Breast Cancer Risk Factors (breast + cancer_risk_factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Breast cancer risk factors in Korean women: a literature review

S.-M. Lee rn
Aim:, To compile a complete list of risk factors from the Korean breast cancer studies to obtain relevant predictor information essential in developing a predictive model for breast cancer. Background:, Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed female cancer in Korea. However, the breast cancer-screening rate in Korea is relatively low compared with that in other countries. In order to promote early health screening, there is a need to identify those individuals who are most likely to develop breast cancer by using an accurate predictive model. Methods:, Thirty-four breast cancer studies were selected from MEDLINE and two Korean literature databases. Two researchers summarized the risk factors and their effects in each article using a checklist. Findings:, Most of the studies were case,control studies conducted after 2000. In 34 articles, a total of 84 risk factors for breast cancer in Korean women were identified; of these, 58 factors were determined as statistically significant factors. The factors identified most often were body mass index, menarche, menopause, family history, pregnancy and delivery, breastfeeding, alcohol use, smoking habits, diet, education and use of oral contraceptives. None of 34 studies looked at stress as a risk factor of which influence on cancer has been reported in other populations. Conclusion:, The next steps will be to construct a questionnaire consisting of relevant variables based on these study results and to develop a predictive model. This would be used to encourage those Koreans who are more likely to develop breast cancer to have early check-ups. [source]

Gail Model Risk Factors: Impact of Adding an Extended Family History for Breast Cancer

Anna Crispo ScD
Abstract:, An approach commonly used in estimating breast cancer risk is the Gail model. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of adding extended family history as a new breast cancer risk factor into the Gail model. The data of the present study include cases with breast cancer and hospitalized controls recruited in the National Cancer Institute of Naples (southern Italy) between 1997 and 2000. We compared the first-degree relative (FDR) risk factor (standard Gail model) with the second-degree relative (SDR) information; and the FDR risk factor (standard Gail model) with the combination of FDR and SDR. We computed the c-statistic by comparing the risks found in our population to those in Gail-US population. The concordance for the model with FDR was 0.55 (95% CI 0.53,0.58), the model with SDR shows a modest but significant discriminatory accuracy (0.56, 95% CI 0.53,0.59), and the combination of FDR+SDR gave the concordance statistic of 0.57 (95% CI 0.54,0.60), indicating a good comparison between the two models. The results of our study show that extended family history information could be useful to improve the discriminatory power of the Gail model risk factors. [source]

Awareness of breast and cervical cancer risk factors and screening behaviours among nurses in rural region of Turkey

Breast and cervical cancer are the most common causes of cancer mortality among women worldwide, but actually they are largely preventable diseases. There is limited data on breast and cervical cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes of nurses in Turkey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge and attitude of nurses on risk factors of the breast and cervical cancer as well as screening programmes such as breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination, mammography (MMG) and papanicolaou (pap) smear test. In total, 125 out of 160 nurses participated in the study (overall response rate was 80.6%). The risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer was generally well known, except for early menarche (23.2%) and late menopause (28.8%). For cervical cancer, the correct risk factors mostly indicated by the nurses were early age at first sexual intercourse (56%), smoking (76%), multiple sexual partners (71.2%). As for screening methods, it was believed that BSE was a beneficial method to identify the early breast changes (84.8%) and MMG was able to detect the cancer without a palpable mass (57.6%). Little was known about the fact that women should begin cervical cancer screening approximately 3 years after the onset of sexual intercourse (23.2%) and if repeated pap smear test were normal, it could be done every 2,3 years. Most of the nurses considered that MMG decreases the mortality in breast cancer (65.6%) and also believed that pap smear test decreases the mortality in cervical cancer (75.2%). Despite high level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and screening methods, inadequate knowledge of cervical cancer screening method were found among nurses. [source]

Preschool diet and adult risk of breast cancer

Karin B. Michels
Abstract Events before puberty may affect adult risk of breast cancer. We examined whether diet during preschool age may affect a woman's risk of breast cancer later in life. We conducted a case-control study including 582 women with breast cancer and 1,569 controls free of breast cancer selected from participants in the Nurses' Health Study and the Nurses' Health Study II. Information concerning childhood diet of the nurses at ages 3,5 years was obtained from the mothers of the participants with a 30-item food-frequency questionnaire. An increased risk of breast cancer was observed among woman who had frequently consumed French fries at preschool age. For one additional serving of French fries per week, the odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer adjusted for adult life breast cancer risk factors was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12,1.44). Consumption of whole milk was associated with a slightly decreased risk of breast cancer (covariate-adjusted OR for every additional glass of milk per day = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.82,0.99). Intake of none of the nutrients calculated was related to the risk of breast cancer risk in this study. These data suggest a possible association between diet before puberty and the subsequent risk of breast cancer. Differential recall of preschool diet by the mothers of cases and controls has to be considered as a possible explanation for the observed associations. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the association between preschool diet and breast cancer is reproducible in prospective data not subject to recall bias. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The impact of the Occupation of Guernsey 1940,1945 on breast cancer risk factors and incidence

I. S. Fentiman
Summary To examine the impact of the German Occupation of Guernsey (1940,1945) on breast cancer risk factors and incidence. Under study were 1019 women who stayed, or whose mothers had stayed, in Guernsey, and 1358 women evacuated or born to evacuated mothers. Amongst those born 1926,1934 who remained in Guernsey, the secular trend of earlier menarche disappeared: menarche was delayed by 12 months for those born in 1930. By March 2006, 97 breast cancers had been diagnosed, 37 in the occupied group. Unusually, higher age at menarche appeared to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer (,14 years vs. ,13 years: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 0.80,2.92). Separate analyses by birth cohort revealed a non-significantly higher incidence in the subgroup born from 1926 to 1934 (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.62,2.76). Delay in menarche among women remaining in Guernsey during the Occupation, rather than being protective, was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. [source]

Occupation and breast cancer risk among Shanghai women in a population-based cohort study

Bu-Tian Ji MD, DrPH
Abstract Introduction A total of 74,942 female subjects were recruited in a population-based cohort study in Shanghai, China between 1997 and 2000. We examined the relationship between occupation and breast cancer risk. Methods Cases were 586 women previously diagnosed with breast cancer at baseline and 438 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up through December 2004. Eight controls were randomly selected for each case from cancer-free cohort members and frequency-matched to the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer risk associated with occupations, adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors. Results In the prevalent breast cancer data analysis, increased risks of breast cancer were associated with technicians in engineering/agriculture/forestry (OR,=,1.6, CI: 1.0,2.4), teaching personnel (OR,=,1.5, CI:1.1,2.0), tailoring/sewing workers (OR,=,1.6, CI:1.0,2.7), and examiners/measurers/testers (OR,=,1.5, CI:1.1,2.1) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. Among incident breast cancer cases, significantly increased risks were associated with medical/health care workers (OR,=,1.4, CI:1.0,2.0), administrative clerical workers (OR,=,1.5, CI:1.0,2.4), postal/telecommunication workers (OR,=,2.2, CI:1.0,5.5), and odd-job workers (OR,=,1.7, CI:1.1,2.8) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. The excess risks were found in both prevalent and incident cases for postal/telecommunication workers and purchasing/marketing personnel, although ORs reached only marginal significance. Conclusions: This study suggests that white-collar professionals and several production occupations may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 51:100,110, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Occupation and breast cancer risk in Polish women: A population-based case-control study

Beata Peplonska MD
Abstract Background The etiology of breast cancer is not well understood and the role of occupational exposures in breast carcinogenesis is still uncertain. Methods The population-based case-control study included 2,386 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2000,2003, and 2,502 controls. Lifetime occupational histories and information on other potential breast cancer risk factors were obtained through personal interviews. Conditional logistic regression analyses calculated odds ratios (ORs) associated with various occupations and industries after control for potential confounders. Results We found statistically significant excesses of breast cancer among engineers (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.0,3.8), economists (2.1; 1.1,3.8), sales occupations-retail (1.2; 1.0,1.5), and other sales occupations (1.2; 1.0,1.5). Industries showing significantly elevated risks included special trade contractors (2.2; 1.2,4.3), electronic and electric equipment manufacturers (1.7; 1.1,2.7); and public administration/general government n.e.c. (2.7; 1.3,5.7). Each of these findings was supported by a statistically significant positive trend for duration of employment (P<0.05). A decreased breast cancer risk was observed in janitors and cleaners (0.7; 0.5,0.8). Conclusions In this study, we found few associations for breast cancer and occupations or industries. The suggestive findings for the electronic and electric equipment manufacturing industry and for the occupations with potential exposure to magnetic fields deserve further evaluation. Am. J. Ind. Med. 50:97,111, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Beginning IVF Treatments After Age 30 Increases the Risk of Breast Cancer: Results of a Case,Control Study

Daniela Katz MD
Abstract:, The long-term risks of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment remain unclear. This study was designed to determine breast cancer risk factors in women who underwent IVF, and to establish characteristics of these tumors. Records of 7,162 consecutive women who underwent IVF at a single center between 1984 and 2002 were linked with the Israel Cancer Registry to identify women who developed breast cancer. IVF-related parameters were compared between 28 breast cancer patients who had undergone IVF (IVF BC) and for whom complete IVF data were available with 140 women who underwent IVF and did not develop breast cancer (IVF non-BC). Tumor parameters were compared between 38 patients who developed breast cancer after IVF and 114 age-matched breast cancer patients who did not undergo IVF (non-IVF BC). Age over 30 at the time of first IVF treatment, even after controlling for age at first birth, was the only parameter significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (RR = 1.24, p = 0.02, 95% CI = 1.03,1.48). There were no differences between IVF-BC and IVF non-BC patients in all other IVF-related parameters. The only statistically significant difference in tumors developing in IVF-BC patients compared with non-IVF BC patients was in grade distribution, particularly for grade II tumors. However, the significance of such a difference is unclear. Women who start IVF after the age of 30 appear to be at increased risk of developing breast cancer. The characteristics of breast tumors in women who underwent IVF are no different than in patients without previous exposure to IVF. [source]

Risk factors for breast cancer in East Asian women relative to women in the West

Christine S PERRY
Abstract The incidence of breast cancer in women of East Asian ancestry (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) is lower than in women of European ancestry but is currently rising. This review explores potential reasons for this inter-ethnic difference in incidence by profiling breast cancer risk factors reported for East Asian and Western women. Factors such as endogenous hormone exposure, lifestyle choices, diet and genetic predisposition are associated with breast cancer risk in both East Asian and Western women. However, the relative exposure to these risk factors may vary according to a woman's geographical ancestry and culture. For example, age at menarche and menopause, parity, breast-feeding history, low fat and high soy consumption as well as the prevalence of high risk genetic alleles may vary with a woman's geographical ancestry and/or culture. Differences in exposure to these risk factors in East Asian and Western women are consistent with the inter-ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence observed. Understanding the underlying factors contributing to differences in the profile of breast cancer across populations is important when considering screening and prevention programs for East Asian women resident in the East or the West. [source]