century does a distinct merino breed appear in Spain; and, before then, 'Spanish' wools were amongst the very worst in Europe, used in the production of only the very cheapest fabrics. By the late fourteenth century, some merino wools were being used in some Italian draperies; but, in the north, long-held historic prejudices against 'Spanish' wools hindered their introduction, especially into the Low Countries' draperies, which, because of structural changes in international trade, had become re-oriented to manufacturing luxury woollens, most woven from the finest English wools. From the 1420s, however, disastrous changes in England's fiscal policies so increased the cost of these exported wools that many of the younger Flemish draperies, the so-called nouvelles draperies, producing imitations of the finer woollens from the older established draperies, decided to switch to Spanish merino wools (often mixed with English wools). By the mid-fifteenth century, the merinos had indeed improved enough in quality to rival at least the mid-range English wools. Most of the traditional draperies, however, did not adopt merino wools until much too late, and thus, by the early sixteenth century found themselves displaced by the nouvelle draperies as the leading cloth manufacturers in the Low Countries. [source]

    Assessing trace-metal exposure to American dippers in mountain streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    Christy A. Morrissey
    Abstract To develop a suitable biomonitor of metal pollution in watersheds, we examined trends in exposure to nine trace elements in the diet (benthic invertebrates and fish), feathers (n = 104), and feces (n = 14) of an aquatic passerine, the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), from the Chilliwack watershed in British Columbia, Canada. We hypothesized that key differences may exist in exposure to metals for resident dippers that occupy the main river year-round and altitudinal migrants that breed on higher elevation tributaries because of differences in prey metal levels between locations or possible differences in diet composition. Metals most commonly detected in dipper feather samples in decreasing order were Zn > Cu > Hg > Se > Pb > Mn > Cd > Al > As. Resident dipper feathers contained significantly higher mean concentrations of mercury (0.64 ,g/g dry wt), cadmium (0.19 ,g/g dry wt), and copper (10.8 ,g/g dry wt) relative to migrants. Mass balance models used to predict daily metal exposure for dippers with different diets and breeding locations within a watershed showed that variation in metal levels primarily was attributed to differences in the proportion offish and invertebrates in the diet of residents and migrants. In comparing predicted metal exposure values to tolerable daily intakes (TDI), we found that most metals were below or within the range of TDI, except selenium, aluminum, and zinc. Other metals, such as cadmium, copper, and arsenic, were only of concern for dippers mainly feeding on insects; mercury was only of concern for dippers consuming high fish diets. The models were useful tools to demonstrate how shifts in diet and breeding location within a single watershed can result in changes in exposure that may be of toxicological significance. [source]

    Return to work following unilateral enucleation in 34 horses (2000,2008)

    M. E. UTTER
    Summary Reasons for study: The effect of unilateral enucleation on vision and potential loss of performance in horses has received little study. Objective: To evaluate the likelihood of return to prior discipline following unilateral enucleation in horses, assessing the role of age at enucleation, equine discipline, reason for enucleation, time to vision loss and eye enucleated. Hypothesis: Unilateral enucleation has no significant effect on likelihood of return to work in horses, for both right and left eyes, across age and discipline. Method: A retrospective review of medical records identified 92 horses that underwent unilateral enucleation at the University of Pennsylvania New Bolton Center from April 2000,April 2008. Case variables determined from the medical record included breed and sex of horse, age at enucleation, which eye was enucleated, reason for enucleation and onset of vision loss. Pre- and post operative occupations were determined by telephone interview with the owner or trainer of each horse. Results: Based on hospital surgery logs, 92 enucleations were performed over the 8 year period and 77 records were available for review, with follow-up information available for 34 horses. Of these, 29/34 (85%) horses returned to work in pleasure or trail riding (11/13), flat racing (7/10), hunter/jumpers (4/4), dressage (3/3), group lessons (1/1), eventing (1/1), steeplechase (1/1) and as a broodmare (1/1). Four of 5 horses (4/34, or 12% sample) that did not return to work (2 pleasure and 2 racing) were retired due to anticipated or perceived decrease in performance or behaviour change following unilateral enucleation, with the remaining horse retired from racing for lameness issues unrelated to enucleation. Twenty-two of 25 horses (88%) with acute vision loss and 7/9 horses (78%) with gradual vision loss returned to their previous discipline. Conclusions: Horses are able to return to a variety of occupations after unilateral enucleation. [source]

    Racing performance following the laryngeal tie-forward procedure: A case-controlled study

    J. Cheetham
    Summary Reasons for performing study: The laryngeal tie-forward procedure (LTFP) is becoming widely used for correction of dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) despite the absence of an evidence-based assessment of its efficacy. Hypotheses: The LTFP returns racing performance to preoperative baseline levels and to that of matched controls; and post operative laryngohyoid position is associated with post operative performance. Design and population: Case-controlled study of racehorses undergoing a LTFP for dorsal displacement of the soft palate at Cornell University between October 2002 and June 2007. Methods: The presence of at least one post operative start and race earnings ($) were used as outcome variables. Controls were matched by age, breed and sex from the third race prior to surgery. A novel radiographic reference system was used to determine laryngohyoid position pre- and post operatively. Data for definitively and presumptively diagnosed cases were analysed separately. Results: During the study interval, 263 racehorses presented, of which 106 were included in the study; 36 had a definitive diagnosis of DDSP and 70 a presumptive diagnosis. Treated horses were equally likely to race post operatively as controls in the equivalent race. Treated horses had significantly lower earnings in the race before surgery than matched controls. The procedure moved the basihyoid bone dorsally and caudally and the larynx dorsally and rostrally. A more dorsal post operative basihyoid position and more dorsal and less rostral laryngeal position were associated with an increased probability of racing post operatively. Conclusions: Horses undergoing a LTFP are as likely to race post operatively as matched controls. The procedure restores race earnings to preoperative baseline levels and to those of matched controls. Potential relevance: This study provides strong evidence supporting the use of the LTFP in racehorses. Further work is needed to determine the relationship between laryngohyoid conformation and nasopharyngeal stability in horses. [source]

    Phenotypic diagnosis of dwarfism in six Friesian horses

    W. BACK
    Summary An extreme form of abnormal development, dwarfism, is common in man and some animals, but has not been officially reported in horses. Within the Friesian horse breed, congenital dwarfism has been recognised for many years, but no detailed report exists on its phenotype. The most salient feature of the dwarf syndrome is the physeal growth retardation in both limbs and ribs. Affected animals have approximately 25% shorter fore- and hindlimbs and approximately 50% reduced bodyweight. Post natal growth is still possible in these animals, albeit at a slower rate: the head and back grow faster than the limbs and ribs leading to the characteristic disproportional growth disturbance. Thus, mature dwarfs exhibit a normal, but a relatively larger head conformation, a broader chest with narrowing at the costochondral junction, a disproportionally long back, abnormally short limbs, hyperextension of the fetlocks and narrow long-toed hooves. Furthermore, a dysplastic metaphysis of the distal metacarpus and metatarsus is radiographically evident. Microscopic analysis of the growth plates at the costochondral junction shows an irregular transition from cartilage to bone, and thickening and disturbed formation of chondrocyte columns, which is similar to findings in osteochondrodysplasia. [source]

    An epidemiological study of myopathies in Warmblood horses

    L. M. HUNT
    Summary Reasons for performing study: There are few detailed reports describing muscular disorders in Warmblood horses. Objectives: To determine the types of muscular disorders that occur in Warmblood horses, along with presenting clinical signs, associated risk factors and response to diet and exercise recommendations, and to compare these characteristics between horses diagnosed with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), those diagnosed with a neuromuscular disorder other than PSSM (non-PSSM) and control horses. Methods: Subject details, muscle biopsy diagnosis and clinical history were compiled for Warmblood horses identified from records of biopsy submissions to the University of Minnesota Neuromuscular Diagnostic Laboratory. A standardised questionnaire was answered by owners at least 6 months after receiving the muscle biopsy report for an affected and a control horse. Results: Polysaccharide storage myopathy (72/132 horses) was the most common myopathy identified followed by recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) (7/132), neurogenic or myogenic atrophy (7/132), and nonspecific myopathic changes (14/132). Thirty-two biopsies were normal. Gait abnormality, ,tying-up', Shivers, muscle fasciculations and atrophy were common presenting clinical signs. Forty-five owners completed questionnaires. There were no differences in sex, age, breed, history or management between control, PSSM and non-PSSM horses. Owners that provided the recommended low starch fat supplemented diet and regular daily exercise reported improvement in clinical signs in 68% (19/28) of horses with a biopsy submission and 71% of horses diagnosed with PSSM (15/21). Conclusions: Muscle biopsy evaluation was a valuable tool to identify a variety of myopathies in Warmblood breeds including PSSM and RER. These myopathies often presented as gait abnormalities or overt exertional rhabdomyolysis and both a low starch fat supplemented diet and regular exercise appeared to be important in their successful management. Potential relevance: Warmbloods are affected by a variety of muscle disorders, which, following muscle biopsy diagnosis can be improved through changes in diet and exercise regimes. [source]

    Retrospective study of predictive variables for maximal heart rate (HRmax) in horses undergoing strenuous treadmill exercise

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Heart rate is one of the most commonly measured variables in equine exercise physiology and relative exercise intensity commonly expressed as % of maximal heart rate. A number of influences affect maximal heart rate (HRmax), including age of the horse but other factors have not been described. Objectives: To determine if fitness, health status, gender, breed, athletic use, body mass, in addition to age, are predictive of HRmax in the horse. Methods: Maximal heart rate data from 328 horses which underwent treadmill exercise tests at 5 different laboratories were obtained retrospectively. Univariable linear regression analyses were performed on individual variables. Multiple linear regression analysis using a backward elimination modelling procedure was then used to relate the observed HRmax values simultaneously with different predictive variables. Variables were retained in the final regression model if they or any of their categories were significantly predictive of HRmax at P<0.05 and if there was a significant collective contribution to the model from inclusion of each variable, also at P<0.05. Results: Age, fitness status, laboratory, gender and breed/use (combined category) were all statistically significantly predictive of HRmax. Together these variables accounted for 41% of the variance in HRmax. Age alone accounted for only ,13% of the variation between horses in HRmax. Neither body mass nor health status were significantly predictive. Conclusions: HRmax in the horse declines with age but is also influenced by other factors. As the factors investigated accounted for only 41% of the variation between horses, other unidentified variables with a strong influence on HRmax remain to be identified. Potential relevance: Factors such as fitness, age, gender, breed and use need to be considered when interpreting estimates or measurements of HRmax. [source]

    Two clinical manifestations of desmopathy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in the hindlimb of 23 horses

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Desmopathy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (ALDDFT) in the hindlimb is an unusual cause of lameness in horses, and reports of the condition are sparse. Objectives: To describe the clinical and ultrasonographic findings, therapy and outcome of 23 horses treated for desmopathy of the ALDDFT in the hindlimb. Methods: Records of 23 horses with ultrasonographic evidence of desmopathy of the ALDDFT in one or both hindlimbs from 3 referral centres were reviewed retrospectively. Age, breed, sex, duration and nature of clinical signs, results of clinical and lameness examinations, treatment and outcome were recorded. Results: In 13 horses (Group A), there was an acute onset of unilateral lameness. Ten horses (Group B) had an insidious or sudden onset of postural abnormality. There were 10 cobs, 5 British native-breed ponies and 8 horses of various larger breeds. Twenty horses were used for general purposes, and mean age was 12 years. Enlargement of the ALDDFT in the affected hindlimb(s) was identified in all horses. In 44% of horses, ultrasonographic abnormalities were localised to part of the ALDDFT. Treatment included box-rest and controlled exercise, and 10 horses were subjected to desmotomy or desmectomy of the ALDDFT. Seventy-three percent of horses in Group A returned to full function, while 90% of those in Group B remained lame. Conclusions: Two distinct clinical conditions are associated with the ALDDFT of the hindlimb. Traumatically induced injury resulting in acute onset lameness appears to have a favourable prognosis, with most horses returning to previous work. However, postural changes, once present, are irreversible and indicate a poor prognosis. Potential relevance: Desmopathy of the ALDDFT should be recognised as a potential cause of hindlimb lameness and this study provides clinical and prognostic information. Knuckling and/or semiflexion of the metatarsophalangeal joint may accompany the condition; therefore, if a horse is presented with a flexural deformity of this joint, desmopathy of the ALDDFT should be considered as a primary differential diagnosis. [source]

    Severe hypertriglyceridaemia in clinically ill horses: diagnosis, treatment and outcome

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Sporadic measurement of serum triglycerides in depressed and inappetant clinically ill horses revealed severe hypertriglyceridaemia without visible evidence of lipaemia on several occasions, leading to the inclusion of serum triglyceride concentrations in the routine serum biochemistry evaluation of our hospital. Since then, more cases have been identified and treated for hypertriglyceridaemia, raising questions about the prevalence, predisposing factors and significance of these findings. Hypotheses: 1) Severe hypertriglyceridaemia without visible opacity of the serum occurs more commonly in clinically ill and inappetant horses than previously described and 2) appropriate treatment using i.v. dextrose and/or partial parenteral nutrition would decrease serum triglycerides to normal limits and might result in improved appetite and attitude of the patient. Methods: The laboratory computer database from 2000 and 2001 was searched for increased serum triglycerides (>5.65 mmol/l) in any horse breed, ponies and miniature breeds excluded. Data analysed included subject details, diagnosis, clinical and laboratory parameters, treatment, response to treatment and outcome. Results: Severe hypertriglyceridaemia was identified in 13 horses, with serum triglyceride concentrations 6.17,18.29 mmol/l, while none showed visible lipaemia. All horses had clinical and laboratory findings consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and all but one had an increased serum creatinine concentration. Treatment with i.v. dextrose and/or partial parenteral nutrition resulted in decrease of the serum triglycerides to normal limits. Conclusions: Severe hypertriglyceridaemia occurs in inappetant and clinically ill horses without evidence of serum opacity more commonly than previously described. The presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome might predispose horses to hypertriglyceridaemia, while the increased creatinine concentration might be a predisposing factor or result of the condition. Horses identified in our study readily responded to treatment and appetite and attitude improved coincident with decrease of the serum triglycerides to normal limits. Potential relevance: Hypertriglyceridaemia could perpetuate inappetance and depression in clinically ill horses and potentially predispose to fatty infiltration of the liver and other organ systems. [source]