Breastfeeding Management (breastfeeding + management)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence

BIRTH, Issue 2 2007
Elizabeth Hormann EdM, IBCLC
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging

D. T. Ramsay
Abstract The aim of this study was to use ultrasound imaging to re-investigate the anatomy of the lactating breast. The breasts of 21 fully lactating women (1,6 months post partum) were scanned using an ACUSON XP10 (5,10 MHz linear array probe). The number of main ducts was measured, ductal morphology was determined, and the distribution of glandular and adipose tissue was recorded. Milk ducts appeared as hypoechoic tubular structures with echogenic walls that often contained echoes. Ducts were easily compressed and did not display typical sinuses. All ducts branched within the areolar radius, the first branch occurring 8.0 5.5 mm from the nipple. Duct diameter was 1.9 0.6 mm, 2.0 90.7 mm and the number of main ducts was 9.6 2.9, 9.2 2.9, for left and right breast, respectively. Milk ducts are superficial, easily compressible and echoes within the duct represent fat globules in breastmilk. The low number and size of the ducts, the rapid branching under the areola and the absence of sinuses suggest that ducts transport breastmilk, rather than store it. The distribution of adipose and glandular tissue showed wide variation between women but not between breasts within women. The proportion of glandular and fat tissue and the number and size of ducts were not related to milk production. This study highlights inconsistencies in anatomical literature that impact on breast physiology, breastfeeding management and ultrasound assessment. [source]

Breastfeeding failure in a longitudinal post-partum maternal nutrition study in Hong Kong

Sm Chan
Objective: To describe factors associated with breastfeeding failure during the first 6 months post-partum in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese women participating in a longitudinal study of maternal nutrition. Methodology: Forty-four Hong Kong Chinese lactating mothers who intended to breastfeed exclusively for at least 3 months were recruited and followed for 6 months post-partum. Demographic data were compared with 20 mothers who intended to use formula feeding. Mothers were followed up at 2 and 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months and details of infant feeding practices were obtained. Information was sought on breastfeeding management in hospital, reasons for discontinuation of breastfeeding or for providing supplements to babies and intention to seek, and sources of, lactation support. Results: Thirty-nine mothers who planned to breastfeed completed the follow up. Compared with mothers in the formula-feeding group, breastfeeding mothers were more likely to be professionals or housewives. Continuation of any breastfeeding (total and partial) was noted in 30 (77%), 22 (57%), 16 (41%) and 12 (31%) mothers at 2 and 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months post-partum, respectively. The majority (97%) of mothers stated that they were given information on the benefits and management of breastfeeding. However, late initiation of breastfeeding and providing supplements to babies were common. Perceptions of insufficient milk supply (44%), breast problems (31%) and being too tired (28%) were the main reasons stated for stopping breastfeeding or for providing supplements to babies. Midwives from the postnatal wards and hotlines were the main sources of lactation support. Conclusions: These results highlight difficulties in sustaining breastfeeding, either exclusive or partial, in Hong Kong Chinese women. Despite being recruited on the basis of intending to exclusively breastfeed for 3 months, less than half these mothers were still breastfeeding and only approximately one-third were exclusively or predominantly breastfeeding at 3 months. More needs to be done within the hospital environment to initiate breastfeeding immediately after birth and to avoid giving unnecessary supplements and more effort is needed to foster a mother's confidence, commitment and knowledge of breastfeeding. [source]

Exploring the barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in black and minority ethnic groups and young mothers in the UK

Jenny Ingram
Abstract UK health policy for many years has been to increase rates of breastfeeding because of the health benefits conferred on mothers and babies. World Health Organization recommends that babies should be breastfed exclusively for 6 months (without water or other fluids) and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence promotes the provision of peer supporters or breastfeeding support groups to increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to explore the barriers to exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months with black and minority ethnic groups and with young mothers, and the strategies for overcoming these barriers, including peer support. Twenty-two mothers from Somali, Afro-Caribbean and South Asian communities or young mothers groups attended five focus groups. Transcripts were analysed using thematic and framework methods. There was enthusiasm for breastfeeding support groups, but with a wider remit to discuss other baby-related issues and provide general social support as well as support for breastfeeding. The Somali and South Asian women preferred the groups to be for their ethnic group, Afro-Caribbean women were keen that they should be open to all cultures and young mothers would like groups for their peers only. Encouraging mothers to breastfeed exclusively to 6 months should be promoted more and emphasized by health professionals when supporting women post-natally, and good support with breastfeeding management should be given to enable mothers to achieve this goal. Breastfeeding support groups may play a part in increasing breastfeeding continuation of breastfeeding, but for the groups studied this was not the greatest influence, with families and older women in the community having more influence in changing practice. [source]