Breast Reconstruction (breast + reconstruction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Breast Reconstruction

  • flap breast reconstruction


  • Selected Abstracts


    QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BREAST RECONSTRUCTION IN A SPECIALIST ONCOPLASTIC UNIT: DISCUSSION

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 6 2005
    FRCS (Ed), Julian J. Pribaz FRACS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The Art and Science of Autologous Breast Reconstruction

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 5 2003
    James C. Grotting MD
    Abstract: Three significant advances are responsible for the recent evolution in breast reconstruction. The first of these is the introduction of the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap, which made reliable autologous breast reconstruction a reality. The subsequent application of microsurgical principles to this procedure brought further refinements in terms of improved blood supply and lessened donor site morbidity. Finally, the wide acceptance of the skin-sparing mastectomy by oncologic surgeons has allowed further progress in the aesthetic possibilities that can be realized by the plastic surgeon. The authors discuss each of these factors and provide an overview of the current state of the art of autologous free tissue breast reconstruction. [source]


    Breast reconstruction using perforator flaps

    JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Jay W. Granzow MD
    Abstract Background Perforator flaps allow the transfer of the patient's own skin and fat in a reliable manner with minimal donor-site morbidity. The deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) and superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps transfer the same tissue from the abdomen to the chest for breast reconstruction as the TRAM flap without sacrificing the rectus muscle or fascia. Gluteal artery perforator (GAP) flaps allow transfer of tissue from the buttock, also with minimal donor-site morbidity. Indications Most women requiring tissue transfer to the chest for breast reconstruction or other reasons are candidates for perforator flaps. Absolute contraindications to perforator flap breast reconstruction include history of previous liposuction of the donor site or active smoking (within 1 month prior to surgery). Anatomy and Technique The DIEP flap is supplied by intramuscular perforators from the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein. The SIEA flap is based on the SIEA and vein, which arise from the common femoral artery and saphenous bulb. GAP flaps are based on perforators from either the superior or inferior gluteal artery. During flap harvest, these perforators are meticulously dissected free from the surrounding muscle which is spread in the direction of the muscle fibers and preserved intact. The pedicle is anastomosed to recipient vessels in the chest and the donor site is closed without the use of mesh or other materials. Conclusions Perforator flaps allow the safe and reliable transfer of abdominal tissue for breast reconstruction. J. Surg. Oncol. 2006;94:441,454. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Breast Reconstruction after Bilateral Prophylactic Mastectomy in Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 2009
    Liron Eldor MD
    Abstract:, Several studies have shown the effectiveness of bilateral prophylactic mastectomies (BPM) at reducing the risk of developing breast cancer in women by more than 90%. A growing number of women at high risk for breast cancer are electing to undergo prophylactic mastectomy as part of a risk reduction strategy. This unique group of women frequently chooses to undergo reconstructive surgery as a part of their immediate treatment plan. Breast reconstruction after BPM has profound physiological and emotional impact on body image, sexuality, and quality of life. These factors should be taken into consideration and addressed when consulting the patient prior to BPM and reconstructive surgery. The timing of reconstructive surgery, the type of mastectomy performed, the reconstructive modalities available, and the possibility to preserve the nipple,areola complex, should all be discussed with the patient prior to surgery. In this article, we review our experience and the current existing literature on breast reconstruction for high-risk women after BPM. [source]


    Breast reconstruction following mastectomy: current status in Australia

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 9 2003
    Kerstin Sandelin
    Background: Although breast reconstruction provides some advantages for women following mastectomy, few Australian breast cancer patients currently receive reconstruction. In Australia, the routine provision of breast reconstruction will require the development of specific health service delivery models. The present paper reports an analysis of the provision of breast reconstruction in eight sites in Australia. Methods: A semi-structured telephone interview was conducted with 10 surgeons offering breast reconstruction as part of their practice, including nine breast or general surgeons and one plastic surgeon. Results: Surgeons reported offering breast reconstruction to all women facing mastectomy; the proportion of women deciding to have breast reconstruction varied between sites with up to 50% of women having a reconstruction at some sites. Most sites offered three types of reconstruction. Two pathways emerged: either the breast surgeon performed the breast surgery in a team with the plastic surgeon who undertook the breast reconstruction or the breast surgeon provided both the breast surgery and the reconstruction. Considerable waiting times for breast reconstruction were reported in the public sector particularly for delayed reconstruction. Surgeons reported receiving training in breast reconstruction from plastic surgeons or from a breast surgery team that performed reconstructions; a number had been trained overseas. No audits of breast reconstruction were being undertaken. Conclusions: Breast reconstruction can be offered on a routine basis in Australia in both the private and public sectors. Women may be more readily able to access breast reconstruction when it is provided by a breast surgeon alone, but the range of reconstruction options may be more limited. If access to breast reconstruction is to be increased, there will be a need to: (i) develop effective models for the rural sector taking account of the lack of plastic surgeons; (ii) address waiting times for reconstruction surgery in the public sector; (iii) review costs to women in the private sector; (iv) develop a better understanding of women's views and how best to communicate about breast reconstruction; and (v) improve training in breast reconstruction. [source]


    Breast reconstruction using autologous fat

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 6 2010
    N. Khonji
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Breast reconstruction using perforator flaps

    JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Jay W. Granzow MD
    Abstract Background Perforator flaps allow the transfer of the patient's own skin and fat in a reliable manner with minimal donor-site morbidity. The deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) and superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps transfer the same tissue from the abdomen to the chest for breast reconstruction as the TRAM flap without sacrificing the rectus muscle or fascia. Gluteal artery perforator (GAP) flaps allow transfer of tissue from the buttock, also with minimal donor-site morbidity. Indications Most women requiring tissue transfer to the chest for breast reconstruction or other reasons are candidates for perforator flaps. Absolute contraindications to perforator flap breast reconstruction include history of previous liposuction of the donor site or active smoking (within 1 month prior to surgery). Anatomy and Technique The DIEP flap is supplied by intramuscular perforators from the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein. The SIEA flap is based on the SIEA and vein, which arise from the common femoral artery and saphenous bulb. GAP flaps are based on perforators from either the superior or inferior gluteal artery. During flap harvest, these perforators are meticulously dissected free from the surrounding muscle which is spread in the direction of the muscle fibers and preserved intact. The pedicle is anastomosed to recipient vessels in the chest and the donor site is closed without the use of mesh or other materials. Conclusions Perforator flaps allow the safe and reliable transfer of abdominal tissue for breast reconstruction. J. Surg. Oncol. 2006;94:441,454. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Perfusion in free breast reconstruction flap zones assessed with positron emission tomography

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 6 2010
    Aleksi Schrey M.D.
    The aim of this pilot study was to determine the postoperative blood perfusion (BFPET) and perfusion heterogeneity (BFPET HG) in free microvascular breast reconstruction flap zones with positron emission tomography (PET). Regional BFPET and BFPET HG of the adipose tissue in medial, central, and lateral parts of 13 free flaps were assessed on the first postoperative morning with PET using oxygen-15-labeled water ([15O]H2O) in 12 patients undergoing breast reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) or a transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap. The mean BFPET values did not differ between DIEP and TRAM flaps (P = 0.791). The mean BFPET values were higher in zone III compared with zone I (P = 0.024). During follow-up, fat necrosis was identified in three patients in the medial part (zone II) of the flap. However, the adipose tissue BFPET assessed on the first postoperative day from all zones of the flap using PET with radiowater was normal. The BFPET HG was higher in the control side (i.e., in the healthy breast tissue) compared with the flap (P = 0.042). The BFPET HG was lower in zone III than in zone I (P = 0.03) and in zone II (P < 0.001). In this pilot study, PET was used for the first time for studying the adipose tissue perfusion in different zones in free flaps in a clinical setup, finding that the mean BFPET values did not differ between DIEP and TRAM flaps, and that zone II was sometimes not as well perfused as zone III supporting revisited zone division. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 30:430,436, 2010. [source]


    Vascular pedicle avulsion in free flap breast reconstruction: A case of diep flap salvage following early avulsion of venous anastomosis and literature review

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 3 2010
    Efstathios G. Lykoudis M.D., Ph.D.
    Free flap vascular pedicle avulsion represents an extremely rare complication in reconstructive microsurgery. Very few cases have been reported in the literature, most of them identified in free flap breast reconstruction. As a result, little data is currently available on the etiology and treatment of this rare complication. Herein, we report a unique case of early venous anastomosis avulsion following free DIEP flap transfer for delayed breast reconstruction. Venous outflow was successfully restored with the use of an interposition vein graft, and the flap survived completely. In addition, the relevant literature is reviewed; and the possible causes, preventive strategies, and management options are analyzed. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 2010. [source]


    The perforator angiosome: A new concept in the design of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps for breast reconstruction

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 1 2010
    B.Med.Sc., P.G.Dip.Surg.Anat., Ph.D., Warren M. Rozen M.B.B.S.
    Background: The previously described "perfusion zones" of the abdominal wall vasculature are based on filling of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and all its branches simultaneously. With the advent of the DIEA perforator flap, only a single or several perforators are included in supply to the flap. As such, a new model for abdominal wall perfusion has become necessary. The concept of a "perforator angiosome" is thus explored. Methods: A clinical and cadaveric study of 155 abdominal walls was undertaken. This comprised the use of 10 whole, unembalmed cadaveric abdominal walls for angiographic studies, and 145 abdominal wall computed tomographic angiograms (CTAs) in patients undergoing preoperative imaging of the abdominal wall vasculature. The evaluation of the subcutaneous branching pattern and zone of perfusion of individual DIEA perforators was explored, particularly exploring differences between medial and lateral row perforators. Results: Fundamental differences exist between medial row and lateral row perforators, with medial row perforators larger (1.3 mm vs. 1 mm) and more likely to ramify in the subcutaneous fat toward the contralateral hemiabdomen (98% of cases vs. 2% of cases). A model for the perfusion of the abdominal wall based on a single perforator is presented. Conclusion: The "perforator angiosome" is dependent on perforator location, and can mapped individually with the use of preoperative imaging. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010. [source]


    Banking a hemi-abdominal DIEP flap: A pilot report of indications, technique, and utility,,

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 4 2009
    Sachin M. Shridharani M.D.
    We present a pilot report of "banking" the contralateral hemi-abdominal deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap under the abdominal closure in patients undergoing unilateral autologous breast reconstruction when a hemi-abdominal flap suffices. Four patients undergoing unilateral autologous breast reconstruction with a hemi-abdominal DIEP or superficial inferior epigastric artery flap had their contralateral hemi-abdominal flap left in position, or "banked," under their abdominal closure to be used in case of failure. This novel method may be of assistance when a free microvascular hemi-abdominal flap is felt to be threatened or suspect. It provides a life-boat for the younger and experienced surgeon alike, and most importantly, for the breast cancer survivor. Economic analysis of the technique reveals that the contralateral hemi-abdominal flap should be banked more often than intuition alone would suggest. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 2009. [source]


    Microvascularly augmented transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction,Reappraisal of its value through clinical outcome assessment and intraoperative blood gas analysis

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 8 2008
    Jing-Wei Lee M.D.
    Our experience with 73 transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap transfers was reviewed to see the variance in the incidence of complications among three groups of patients undergoing different types of surgical techniques. The TRAM flap was transferred as a free flap in 26 patients, a unipedicled flap in 25 patients, and a microvascularly augmented pedicled flap in 22 patients. Our data demonstrated that the incidence of partial flap loss and fat necrosis in the microvascularly augmented group was significantly lower than that in the unipedicled flap group (P < 0.01), and also lower than that in the free flap group with a statistically marginal significance (P = 0.055). Supplemental surgery is less often required in the microvascularly augmented group than in the conventional TRAM group (P = 0.002). Substantial increase in venous O2 concentration (P = 0.03), O2 saturation level (P = 0.007), and pH value (P = 0.002) was noticed following supercharge, and this very fact testifies to the perfusion-promoting effect of the microvascular augmentation maneuver. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2008. [source]


    Autologous fat grafting: A technique for stabilization of the microvascular pedicle in DIEP flap reconstruction

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 7 2008
    Eran D. Bar-Meir M.D.
    Proper orientation of the microvascular pedicle is essential to ensure a high success rate in microvascular surgery. The inset of a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction can sometimes be problematic given the long vascular pedicle, the acute takeoff from an internal mammary anastomosis, and the positioning of the flap on top of the vascular pedicle. In the postoperative period, the flap can also shift as the patient's activity level increases. We present a technique where nonvascularized autologous fat grafts are used to stabilize and cushion the vascular pedicle. Over a 14-month period, 117 consecutive DIEP flaps were performed to the internal mammary vessels with autologous fat grafting to the microvascular pedicle. Six flaps (5.1%) were explored during the immediate postoperative period for anastomotic compromise. Only one total flap failure (0.8%) was observed during this time. We had no direct complications related to the fat grafts. The use of nonvascularized autologous fat grafts is a simple and safe technique for stabilization of a microvascular pedicle. It should be considered in DIEP flap breast reconstruction and other microvascular cases where the vascular pedicle might be compressed by adjacent structures. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2008. [source]


    Late free-flap salvage with catheter-directed thrombolysis

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 4 2008
    Andrew P. Trussler M.D.
    Introduction: Despite high success rates with free-tissue transfer, flap loss continues to be a devastating event. Flap salvage is often successful if vascular complications are recognized and treated early. However, delayed presentation of flap compromise is an ominous predictor of flap loss. Late free-flap salvage has been described with poor long-term results. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) has only been described in context with free-tissue transfer in a case of distal bypass salvage. Objectives: The authors examined the efficacy of highly selective CDT in late salvage of free-flaps with vascular compromise. Methods: Two patients underwent highly selective CDT after delayed presentation (>5 days) of flap compromise. Patient 1 is a 59-year-old woman who underwent delayed breast reconstruction with a free TRAM flap and presented with arterial thrombosis 12 days postoperatively. Patient 2 is a 53-year-old man who underwent fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction of a floor of mouth defect who developed venous thrombosis 6 days postoperatively. Patient 2 underwent two attempted operative anastamotic revisions with thrombectomies and local thrombolysis prior to CDT. Results: The average time of presentation was 9 days, with the average time to CDT being 9.5 days. Patient 1 had an arterial thrombosis, whereas Patient 2 had a venous thrombosis. Both patients underwent successful thrombolysis after super-selective angiograms. Continuous infusions of thrombolytic agents were used in both patients for ,24 h. Average length of stay postCDT was 7 days with no perioperative complications. Long-term follow-up demonstrated complete flap salvage with no soft tissue loss. Conclusion: Despite extremely delayed presentation, aggressive CDT was successful in both breast, and head and neck reconstructions with excellent long-term flap results. CDT appears to be a useful modality in managing difficult cases of free-flap salvage. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2008. [source]


    3D CT angiography of abdominal wall vascular perforators to plan DIEAP flaps,,

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 8 2007
    Gedge D. Rosson M.D.
    Purpose: Since the first report of TRAM flap reconstruction, there have been numerous studies to reduce complications of elective breast reconstruction. Current methods of preoperative perforator localization can be time-consuming, inaccurate, and imprecise. Thus, we sought to evaluate ultra-high resolution 3D CT angiography for the preoperative mapping of DIEAP flap perforating vessels. Methods: We reviewed all perforator-based breast reconstructions performed over a 5-month period. Candidates for DIEAP flap reconstruction were sent for a focused CT scan of the abdominal wall, using the 64 slice multi-detector CT scanner. Results: This article presents our first 23 flaps in 17 patients with preoperative ultra-high resolution 3D CT angiography. The reconstruction plan changed in three patients (18%). There was one take-back for venous congestion, but no partial or total flap loss. Conclusions: Preoperative perforator flap planning for breast reconstruction utilizing 3D CT angiogram is safe, easy to read, and can change the operative plan. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2007. [source]


    Incidence and significance of microscopic pathological lesions found in pedicle and recipient vessels used in microsurgical breast reconstruction

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 1 2003
    H.H. El-Mrakby M.D.
    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of abnormal vascular histology and to determine whether or not this was correlated with the incidence of postoperative microvascular problems. The microvascular histology of both donor and recipient vessels was studied in 38 patients (40 flaps) undergoing breast reconstruction with free TRAM flaps. Preoperative risk factors were assessed and correlated with histological changes in vessels, and both were tested against anastomotic complications. Thrombosis of either the artery or the vein of the flap was seen in 6 cases (15%), and of these, two flaps failed completely and one suffered partial necrosis. The occlusion affected the arterial anastomosis in 3 patients, and the venous anastomosis in 2 patients, while both the artery and the vein were thrombosed in one case. Preoperative risk factors such as smoking, obesity, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were not associated with a significantly higher incidence of thrombosis or with significant histological abnormalities in vessels (P value varied between 0.3,0.06). Microvascular histology showed variable degrees of pathological changes in six flaps (15%); nevertheless, in this group, only one flap suffered a venous thrombosis, which ended in total flap loss. Among those with one or more risk factors (24 patients), only 2 had some evidence of histological abnormality of the blood vessels used for the microvascular anastomosis (P = 0.2). 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MICROSURGERY 23:6,9 2003 [source]


    Breast Reconstruction after Bilateral Prophylactic Mastectomy in Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 2009
    Liron Eldor MD
    Abstract:, Several studies have shown the effectiveness of bilateral prophylactic mastectomies (BPM) at reducing the risk of developing breast cancer in women by more than 90%. A growing number of women at high risk for breast cancer are electing to undergo prophylactic mastectomy as part of a risk reduction strategy. This unique group of women frequently chooses to undergo reconstructive surgery as a part of their immediate treatment plan. Breast reconstruction after BPM has profound physiological and emotional impact on body image, sexuality, and quality of life. These factors should be taken into consideration and addressed when consulting the patient prior to BPM and reconstructive surgery. The timing of reconstructive surgery, the type of mastectomy performed, the reconstructive modalities available, and the possibility to preserve the nipple,areola complex, should all be discussed with the patient prior to surgery. In this article, we review our experience and the current existing literature on breast reconstruction for high-risk women after BPM. [source]


    The Art and Science of Autologous Breast Reconstruction

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 5 2003
    James C. Grotting MD
    Abstract: Three significant advances are responsible for the recent evolution in breast reconstruction. The first of these is the introduction of the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap, which made reliable autologous breast reconstruction a reality. The subsequent application of microsurgical principles to this procedure brought further refinements in terms of improved blood supply and lessened donor site morbidity. Finally, the wide acceptance of the skin-sparing mastectomy by oncologic surgeons has allowed further progress in the aesthetic possibilities that can be realized by the plastic surgeon. The authors discuss each of these factors and provide an overview of the current state of the art of autologous free tissue breast reconstruction. [source]


    Breast Disease-Related Educational Outcomes at the University of Florida

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 3 2000
    D. Scott Lind MD
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess resident knowledge related to breast disease at the University of Florida. In addition, we surveyed graduates of our surgery program regarding the importance of breast disease in their surgical practice and we determined if the completion of postgraduate courses on breast disease influenced patient outcome measures. In the decade of the 1990s, we compared the American Board of Surgery In-Service Training Examination (ABSITE) scores of residents rotating on the breast service in the 6 months immediately prior to examination (June,January) with those residents who had not rotated on the breast service within the 6 months leading up to the ABSITE examination. We also compared ABSITE scores of surgery residents at the University of Florida at Gainesville (breast service) to surgery residents at the University of Florida at Jacksonville (no breast service). Finally, we surveyed graduates of the general surgery program at the University of Florida at Gainesville (1980,1998) to determine the importance of breast disease in their practices and if the completion of postgraduate courses on breast disease influenced rates of breast conservation and immediate breast reconstruction. Residents who rotated on the breast service in the 6 months prior to the ABSITE had significantly fewer incorrect breast-related ABSITE questions than residents who had not rotated on the breast service. Those graduates who had taken postgraduate courses in breast disease responded that they were more likely to perform breast,conserving surgery. There was also a trend for graduates who had completed postgraduate courses on breast disease to respond that they were more likely to perform immediate breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Limiting breast surgery to a single service does not appear to improve resident accumulation and retention of breast disease-related knowledge. Graduates who complete postgraduate courses related to breast disease are more likely to perform breast-conserving surgery and immediate reconstruction following mastectomy. Since the management of breast disease comprises a significant part of general surgical practice, surgical educators must ensure adequate resident education and evaluation with respect to breast disease. [source]


    Seat belt injury to the female breast: review and discussion of its surgical management

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 1-2 2010
    Alenka M. Paddle
    Abstract With the use of the three-point lap,diagonal seat belt restraint, there has been a reduction in the number of deaths caused by automobile trauma. However, a new pattern of injury has emerged, the ,seat-belt syndrome', which comprises a constellation of injuries including soft tissue injury to the breast. Given that seat belt legislation is becoming more widespread, it is likely that the incidence and reporting of these injuries will become more common. In this paper, we provide an overview of the varied clinical and radiological presentations, and suggested management of seat belt injury to the female breast. The consequences of such injury can be severe in their functional, psychosocial and aesthetic impact, and thus, using an index case as an example, the previously unreported area of breast reconstruction in a breast deformed as a result of blunt trauma is discussed, highlighting some of its challenges. [source]


    TRAM flap delay: an extraperitoneal laparoscopic technique

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 10 2005
    Ardalan Ebrahimi
    Although the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is the gold standard in autogenous breast reconstruction, it is less reliable in patients at high risk of ischaemic compromise. A preliminary delay procedure involving ligation of the deep inferior epigastric vessels has been shown to augment flap vascularity and improve outcome in those high risk patients undergoing unipedicled TRAM flap reconstruction. Despite previous description of a transperitoneal laparoscopic technique, surgical delay generally continues to be performed as an open procedure. This may reflect apprehension over the transperitoneal approach with its attendant risk of injury to intra-abdominal organs and vessels as well as adhesion formation. In this paper we describe an extraperitoneal laparoscopic technique for TRAM flap delay. Access to the deep inferior epigastric vessels is obtained using an extraperitoneal approach similar to that used for total extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair and the vessels are easily identified and ligated using a single working port. While further study is required to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this technique, we report this as an alternative to the known open procedure which may be particularly useful for bilateral TRAM flap delay with the potential for reduced operative time, postoperative pain and scarring by avoiding bilateral inguinal incisions. [source]


    Breast reconstruction following mastectomy: current status in Australia

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 9 2003
    Kerstin Sandelin
    Background: Although breast reconstruction provides some advantages for women following mastectomy, few Australian breast cancer patients currently receive reconstruction. In Australia, the routine provision of breast reconstruction will require the development of specific health service delivery models. The present paper reports an analysis of the provision of breast reconstruction in eight sites in Australia. Methods: A semi-structured telephone interview was conducted with 10 surgeons offering breast reconstruction as part of their practice, including nine breast or general surgeons and one plastic surgeon. Results: Surgeons reported offering breast reconstruction to all women facing mastectomy; the proportion of women deciding to have breast reconstruction varied between sites with up to 50% of women having a reconstruction at some sites. Most sites offered three types of reconstruction. Two pathways emerged: either the breast surgeon performed the breast surgery in a team with the plastic surgeon who undertook the breast reconstruction or the breast surgeon provided both the breast surgery and the reconstruction. Considerable waiting times for breast reconstruction were reported in the public sector particularly for delayed reconstruction. Surgeons reported receiving training in breast reconstruction from plastic surgeons or from a breast surgery team that performed reconstructions; a number had been trained overseas. No audits of breast reconstruction were being undertaken. Conclusions: Breast reconstruction can be offered on a routine basis in Australia in both the private and public sectors. Women may be more readily able to access breast reconstruction when it is provided by a breast surgeon alone, but the range of reconstruction options may be more limited. If access to breast reconstruction is to be increased, there will be a need to: (i) develop effective models for the rural sector taking account of the lack of plastic surgeons; (ii) address waiting times for reconstruction surgery in the public sector; (iii) review costs to women in the private sector; (iv) develop a better understanding of women's views and how best to communicate about breast reconstruction; and (v) improve training in breast reconstruction. [source]


    Prophylactic mastectomy and the timing of breast reconstruction (Br J Surg 2009; 96: 1,2)

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 7 2009
    Z. E. Winters
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Health-related quality of life assessment after breast reconstruction,

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 6 2009
    S. Potter
    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important outcome following breast reconstruction. This study evaluated current methods of HRQL assessment in patients undergoing latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction, hypothesizing that early surgical morbidity would be reflected by poorer HRQL scores. Methods: Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and breast module (QLQ-BR23), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) general measure, and breast module and arm subscale (FACT-B + 4), and the Body Image Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) 3 months after surgery. They also reported additional HRQL problems not included in the questionnaires. HRQL scores were compared between patients with and without early surgical morbidity. Results: Sixty women completed the questionnaires, of whom 25 (42 per cent) experienced complications. All EORTC and FACT subscale and HADS scores were similar in patients with or without morbidity. Women with complications were twice as likely to report feeling less feminine and dissatisfied with the appearance of their scar than those without problems. Thirty-two women (53 per cent) complained of problems not covered by the questionnaires, most commonly donor-site morbidity. Conclusion: Existing HRQL instruments are not sufficiently sensitive to detect clinically relevant problems following breast reconstruction. Copyright 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Prophylactic mastectomy and the timing of breast reconstruction

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 1 2009
    M. Morrow
    Immediate reconstruction advocated [source]


    Correlates of breast reconstruction,

    CANCER, Issue 11 2005
    Results from a population-based study
    Abstract BACKGROUND Immediate or early postmastectomy breast reconstruction is performed infrequently. To the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding surgeon or patient perspectives on reconstruction treatment decisions. The purpose of the current study was to identify patient attitudes and preferences associated with breast reconstruction, and whether these differed by race. METHODS A sample of women age , 79 years who were diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast carcinoma between December 2001 and January 2003 was identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries of Detroit and Los Angeles. Eligible subjects completed a questionnaire at a mean of 7 months after diagnosis. The Wald chi-square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS Of the 1844 respondents, 646 underwent a mastectomy (35.0% of the total sample) and 245 of these patients received breast reconstruction (38.0%; of the mastectomy group). On multivariate analysis, younger patient age, higher educational levels, and earlier stage of disease were found to be significantly associated with breast reconstruction. Although 78.2% of women reported that breast reconstruction was discussed, only 11.2% correctly answered 3 basic knowledge questions regarding the procedure. The desire to avoid more surgery was the most common reason for not undergoing breast reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS The results of the current study found that the majority of women were aware of breast reconstruction but choose not to undergo the procedure. Lack of knowledge and a greater perception of barriers to the procedure were more common among African-American patients and women with a lower education level, suggesting a need for improved educational strategies. Cancer 2005. 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]


    The branching pattern of the deep inferior epigastric artery revisited in-vivo: A new classification based on CT angiography

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 1 2010
    Warren M. Rozen
    Abstract The deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) is a reliable pedicle in the design of DIEA perforator flaps, with variations in its anatomy infrequent. Previous studies describing its branching pattern have all been based on cadaveric anatomy and described the following three branching patterns: Type 1 (single trunk), Type 2 (bifurcating trunk), and Type 3 (trifurcating trunk). The increased use of preoperative imaging, particularly with computed tomographic angiography (CTA), has enabled visualization of the DIEA and its branches in vivo, providing a functional view of this anatomy. We undertook a study of 250 patients (500 hemiabdominal walls) undergoing preoperative CTA before DIEA perforator flaps for breast reconstruction. The branching pattern of the DIEA and correlation to the contralateral hemiabdominal wall were assessed. The branching patterns of the DIEA were found to be different in vivo compared with cadaveric studies, with a higher than previously reported incidence of Type 1 patterns and lower than reported incidence of Type 3 patterns, and that some patterns exist which were not included within the previous nomenclature (namely, Type 0 or absent DIEA and Type 4 or four-trunk DIEA). There was also shown to be no overall concordance in the branching patterns of the DIEA between contralateral sides of the same abdominal wall; however, there was shown to be a statistically significant concordance in cases of a Type 1 DIEA (51% concordance, P = 0.04). As such, a new modification to the classification system for the branching pattern of the DIEA is presented based on imaging findings. Clin. Anat. 23:87,92, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Reviewing the vascular supply of the anterior abdominal wall: Redefining anatomy for increasingly refined surgery

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 2 2008
    W.M. Rozen
    Abstract The abdominal wall integument is becoming the standard donor tissue for postmastectomy breast reconstruction, with its vascular supply of key importance to the reconstructive surgeon. Refinements in tissue transfer, from pedicled to free flaps and musculocutaneous to perforator flaps, have required increasing understanding of finer levels of this vascular anatomy. The widespread utilization of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flap, particularly for breast reconstruction, has rekindled clinical interest in further levels of anatomical detail, in particular the location and course of the musculocutaneous perforators of the DIEA. Advances in operative techniques, and anatomical and imaging technologies, have facilitated an increase in this understanding. The current review comprises an appraisal of both the anatomical and clinical literature, with a view to highlighting the key anatomical features of the abdominal wall vasculature as related to reconstructive flaps. Clin. Anat. 21:89,98, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    3D CT angiography of abdominal wall vascular perforators to plan DIEAP flaps,,

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 8 2007
    Gedge D. Rosson M.D.
    Purpose: Since the first report of TRAM flap reconstruction, there have been numerous studies to reduce complications of elective breast reconstruction. Current methods of preoperative perforator localization can be time-consuming, inaccurate, and imprecise. Thus, we sought to evaluate ultra-high resolution 3D CT angiography for the preoperative mapping of DIEAP flap perforating vessels. Methods: We reviewed all perforator-based breast reconstructions performed over a 5-month period. Candidates for DIEAP flap reconstruction were sent for a focused CT scan of the abdominal wall, using the 64 slice multi-detector CT scanner. Results: This article presents our first 23 flaps in 17 patients with preoperative ultra-high resolution 3D CT angiography. The reconstruction plan changed in three patients (18%). There was one take-back for venous congestion, but no partial or total flap loss. Conclusions: Preoperative perforator flap planning for breast reconstruction utilizing 3D CT angiogram is safe, easy to read, and can change the operative plan. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2007. [source]