Brand Names (brand + name)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Brand Name Audit Pricing, Industry Specialization, and Leadership Premiums post-Big 8 and Big 6 Mergers,

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTING RESEARCH, Issue 1 2002
Andrew Ferguson
Abstract This paper investigates brand name, industry specialization, and leadership audit pricing in the wake of the mergers that created the Big 6 and the Big 5 accounting firms. For samples of Australian listed public companies in each of the postmerger years 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1998, we estimate national audit fee premiums for the Big 6/5 auditors and the industry specialists and leaders. We find limited support for the ability of the Big 6/5 to obtain fee premiums over non-Big 6/5 for those industries not having specialist auditors. Nonspecialist Big 6/5 auditors are able to obtain fee premiums over nonspecialist non-Big 6/5 auditors for those industries having specialist auditors. However, this result only holds among the smaller half of our sample. We do not find strong support for the presence of industry specialist premiums in the postmerger years, especially after 1990, using various definitions of industry specialist. We find, at best, limited support for the presence of industry leadership premiums. The evidence suggests that after the Big 8/6 audit firm mergers, some caution is required in generalizing the Craswell, Francis, and Taylor 1995 finding of national market industry specialist premiums. More generally, the study raises questions about the tenuous link between the concept of specialization and national market-share statistics. [source]


Ultrasonic treatment of waste activated sludge

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 2 2006
Raf Dewil
Abstract Activated sludge processes are key technologies to treat wastewater. These biological processes produce huge amounts of waste activated sludge (WAS), now commonly called biosolids. Mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical WAS conditioning techniques have been proposed to reduce the sludge burden. The ultrasonic treatment of WAS is quite novel. The present paper reports on extensive investigations using an ultrasonic treatment of WAS, to study its potential to meet one or all of four objectives: (1) reduce WAS quantities; (2) achieve a better dewaterability; (3) provoke a release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the biosolids, preferably transformed into biodegradable organics; and (4) possibly destroy the filamentous microorganisms responsible for sludge bulking. Although meeting these objectives would help to solve the problems cited, the energy consumption could be a considerable drawback: the paper will thus assess whether all or some objectives are met, and at what operational cost. A literature survey defines the occurring phenomena (cavitation) and the important operation parameters [such as frequency, duration, specific energy input (SE)]. The experiments are carried out in a batch reactor of volume up to 2.3 L. The ultrasonic equipment consisted of a generator, a converter, and a sonotrode, supplied by Alpha Ultrasonics under the brand name of Telsonic. Three different kinds of sludge were tested, with different concentrations of dry solids (DS) between approximately 3.5 and 14 g DS/L WAS. Ultrasonic energy was introduced in a continuous manner (against possible pulsed operation). The major operational parameters studied include duration of the ultrasonic treatment and specific energy input. The applied frequency was set at 20 kHz. The release of COD from the WAS phase into the filtrate phase is a function of the specific energy input with yields of nearly 30% achievable at SE values of 30,000 kJ/kg DS. A major fraction of the COD is transformed into biodegradable organics (BOD). The reduction in DS fraction of the sludge is proportional to the COD release rates. Although the DS content is reduced, the dewaterability of the sludge is not improved. This reflects itself in increased filtration times during vacuum filtration and in increased values of the capillary suction time (CST). This more difficult dewaterability is the result of considerably reduced floc sizes, offering an extended surface area: more surface water is bound (CST increases) and the filterability decreases as a result of clogging of the cake. To reach the same dryness as for the untreated cake, the required dosage of polyelectrolyte is nearly doubled when the SE of the ultrasound treatment is increased from 7500 to 20,000 kJ/kg DS. The ultrasonic reduction of filamentous WAS organisms is not conclusive and very little effect is seen at low intensities and short treatment durations. Microscopic analysis of the WAS identified the dominant presence of Actynomyces. The release of soluble COD and BOD certainly merit further research. © 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2006 [source]


Impact of Alternative Interventions on Changes in Generic Dispensing Rates

HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 5 2006
A. James O'Malley
Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of four alternative interventions (member mailings, advertising campaigns, free generic drug samples to physicians, and physician financial incentives) used by a major health insurer to encourage its members to switch to generic drugs. Methods. Using claim-level data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, we evaluated the success of four interventions implemented during 2000,2003 designed to increase the use of generic drugs among its members. Around 13 million claims involving seven important classes of drugs were used to assess the effectiveness of the interventions. For each intervention a control group was developed that most closely resembled the corresponding intervention group. Logistic regression models with interaction effects between the treatment group (intervention versus control) and the status of the intervention (active versus not active) were used to evaluate if the interventions had an effect on the generic dispensing rate (GDR). Because the mail order pharmacy was considered more aggressive at converting prescriptions to generics, separate generic purchasing models were fitted to retail and mail order claims. In secondary analyses separate models were also fitted to claims involving a new condition and claims refilled for preexisting conditions. Results. The interventions did not appear to increase the market penetration of generic drugs for either retail or mail order claims, or for claims involving new or preexisting conditions. In addition, we found that the ratio of copayments for brand name to generic drugs had a large positive effect on the GDR. Conclusions. The interventions did not appear to directly influence the GDR. Financial incentives expressed to consumers through benefit designs have a large influence on their switching to generic drugs and on the less-costly mail-order mode of purchase. [source]


Do Spanish Firms Change Auditor to Avoid a Qualified Audit Report?

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AUDITING, Issue 1 2003
Nieves Gómez-Aguilar
In this paper we investigate whether Spanish firms employ deliberate strategies in the choice of auditor to avoid audit qualification. For a sample of 735 during the period 1991,96 we found no increase in the probability of changing auditor following an audit qualification. We concluded that this would be too obvious and detrimental to the firm's interests. However, 135 firms do change auditor during the period examined. We found that firms that have been qualified are significantly less likely to move to higher quality auditors than are unqualified firms, when that quality is measured by the specialisation of the auditor, auditor brand name, auditor size and auditor conservatism. For the 92 qualified firms changing auditor the likelihood of a subsequent qualification is significantly related to the quality of the auditor selected. [source]


Contract Mixing in Franchising as a Mechanism for Public-Good Provision

JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT STRATEGY, Issue 1 2000
Chong-En Bai
This paper is concerned with the coexistence of company-owned units and franchised units in business format franchising and their different contractual arrangements. Drawing insights from case studies that indicate both the development and the maintenance of company-wide brand names and unit-specific sales activities are crucial to a franchise company, we construct a multitask model to account for such contract mixing in franchising. Intuitively, low-powered contracts are offered to some managers to induce effort for brand-name development and maintenance, while high-powered contracts are offered to the remaining managers to elicit sales activity and capture the beneficial effect of the company brand name. Franchising can thus be viewed as an organizational agreement for production involving brand-name products and services. [source]


Demand for differentiated milk products: implications for price competition

AGRIBUSINESS : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
Elena Lopez
The authors apply the Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes (1995) model to scan data from Boston supermarkets augmented with consumer characteristics data to analyze consumer choices and price competition in a differentiated fluid milk market. Milk characteristics include price, fat content, brand name, and the organic and/or lactose-free nature of the product. Empirical results show that consumer valuation of fat decreases with income, but increases with the number of children. Low-fat and specialty milks, such as organic and lactose-free milks, are preferred by high-income consumers with no children. Although all milks are price elastic at the individual brand level, the cross-price elasticities are quite low and negligible for specialty milks. Based on calculated Lerner indexes, private label milks have the highest percent markups despite their lower prices, whereas specialty milks have the lowest markups despite their higher prices, which attests to a greater degree of market power for conventional and particularly for private label milk. [JEL Classification: D12, D40, L11, L81]. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


DETERMINATION OF BENZO(a)PYRENE IN VEGETABLE OILS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 3 2007
EKERO, LU GÜLTEN
ABSTRACT Analysis of 40 oil samples showed that 38 of them were contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Thirty of the 38 BaP-contaminated edible oil samples did not have any label of a brand name. BaP content for the 38 contaminated edible oil samples were in the range of 1.22,74.89 ppb. Sixteen of the contaminated oil samples had BaP content of more than 10 ppb, which is the maximum tolerable limit for the Turkish Food Codex Regulation. BaP contents of samples for each type of oil were significantly different (P < 0.05) from each other. [source]


Anti-allergic properties of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and contribution of its glucosylxanthone mangiferin

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2006
Dagmar García Rivera
Vimang is the brand name of formulations containing an extract of Mangifera indica L., ethnopharmacologically used in Cuba for the treatment of some immunopathological disorders, including bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases. However, the effects of Vimang on allergic response have not been reported until now. In this study, the effects of Vimang and mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract, on different parameters of allergic response are reported. Vimang and mangiferin showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of IgE production in mice and anaphylaxis reaction in rats, histamine-induced vascular permeability and the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat mast cells, and of lymphocyte proliferative response as evidence of the reduction of the amount of B and T lymphocytes able to contribute to allergic response. In these experiments, ketotifen, promethazine and disodium cromoglicate were used as reference drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Vimang had an effect on an in-vivo model of inflammatory allergy mediated by mast cells. These results constitute the first report of the anti-allergic properties of Vimang on allergic models, as well as suggesting that this natural extract could be successfully used in the treatment of allergic disorders. Mangiferin, the major compound of Vimang, contributes to the anti-allergic effects of the extract. [source]


The Soviet Sausage Renaissance

AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 1 2010
Neringa Klumbyt
ABSTRACT, In Lithuania, the first country to secede from the Soviet Union, the term Soviet has been used in public space to refer to the vanished Soviet empire and to experiences of colonization and resistance. However, in 1998, the "Soviet" symbol was successfully revived in the Lithuanian consumer food market as a brand name for meat products,primarily sausages. In this article, I argue that the market is a political arena in which values, ideologies, identities, and history are being shaped. The marketing and consumption of "Soviet" sausages is a form of political engagement that negotiates current power relations and inequalities. The meanings and practices surrounding "Soviet" sausages tell an intriguing story about broader processes of change. The "Soviet" sausage renaissance in Lithuania implies a critique of the postsocialist neoliberal state and constitutes an attempt to create an alternative modernity that is both post-Soviet and European. [source]


Use of parenteral iron products and serious anaphylactic-type reactions,,§

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 9 2010
Diane K. Wysowski
Controversy exists about the safety of the parenteral iron dextran products, Dexferrum and INFeD, which have been associated with rare, serious anaphylactic-type reactions. In the United States, their product labels carry boxed warnings of this adverse event; some have called for the withdrawal from marketing of the higher molecular weight Dexferrum. Between 2002 and 2007, sales of Dexferrum, INFeD, and iron gluconate Ferrlecit declined 32.5%, 21%, and 4.8%, respectively, while sales of iron sucrose Venofer increased 160%. Voluntary reports submitted to the Food and Drug Administration show anaphylactic reactions and symptoms for the four parenteral iron products. Because of underreporting, possible differential reporting, absence of iron dextran brand names, and incomplete use (denominator) data, incidence rates and relative risk estimates cannot be calculated. U.S. death certificate data show that for most years from 1979 through 2006, no more than 3 deaths per year were coded to "adverse events in therapeutic use of iron preparations;" brand names were not consistently recorded. Emergency department data show small numbers of visits for treatment of allergic reactions with intravenous iron preparations. The data presented herein show that allergic reactions are possible with all four parenteral iron products, and it is difficult to determine which product has the largest risk based on sales data, voluntarily submitted adverse event reports, death certificates, ED visits, and observational studies performed to date. To help differentiate risk among the parenteral iron products, the brand name of the product always should be provided on medical records, death certificates, and adverse drug reaction reports. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Biosimilars: pharmacovigilance and risk management,

PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND DRUG SAFETY, Issue 7 2010
Leyre Zuñiga Ph.D.
Abstract Biosimilars cannot be authorised based on the same requirements that apply to generic medicines. Despite the fact that the biosimilar and reference drug can show similar efficacy, the biosimilar may exhibit different safety profile in terms of nature, seriousness or incidence of adverse reactions. However, the data from pre-authorisation clinical studies normally are insufficient to identify all potential differences. Therefore, clinical safety of similar biological medicinal products must be monitored closely on an ongoing basis during the post-approval phase including continued risk,benefit assessment. The biosimilar applicant must provide the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) with a risk management plan (EU-RMP) and pharmacovigilance programme with its application, including a description of the potential safety issues associated with the similar biological medicinal product that may be a result of differences in the manufacturing process from the reference biologic. The most critical safety concern relating to biopharmaceuticals (including biosimilars) is immunogenicity. Risk management applies scientifically based methodologies to identify, assess, communicate and minimise risk throughout a drug's life cycle so as to establish and maintain a favourable benefit,risk profile in patients. The risk management plan for biosimilars should focus on heightens the pharmacovigilance measures, identify immunogenicity risk and implement special post-marketing surveillance. Although International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) served as a useful tool in worldwide pharmacovigilance, for biologicals they should not be relied upon as the only means of product identification. Biologicals should always be commercialised with a brand name or the INN plus the manufacturer's name. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Allergic contact dermatitis from modified colophonium in wound dressings

CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2007
Teresa M. Pereira
This study concerns a 69-year-old female patient with a longstanding history of venous ulcerations on both lower legs and multiple sensitivities, who developed eczematous lesions with the hydrocolloid dressing Combiderm® (Convatec Ltd., a Bristol-Myers Squibb division, Ickenham, Middlesex, UK). Epicutaneous tests were positive to this dressing and to a modified colophonium derivative, i.e. glyceryl rosinate, however not to the unmodified colophonium from the standard series. A review of the literature showed several case reports about sensitization to similar hydrocolloids being distributed under various brand names in different countries and which contain the pentaerythritol ester of the hydrogenated rosin as the tackifying agent. Some of the patients described did, while others did not, react to colophonium but only to a modified derivative. In our patient, the reaction to glyceryl rosinate most probably represent cross-sensitivity with the modified colophonium derivative used in Combiderm®, the presence (but not the exact nature) of which was showed by the company. In patients where allergic contact dermatitis from hydrocolloid dressings is strongly suspected and colophonium tests negatively, patch testing to modified colophonium derivatives should therefore be performed. As the complete composition of wound dressings is most often unknown, we urgently advocate legal requirements for labelling of those and in fact all medically used devices. [source]


Changes in the prevalence of alcohol use in rap song lyrics, 1979,97

ADDICTION, Issue 9 2005
Denise Herd
ABSTRACT Aims This paper explores the role of changing images of drinking and alcoholic beverage use in rap music from its beginnings in the United States in the late 1970s to the late 1990s. Design A sample of 341 rap music song lyrics released from 1979 to 1997 were selected using Billboard and Gavin rating charts. Song lyrics were coded for music genres, alcohol beverage types and brand names, drinking behaviors, drinking contexts, intoxication, attitudes towards alcohol and consequences of drinking. Findings From 1979 to 1997, songs with references to alcohol increased fivefold (from 8 to 44%); those exhibiting positive attitudes rose from 43% to 73%; and brand name mentions increased from 46% to 71%. There were also significant increases in songs mentioning champagne and liquor (mainly expensive brand names) when comparing songs released after 1994 with those from previous years. In addition, there were significant increases in references to alcohol to signify glamour and wealth, and using alcohol with drugs and for recreational purposes. The findings also showed that alcohol use in rap music was much more likely to result in positive than negative consequences. Conclusions Many of these findings are consistent with the idea that rap music has been profoundly affected by commercial forces and the marketing of alcoholic beverages. In addition, it is possible that the increase in references to alcoholic beverages in rap music, particularly spirits, is a reflection of a broader advertising culture which increasingly associates African Americans with alcohol use. [source]


Determinants of Adolescents' Brand Sensitivity to Clothing

FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 4 2006
Pierre Beaudoin
The objective of this research was to better understand the interest of adolescents in clothing brand names and to ascertain how different psychological, social, and socioeconomic variables explained variance in their brand sensitivity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that susceptibility to peer influence, gender, fashion innovativeness, consumer competence, self-esteem, brand importance for father, and age were significantly related to brand sensitivity. [source]


Immigrant Place Entrepreneurs in Los Angeles, 1970,99

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2002
Ivan Light
Proclamations of the death of Los Angeles' growth machine are premature. These proclamations overlook the growing role of immigrant Korean and Chinese entrepreneurs in regional property development. Since 1970, Korean and Chinese entrepreneurs have seriously restructured Los Angeles' morphology, creating hierarchically arranged residential and business clusters for co,ethnic immigrants. Koreatown and Monterey Park are the brand names most familiar to outsiders, but these prominent localities really coexist with a multiplicity of less well,known ethnic communities that owe their origins to immigrant property developers. The immigrant property developers use the classic methods of the growth machine: buy land cheaply, promote it in Chinese or Korean emigration basins, then sell it to co,ethnic immigrants at a profit. In the process, the immigrant property developers reduce the difficulty of immigration to Los Angeles at the same time that they enhance its perceived desirability. The success of the Chinese and Korean developers highlights the hazard of assuming, as is conventionally done, that ethnic residential clustering arises from leaderless social processes. In both these highlighted cases, entrepreneurial elites created residential clusters of co,ethnics from conscious, long,term plans that required political as well as economic savoir,faire. In so doing, the immigrant property developers joined the Los Angeles growth machine whose fortunes, admittedly, have been waning among the native born population of the region. La mort annoncée de la dynamique de croissance de Los Angeles est prématurée. Ce serait oublier le rôle grandissant des chefs d'entreprise immigrés coréens et chinois dans l'aménagement immobilier régional. Depuis 1970, ces entrepreneurs ont considérablement restructuré la morphologie de Los Angeles, créant des ,agglomérats' commerciaux et résidentiels hiérarchisés pour migrants de m?,me ethnie. Si Koreatown et Monterey Park sont des noms bien connus des étrangers, ces lieux dominants coexistent en réalité avec une multiplicité de communautés ethniques moins renommées qui doivent leurs origines à des promoteurs immigrés. Ces derniers appliquent les mécanismes classiques de la prospérité: acheter le terrain bon marché, le promouvoir dans des bassins d'émigration chinois ou coréens, puis le vendre à profità des immigrants co,ethniques. Ainsi, les promoteurs immigrés facilitent l'immigration vers Los Angeles tout en en accentuant l'aspect attractif. La réussite des aménageurs chinois et coréens souligne le risque qu'il y a à supposer, comme bien souvent, que tout regroupement résidentiel ethnique naît de processus sociaux non dirigés. Dans les deux cas exposés, les élites commerciales ont créé des regroupements résidentiels de m?,me ethnie selon des plans délibérés à long terme, impliquant un savoir,faire à la fois politique et économique. Ce faisant, les promoteurs immigrés ont rejoint la dynamique de croissance de Los Angeles qui, il est vrai, a vu décliner les succès au sein de sa population de souche. [source]


Contract Mixing in Franchising as a Mechanism for Public-Good Provision

JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT STRATEGY, Issue 1 2000
Chong-En Bai
This paper is concerned with the coexistence of company-owned units and franchised units in business format franchising and their different contractual arrangements. Drawing insights from case studies that indicate both the development and the maintenance of company-wide brand names and unit-specific sales activities are crucial to a franchise company, we construct a multitask model to account for such contract mixing in franchising. Intuitively, low-powered contracts are offered to some managers to induce effort for brand-name development and maintenance, while high-powered contracts are offered to the remaining managers to elicit sales activity and capture the beneficial effect of the company brand name. Franchising can thus be viewed as an organizational agreement for production involving brand-name products and services. [source]


Treatment models, brand names, acronyms and evidence-based practice

JOURNAL OF FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 3 2007
Ivan Eisler
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Antilisterial Activity and Consumer Acceptance of Irradiated Chicken Breast Meat Vacuum-Infused with Grape Seed and Green Tea Extracts and Tartaric Acid

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 7 2010
K.F. Over
Abstract:, Contamination of poultry with pathogenic bacteria contributes to human foodborne disease, causes damage to industry brand names, and has a significant economic impact on the food industry in the form of both damage to industry brand names and losses associated with recalls. Irradiation is a safe and effective means of decontaminating poultry products, but the maximum dose strengths allowed negatively impact poultry sensory quality characteristics. The 1st objective of this study was to investigate the potential interactive inhibitory effects of natural antimicrobials as components of a vacuum-marination in addition to various dose levels of irradiation. Tartaric acid (TA) at 2 levels and grape seed (GS) and green tea (GT) extracts were combined, vacuum-infused into chicken breast fillets, and irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy by electron beam irradiation. The 2nd objective was to use a consumer test group to evaluate TA and plant extract infusion into chicken breast fillets with and without irradiation at 2 kGy on overall impression, flavor, texture, appearance, and tenderness. The results showed that samples vacuum-infused with TA at 37.5 and 75.0 mM and irradiated at 1 kGy significantly reduced Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) levels by 2 and 3 log CFU/g compared to the control after 12 d of refrigerated storage. Vacuum-infusion of TA at 37.5 and 75.0 mM at 2 and 3 kGy irradiation, reduced L.m. to near nondetectable levels. The addition of TA and GS and GT to chicken breast fillets with and without irradiation did not significantly impact consumer preference, tenderness, appearance, or flavor. The addition of tartaric acid and natural plant extracts to chicken marinades could contribute to the prevention of L.m. contamination. [source]


THE PUSH,PULL OF MARKETING AND ADVERTISING AND THE ALGEBRA OF THE CONSUMER'S MIND,

JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 2 2007
JEFF EWALD
ABSTRACT This article suggests that the relationship between a brand and a product is a virtuous circle,the brand frames expectations for a product execution; and the product experience either strengthens the brand perceptions or weakens them. Empirical evidence, based on a comprehensive database of scores collected across multiple conjoint studies, then confirms the hypothesis that different product attributes synergize, or interact, with different brand names. [source]


Prescribing patterns of antiparkinsonian agents in Europe,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 8 2010
Mário Miguel Rosa MD
Abstract In the 1990s, previous knowledge and randomized controlled trials supported the establishment of today's therapeutic recommendations in Parkinson's disease (PD). Scientific evidence allows different options for the treatment of PD. Patterns of use of antiparkinsonian agents (APA) across European countries may thus reflect these options. We wanted to describe patterns of use of APA in Europe and characterize the changes in prescription habits between 2003 and 2007. We investigated APA outpatient sales in 26 European countries where all commercially available APA were studied. Data for molecules and brand names were collected through IMS Health. Treatment per 1000 inhabitants daily (DID) was obtained from the WHO defined daily dose. Prescription pattern changes were evaluated by market share. Prescription patterns varied widely. In most countries, levodopa/dopamine agonists accounted for half of the drug use; whereas in others, anticholinergics, MAO inhibitors and amantadine prevailed. The greatest increase occurred with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and levodopa. There was an increase in dopamine agonists and a decrease in anticholinergics. For a 6.8% dose consume increase, there was a 41.1% sales increase (in euros). We showed an increase in the consumption of APA over 5 years. There was significant heterogeneity in the use of APA in Europe, suggesting differences in drug treatment. Costs of medication increased more than did dose consume, implying an increase in the cost of individual patient treatment. Published evidence does not explain the observed differences in the prescribing of APA. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Mass Producing Food Traditions for West Africans Abroad

AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 4 2007
ELISHA P. RENNE
In this article, I examine West African foods sold mainly in specialty grocery stores, focusing on how technologies used in food production in West Africa are referenced in the brand names and packaging of processed African foods sold in the United States. Through their association with "timeless" West African food-processing techniques, such foods evoke memories of childhood and home. Yet the transformation of West African foods through new technologies of processing, packaging, and branding reflects different time and health concerns of West African immigrants living in the United States. Through their purchase of time-saving, mass-produced, and hygienically packaged foodstuffs, which are ideologically similar to but technologically very different from the production processes and cooking in Africa, West Africans in the United States use food to maintain social relations with their particular families, hometown associations, and religious groups, while also constituting national, regional, and global connections through the reinvention of food traditions. [source]


Biosimilar epoetins and other "follow-on" biologics: Update on the European experiences,

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
Wolfgang Jelkmann
After the patents of biopharmaceuticals have expired, based on specific regulatory approval pathways copied products ("biosimilars" or "follow-on biologics") have been launched in the EU. This article summarizes experiences with hematopoietic medicines, namely the epoetins (two biosimilars traded under five different brand names) and the filgrastims (two biosimilars, six brand names). Physicians and pharmacists should be familiar with the legal and pharmacological specialities of biosimilars: The production process can differ from that of the original, clinical indications can be extrapolated, glycoproteins contain varying isoforms, the formulation may differ from the original, and biopharmaceuticals are potentially immunogenic. Only on proof of quality, efficacy and safety, biosimilars are a viable option because of their lower costs. Am. J. Hematol. 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Use of parenteral iron products and serious anaphylactic-type reactions,,§

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 9 2010
Diane K. Wysowski
Controversy exists about the safety of the parenteral iron dextran products, Dexferrum and INFeD, which have been associated with rare, serious anaphylactic-type reactions. In the United States, their product labels carry boxed warnings of this adverse event; some have called for the withdrawal from marketing of the higher molecular weight Dexferrum. Between 2002 and 2007, sales of Dexferrum, INFeD, and iron gluconate Ferrlecit declined 32.5%, 21%, and 4.8%, respectively, while sales of iron sucrose Venofer increased 160%. Voluntary reports submitted to the Food and Drug Administration show anaphylactic reactions and symptoms for the four parenteral iron products. Because of underreporting, possible differential reporting, absence of iron dextran brand names, and incomplete use (denominator) data, incidence rates and relative risk estimates cannot be calculated. U.S. death certificate data show that for most years from 1979 through 2006, no more than 3 deaths per year were coded to "adverse events in therapeutic use of iron preparations;" brand names were not consistently recorded. Emergency department data show small numbers of visits for treatment of allergic reactions with intravenous iron preparations. The data presented herein show that allergic reactions are possible with all four parenteral iron products, and it is difficult to determine which product has the largest risk based on sales data, voluntarily submitted adverse event reports, death certificates, ED visits, and observational studies performed to date. To help differentiate risk among the parenteral iron products, the brand name of the product always should be provided on medical records, death certificates, and adverse drug reaction reports. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 8 2008
Article first published online: 12 MAY 200
Glargine preferred to lispro as type 2 add-on Basal insulin glargine (Lantus) and insulin lispro (Humalog) at mealtimes improved glycaemic control equally well in patients with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled by oral agents, but patient satisfaction was greater with basal insulin (Lancet 2008;371:1073-84). The 44-week APOLLO trial, funded by Sanofi Aventis, was a nonblinded randomised comparison of basal and prandial insulin regimens added to oral treatment in 418 patients. It found similar reductions in HbA1C (,1.7 vs ,1.9 per cent respectively). Fasting and nocturnal glucose levels were lower with insulin glargine and postprandial levels were lower with insulin lispro. The basal regimen was associated with fewer hypoglycaemic events (5.2 vs 24 per patient per year), less weight gain (3.01 vs 3.54kg) and greater improvement in patient satisfaction scores. Treating hypertension cuts mortality in over-80s Treating hypertension in the over-80s reduces all-cause mortality by 21 per cent, the HYVET study has shown (N Engl J Med online: 31 March 2008; doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa 0801369). Compared with placebo, treatment with indapamide alone or with perindopril for an average of 1.8 years also reduced the incidence of fatal stroke by 39 per cent, cardiovascular death by 23 per cent and heart failure by 64 per cent. The incidence of stroke was reduced by 30 per cent but this was of borderline statistical significance. Fewer serious adverse events were reported with treatment than with placebo. New work for NICE The DoH has announced the 18th work programme for NICE. Seven public health interventions include preventing skin cancer, smoking by children and excess weight gain during pregnancy. Public health guidance will include the provision of contraceptive services for socially disadvantaged young people. Two new clinical guidelines are sedation in young people and management of fractured neck of femur. New technology appraisals may include eight therapies for cancer, two new monoclonal antibodies for psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, an oral retinoid for severe chronic hand eczema and methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Combinations no better against CV disease Taking ezetimibe and simvastatin (Inegy) does not appear to slow the progression of atherosclerosis more than high-dose simvastatin alone, say researchers from The Netherlands (N Engl J Med 2008;358: 1431-43). In patients with hypercholesterolaemia, there was no difference in regression or progression of atherosclerosis after two years' treatment with simvastatin 80mg per day alone or combined with ezetimibe 10mg per day. Adverse event rates were similar. In patients with vascular disease or high-risk diabetes, there was no difference between the ACE inhibitor ramipril 10mg per day or the ARB telmisartan (Micardis) 80mg per day as monotherapy, or their combination, in the risk of a composite outcome of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke and admission for heart failure (N Engl J Med 2008;358:1547-59). Combined treatment was associated with higher risks of hypotensive symptoms, syncope and renal dysfunction. Twice-daily celecoxib increases CV risk Taking celecoxib (Celebrex) twice daily carries a higher risk of cardiovascular events than the same total dose taken once daily, a metaanalysis suggests (Circulation 2008; doi: 10.1161/ CIRCULATIONAHA.108. 764530). The analysis of six placebo-controlled trials involving a total of 7950 patients taking celecoxib for indications other than rheumatoid arthritis found that the combined risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure or thromboembolic event increased with dose over the range 400-800mg per day. The risk was significantly greater with 200mg twice daily (HR 1.8) than 400mg once daily (HR 1.1). Patients at greatest baseline risk were at disproportionately increased risk from celecoxib. Long-term etanercept effective in AS An open-label study suggests that etanercept (Enbrel) remains effective in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in the long term (Ann Rheum Dis 2008;67:346-52). Of 257 patients who completed six months' treatment with etanercept and who entered the nonblinded extension study, 126 completed a total of 168-192 weeks' treatment. The commonest adverse events were injection-site reactions (22 per cent), headache (20 per cent) and diarrhoea (17.5 per cent). The annual rate of serious infections was 0.02 per person. Response and partial remission rates after 192 weeks were similar to those reported after 96 weeks. Metformin reduces risk Metformin reduces the risk of developing diabetes in individuals at increased risk, a meta-analysis suggests (Am J Med 2008;121:149-57.e2). The study included 31 mostly small, randomised, controlled trials involving a total of 4570 participants and lasting at least eight weeks (8267 patient-years of treatment). Metformin was associated with reductions in body mass (,5.3 per cent), fasting glucose (,4.5 per cent) and insulin resistance (,22.6 per cent); lipid profiles also improved. The odds of developing diabetes were reduced by 40 per cent,an absolute risk reduction of 6 per cent over 1.8 years. MHRA clarifies cough and colds advice Press reports mistakenly suggested that the MHRA had banned some cough and cold remedies when it issued new guidance on treating young children, the MHRA says. The Agency's advice followed a review of over-thecounter cough and cold medicines for children by the Commission on Human Medicines. Children under two are at increased risk of adverse reactions and should no longer be treated with products containing antihistamine (chlorphenamine, brompheniramine, diphenhydramine), antitussives (dextromethorphan, pholcodine), expectorants (guaifenesin, ipecacuanha) and decongestants (phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, oxymetazoline and xylometazoline). The MHRA said these products, which are classified as general sale medicines, should be removed from open shelves until available in new packaging that complies with the advice. They may still be supplied by a pharmacist for the treatment of older children. Coughs and colds should be treated with paracetamol or ibuprofen for fever, a simple glycerol, honey or lemon syrup for cough, and vapour rubs and inhalant decongestants for stuffy nose. Saline drops can be used to thin and clear nasal secretions in young babies. Parents are being urged not to use more than one product at a time to avoid inadvertently administering the same constituent drug twice. Perindopril brand switch Servier Laboratories is replacing its current formulations of perindopril (Coversyl, Coversyl Plus) with a new product that is not bioequivalent. The current Coversyl brand contains perindopril erbumine (also known as tert -butylamine). The new formulation contains perindopril arginine; it will be distinguished by new brand names (Coversyl Arginine, Coversyl Arginine Plus) and new packaging. Coversyl 2, 4 and 8mg tablets are equivalent to Coversyl Arginine 2.5, 5 and 10mg. Servier says the change is part of the simplification and harmonisation of global manufacturing; the arginine salt is already used in other countries and offers greater stability and a longer shelf-life. Both Coversyl and Coversyl Arginine will be in the supply chain for the next few weeks. Generic perindopril will continue to be the erbumine salt and prescriptions for generic perindopril are not affected. New from NICE Diabetes in pregnancy: management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period. Clinical Guidance No. 63, March 2008 This clinical guideline focuses on additional aspects of care for women with gestational diabetes (88 per cent of cases) or pre-existing diabetes (of which about 40 per cent is type 2 diabetes) and their babies. To date, insulin aspart (NovoRapid) is the only drug in the guideline specifically licensed for use in pregnancy and NICE advises obtaining informed consent to implement its recommendations for using other insulins and oral hypoglycaemic agents. As with other guidelines, NICE begins by stressing the importance of patient-centred care and involving women in decisions about their treatment. The guideline is divided into six sections, dealing with consecutive periods of pregnancy. Preconceptual planning should include empowering women to help them reduce risks, optimising glycaemic control (after retinal assessment) and increasing monitoring intensity, and providing information about the effects of pregnancy on diabetes. Metformin may be recommended as an adjunct or alternative to insulin, but other oral hypoglycaemic agents should be replaced with insulin, although glibenclamide is an option during pregnancy. Isophane insulin is the preferred long-acting insulin; lispro (Humalog) and aspart are considered safe to use. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers should be replaced with other antihypertensive agents and statins should be discontinued. Recommendations for screening and treatment of gestational diabetes build on previous guidance (CG62). Drug treatment will be needed by 10-20 per cent , this includes insulin (soluble, aspart or lispro) and/or metformin or glibenclamide, tailored to individual need. Antenatal care includes optimising glycaemic control. Insulin lispro or aspart should be considered in preference to soluble insulin. If glycaemic control cannot be achieved with insulin injections, an insulin pump may be indicated. The guideline includes a timetable for appointments and the care that should offered after each interval. Recommendations for intrapartum care, which supplement those in CG55, include frequent monitoring of blood glucose. Neonatal care includes recommendations for monitoring and screening the infant and the management of hypoglycaemia. Postnatal care (supplementing CG37) involves adjusting maternal treatment to avoid hypoglycaemia and recommendations for returning to community care. Metformin and glibenclamide are the only oral agents suitable for breastfeeding women. Women with gestational diabetes need advice about glycaemic control and planning for future pregnancies. Lifestyle advice and measurement of annual fasting plasma glucose should be offered. Inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of chronic asthma in adults and in children aged 12 years and over. Technology Appraisal No. 138, March 2008 The latest technology appraisal of asthma treatments covers inhaled steroids for adults and children over 12 with chronic asthma. It makes only two recommendations. First, the cheapest appropriate option is recommended. Second, when a steroid and a long-acting beta2-agonist are indicated, the decision to prescribe a combined inhaler or separate devices should take into account therapeutic need and likely adherence. Combined inhalers are currently less expensive than separate devices, though they may not remain so. When a combined inhaler is chosen it should be the cheapest. NICE concludes that, at equivalent doses, there is little difference in the effectiveness or adverse event profile of the available steroids or the fixed-dose combinations. According to specialist advice, choosing the best device for an individual remains the overriding concern. Continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Technology Appraisal No. 139, March 2008 NICE recommends continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for adults with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnoea, and for those with a milder disorder if quality of life and functioning are impaired and alternative strategies such as lifestyle change have failed. Diagnosis and treatment is the responsibility of a specialist team. A CPAP device costs £250-£550 and lasts for seven years. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]


Recall and recognition of brand names: A comparison of word and nonword name types

PSYCHOLOGY & MARKETING, Issue 7-8 2002
Dawn Lerman
Despite the common recommendation that brand names be memorable, little is known about the effect of brand name type on various forms of memory processing such as recall and recognition. As such, this article extends prior research by comparing recall and recognition for three sets of brand names: words versus nonwords, relevant (i.e., related to a product attribute) words versus irrelevant (i.e., unrelated to a product attribute) words, and relevant words cuing an advertised attribute versus relevant words cuing an unadvertised attribute. The results of an experimental study indicate that memory for these brand name types depends on whether it is accessed via recall or recognition. Based on these results, implications for naming new products are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Effects of retrieval practice on conceptual explicit and implicit consumer memory

APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Andrew Parker
Two experiments are reported that investigate the effects of retrieval practice on explicit and implicit memory for brand names. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to a set of brand names pertaining to a range of product categories. Following this, participants practiced retrieving a subset of the brands before taking an explicit or implicit test for the brands. The explicit test, required recall of the brands in response to product category cues. The implicit test required the generation of the first brand names that came to mind. In both tests, prior retrieval produced retrieval-induced forgetting of the non-practiced brands. Experiment 2 replicated this effect under conditions designed to reduce explicit contamination. In addition, Experiment 2 found that increasing the amount of retrieval practice also increased the magnitude of retrieval-induced forgetting on the explicit but not the implicit test. Implications for advertising and marketing are considered. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Secret Signatures Inside Genomic DNA

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 5 2004
Masanori Arita
A simple, practical method to watermark short trademarks or signatures into genomic DNA is introduced. Since the marking method is biologically innocuous, it can be applied to all commercialized bacteria to help establish brand names for the engineered strains and to resolve legal disputes regarding gene-related patents. The first such strain of Bacillus subtilis is engineered and is ready to be distributed. [source]